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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯oĺa
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to steal, deceive
Russian meaning: красть, обманывать
Turkic: *K(i)aĺ-
Mongolian: *kula-gai
Tungus-Manchu: *kola
Japanese: *kasu-m-
Comments: Illich-Svitych ОСНЯ 1, 329 lists MKor. kul- 'to lie', but this is probably = MKor. kūr- 'to blow', due to a character misidentification by Lee Kee-mun (1958, 112).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *K(i)aĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 lazy, vile (in addressing a slave) 2 lazy, stubborn
Russian meaning: 1 ленивый, негодный (обращение к рабу) 2 ленивый, упрямый
Karakhanid: qašaŋ (MK) 1
Middle Turkic: qašaŋ (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: qaššaŋ 'poor, beggar'
Uighur: qaššaq 1, 2, qašaŋ 2
Oyrat: qažaŋ 2
Chuvash: xъli 'невзрачный, плохонький', xъlin 'хитрец, упрямец, лодырь, лентяй'
Kirghiz: qašaŋ 2
Bashkir: dial. qaššaq 1, 2, dial. qašan 2
Karakalpak: qasaŋ 2
Comments: EDT 673, ЭСТЯ 5, 348-350. Turk. > WMong. qašaŋ 'slow, lazy' (Clark 1980, 42); some of the modern Turkic forms may be borrowed back from Mong. (as certainly is Chuv. xažan).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kula-gai
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 robber, thief 2 to steal
Russian meaning: 1 вор, грабитель 2 красть
Written Mongolian: qulaɣai 1 (L 983)
Middle Mongolian: qulasun (HY 32), qulaqai (SH, HYt) 1, qoɣla- (IM) 2, qulaq- (MA) 2
Khalkha: xulgai 1
Buriat: xulgaj 1
Kalmuck: xulxǟ, xulxā 1
Ordos: xulaGǟ
Dongxian: GuGi 1 (MGCD\x: Gulaɣǝi, Guɣǝi), Gula- 2
Baoan: Golai 1
Dagur: xualag 1; hualehe 1 (MD 165)
Shary-Yoghur: χulaGai 1
Monguor: xorGwǝ̄ 1 (SM 172), xulaGa- 'voler' (SM 180), (MGCD xulGai)
Mogol: qulaɣɛi; ZM qolaɣaj (11-1b)
Comments: MGCD 388. Cf. also WMong. qulduŋ, Kalm. xuldǝŋ 'cunning' (KW 196); on some other derivatives and probable loanwords in Turkic see ЭСТЯ 6, 131. Mong. > Man. xulxa etc., see Doerfer MT 82, Rozycki 112.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kola
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cunning 2 deceit 3 to deceive 4 catching thieves
Russian meaning: 1 хитрый 2 ложь 3 обмануть 4 поимщик воров и разбойников
Evenki: kolo 1
Spoken Manchu: holǝ 'lie, falsehood' (1308)
Literary Manchu: χolo 2, χolto- 3, χuǯa-či 4
Comments: ТМС 1, 407, 476.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kasu-m-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to steal, rob
Russian meaning: красть, грабить
Old Japanese: kasum-, kasume-
Middle Japanese: kású-ma-, kàzò-f-
Comments: JLTT 705. Accentuation is not quite clear (variants kàzòf- and kású-ma- in RJ).
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *KuĺV
Meaning: to hide, secret
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *k(')ēl-
Altaic: *ki̯oĺa (?*k`-)
Kartvelian: *ḳwel-
Dravidian: *Kōḷ-
References: ОСНЯ 1, 328-329, МССНЯ 368; ND 1060 *Ḳohĺü 'to hide, deceive, tell a lie' (+ WChad., Arab.). Cf. *q̇VlPV?
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k(')ēl-
Meaning: invocation; to charm
Old Greek: kēléō `bezaubern, betören, besänftigen', kēlēthnó-s `Bezauberung'
Slavic: [ *xvālā, *xvālītī; *xūlā, *xūlītī ] ?
Germanic: *xṓl-a- n.; *xṓl-ō- vb.
Latin: calumnia f. `falsche Anklage, Rechtsverdrehung, Betrug, Verleumdung'
Russ. meaning: заклинание etc.
References: WP I 446
piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: хвала́,
Near etymology: укр. хвала́, блр. хвала́, др.-русск. хвала, ст.-слав. хвала αἴνεσις, αἶνος (Остром., Супр.), болг. хвала́, фала́, сербохорв. хва́ла "похвала, благодарность", словен. hválа -- то же, чеш., слвц. chvála, польск. сhwаɫа, в.-луж. khwaɫa, н.-луж. сhwаɫа. Отсюда хвали́ть, -лю́, укр. хвали́ти, блр. хвалíць, др.-русск. хвалити, ст.-слав. хвалити ὑμνεῖν, αἰνεῖν (Супр.), болг. хва́ля, сербохорв. хва́лити, хва̑ли̑м "благодарить, славить, хвалить", словен. hváliti, hválim, чеш. chváliti "хвалить", слвц. сhválit᾽, польск. chwalić, в.-луж. khwalić, н.-луж. chwaliś, полаб. chóle, 3 л. ед. ч. "хвалит".
Further etymology: Достоверная этимология отсутствует. Предполагают экспрессивную переделку *slava (см. сла́ва), причем х- заимствовано из антонима *хula (см. хула́); см. Махек, Studiе 98 и сл.; "Slavia", 16, 214; Потебня, РФВ 4, 203; Коржинек, ZfslPh 13, 404; К. Х. Майер, Donum nat. Schrijnen 413; IF 50, 172. Другие сближают с др.-инд. svárati "звучит, раздается", svārás "звук" (Маценауэр (LF 8, 5), Миклошич (ЕW 92), Педерсен (IF 5, 66)), но эти слова содержат достоверное и.-е. -r-; см. Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 355; Бернекер I, 406 и сл. Скорее можно допустить родство с др.-исл. skvala "кричать, звать", skváli м. "шумящий" (Брюкнер, KZ 51, 232; Sɫown. 186 и сл.). Более затруднительно сближение с д.-в.-н. swëllan "набухать, раздуваться", н.-в.-н. Schwall "поток" (Бернекер, там же); против см. Махек, LF 55, 147. Неприемлемо заимствование из др.-исл. hól ср. р. "хвала, хвастовство", англос. hól "клевета", гот. hōlōn "клеветать", вопреки Уленбеку (там же), точно так же, как и родство с последними словами, с которыми связано лат. calumnia "клевета", вопреки Микколе (Ursl. Gr. I, 177); ср. Вальде -- Гофм. I, 143; Хольтхаузен, Awn. Wb. 123.
Trubachev's comments: [Вэй (RES, 33, 1956, стр. 98 и сл.) предполагает, что слав. *хъl-, *хvаl- первонач. означало "говорить о себе" и происходит из *swā-, ср. греч. ἧλιξ "сверстник" и др.; Махек ("Sрrасhе", 4, 1958, стр. 76) привлекает для сравнения хетт. walla- "хвалить", а слав. слово объясняет из *valiti с добавочным экспрессивным х-. -- Т.]
Pages: 4,228
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xṓla-n; *xṓlōn- vb.
Meaning: vain speech, to slander
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *hōlōn wk. `slander'
Old Norse: hōl n. `Lob, Prahlerei', hȫla wk. `rühmen, prahlen'
Norwegian: dial. höla `schmeicheln, loben'
Old English: hōl, -es n. `vain speech, evil speaking without cause, calumny, slander', hōlian `to speak evil of, slander, calumniate'
Old High German: { huolen `täuschen' }
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oengl,germet-ohg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 886
Root: kēl-, kōl-, kǝl-
English meaning: to deceive, enthrall, etc.
German meaning: `betören, vorspiegeln, schmeicheln, betrügen'
Material: Gr. att. κηλέω (urgr. η) `bezaubern, betören', κηληθμός `Bezauberung', κηληδόνες Pl. f. `bezaubernde Wesen';

    lat. calvor, -ī und calviō, -īre `Ränke schmieden, hintergehen, täuschen', calumnia `falsche Anklage, Betrug, Verleumdung, Ränke' (*calvomniā), sehr wahrscheinlich auch cavilla (*calvilla) `Neckerei, Stichelei, Trotzelei', cavillor, -ārī `necken, bewitzeln, behöhnen'; das -v- ist unklar;

    got. hōlōn, afhōlōn `verleumden', anord. hōl n. `Lob, Prahlerei', hø̄la `preisen, prahlen', ags. hōl n. `Verleumdung', hōlian `verleumden', hōlunga, hōlinga `vergebens, grundlos', hēlan `verleumden', ahd. huolen `betrügen'.

    Sollte Perssons (Beitr. 148) Heranziehung von gr. κόλαξ `Schmeichler' zutreffen (?), wäre die Wurzel als kurzvokalisch anzusetzen, daher gr. κηλ- und germ. hōl- Dehnstufen, lat. cal- Reduktionsstufe.

References: WP. I 446, WH. I 143, 187; Wissmann Nom. postverb. 125.
Pages: 551
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳwel-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: прятать, скрывать
English meaning: to hide, conceal
Megrel: ḳval-
Notes and references: Мегрельскую основу Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 328-329) сравнивает с драв. *kuṭṭu 'тайна', алт. *k`olu 'таить, лгать' < ностр. *ḳuʎa.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-meg,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *Kōḷ-
Meaning : calumny; abuse
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kōḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *konḍ- (?)
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gōl-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kōḷ-
Meaning : calumny
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kōḷ
Tamil meaning : calumny, aspersion, tale-bearing, falsehood
Tamil derivates : kōḷan_ tale-bearer; koḷuttu (koḷutti-) to slander, calumniate; koṇṭi, koṇṭiyam tale-bearing, backbiting; kuṇṭani, kuṇṭuṇi slander, calumny
Malayalam : kuṇṭaṇi
Malayalam meaning : backbiting
Kannada : kōḷ
Kannada meaning : calumny, false imputation
Kannada derivates : koṇḍeya, koṇḍe, koṇḍega backbiting, calumny, slander, abuse, an informer, slanderer, defamer; koṇḍisu to slander, defame
Proto-Nilgiri : *kōḷ
Number in DED : 2251
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kōḷ
Meaning : laying information about something heard
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kōḷ
Number in DED : 2251
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *konḍ-
Meaning : backbiting, accusation, slander, calumny
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : koṇḍemu
Additional forms : Also koṇḍekā̃ḍu tale-bearer, slanderer, informer; fem. koṇḍekatte
Number in DED : 2251
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gōl-
Meaning : abuse
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Ollari Gadba : gōler- (gōlen-) "to abuse"
Salur Gadba : gōle
Number in DED : 2251
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-salur,kogaet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : to lose, hide
Eurasiatic : *KuĺV
Sino-Caucasian : *=igwVɫ
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ígwVɫ (*gwV́ɫV)
Meaning: to lose, hide
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=igwVɫ
Sino-Tibetan: *koj (~-l)
Basque: *gal-
Comments and references : NSC 57 *-gwVlV, WFR 118, BCD 25.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=igwVɫ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to lose, get lost; steal
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *golV ( ~ -a-)
Proto-Tsezian: *gʷVl-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔik:ʷäl-
Proto-Khinalug: dugun-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular (in Khin. d- is a former preverb, while -n probably reflects the original *-l-conjugation). Ando-Tsezian forms (as well as some Lezgian) reflect a prefixless form with loss of *ʔi- in an unstressed first syllable.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *golV ( ~ -a-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thief
Tindi: ǵala
Godoberi: ǵali
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-tnd,aandet-gdb,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *gʷVl-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: thief
Gunzib: guhlaq
Comments: The Gunz. word is probably a compound < *gul-hVq (for the second part cf. Tsez., Gin. =uq- 'to hide').
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔik:ʷäl-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to lose 2 to get lost 3 hidden, secret
Tabasaran: d-u=g- 1,2
Agul: gul- 1,2
Rutul: s-u=ga- 2
Tsakhur: a=gʷal- 2
Kryz: gul jeriǯ 1
Budukh: ʕä=gül- 1,2
Archi: guli-t:u= 3
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. d-u=g- 'to lose, get lost'; Ag. Bursh. gulan- id. With a prefixed *t:-, besides Tab., cf. Rut. d-agul haʔa-s 'to steal', Tsakh. d́-ugul xes 'to hide'. Archi and Kryz reflect only a deverbal (participial) form (in Kryz - as part of a compound verb); most languages reflect the Ablaut grade *i, but grade *ä is reflected in Tsakh. and Bud. (in Tsakhur there still is a live alternation: a=gʷal- in term., i=gʷal- in dur.).
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: dugun-
North Caucasian etymology: 1835
Meaning: to lose
Khinalug form: dugun-kʷi
Comments: Cf. also dugun-q̇i, -χi 'to be lost, get lost'.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *koj (~-l)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hide
Burmese: kwaj to conceal, keep out of sight.
Kachin: mǝkoi1 hide, conceal.
Comments: Ben. 67.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *gal-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to lose 2 loss 3 damage, harm
Araban: gal-te 2
Bizkaian: gal-du 1, kal-te 3
Gipuzkoan: gal-du 1, kal-te 3, (Andoain) gal-era 2
High Navarrese: gal-du 1, kal-te 3, (Esteribar) gal-era 2
Low Navarrese: gal-du 1, kal-te 2, 3
Lapurdian: gal-du 1, kal-te 2, 3
Zuberoan: gál-dü 1
Roncalese: gal-tu 1, gal-te 2
Comments: The forms with initial /k/ are by voicing assimilation to the suffix *-te.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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