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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ṓr[i]
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to roll, churn
Russian meaning: крутить, помешивать
Turkic: *Kiār-
Mongolian: *kor- / *kör-
Tungus-Manchu: *kur-
Japanese: *kurum-
Comments: EAS 147, Poppe 107, Ozawa 204. An expressive root with not quite secure vocalic correspondences. Cf. also notes to *k`úlo.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kiār-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to mix
Russian meaning: смешивать
Karakhanid: qar- (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: kar-
Middle Turkic: qar- (Abush.)
Uzbek: qɔr-
Turkmen: Gār-
Chuvash: jor-, jur-
Karakalpak: qarɨ-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 5, 285, EDT 642-643, Ашм. IV, 351-352, Федотов 2, 490-491.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kor- / *kör-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to roll, rotate 2 to bend, become twisted 3 to wrinkle, become curved 4 to whirl (of water, wind)
Russian meaning: 1 крутить, вращать 2 гнуть, изгибаться 3 морщиться, искривляться 4 вертеться, кружиться (о воде, ветре)
Written Mongolian: körböl-, körbüge- 1 (L 490: körbe-, körbü-, körbi-), qorbaji-, qorbuji- 2 (L 988: qorbuji-, qurbuji-), qorčaji- 3 (L 965), qorulǯa- 4
Middle Mongolian: korbe- (SH) 1, kurbe- 'to wallow' (MA)
Khalkha: xorvoj- 3, xörvö- 'to turn over, to upset'; xorlo 'circle-shaped object'
Buriat: xoršogor 'wrinkled, creasy', xüril- 4
Kalmuck: xorwā 'crooked' (КРС)
Dagur: kurbi-, xurbi-, xurbu- (Тод. Даг. 180)
Shary-Yoghur: körwö-; korlo 'wheel'
Monguor: xurbā-; korlo, gulōr 'wheel'
Comments: MGCD 375, 399. Mong. > Evk. kurbu- etc., see Doerfer MT 61, Rozycki 146.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 churn-staff 2 to wrinkle, shrink 3 to roll, rotate 4 to wrap round, tie round
Russian meaning: 1 мутовка 2 мяться, комкаться 3 вращаться, вертеться 4 обвернуть, спутать
Evenki: kurā- 4
Even: koroldāwna 1, qorị- 2
Literary Manchu: χorgi-, χurgi- 3
Comments: ТМС 1, 416, 417, 435, 471. Man. χurgiku 'whirlpool' > Dag. xurgi id. (Тод. Даг. 180).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kurum-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to wrap
Russian meaning: заворачивать
Middle Japanese: kurume-
Tokyo: kurúm-
Kyoto: kúrúm-
Kagoshima: kurúm-
Comments: JLTT 717. Accent unclear.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *KUrV
Meaning: to turn round
Indo-European: *k'werǝp-
Altaic: *ki̯ṓr[i] (cf. also *ki̯úŕu)
Dravidian: *koṛ- (also SDr *kuruḷ- 'to curl')
Eskimo-Aleut: *akra-ɣ- (*aqra-ʁ-) ?
References: ND 1187 *ḳüRpV 'to turn (round, toward)' (+ Arab. and dub. Eg.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k'werǝp-
Meaning: to turn
Old Indian: śū́rpa- n. m. `a winnowing basket or fan'
Old Greek: karpó-s `Handwurzel'
Germanic: *xwírf-a-/*xwirb-á- vb., *xwarb-ia- vb., *xwarb-ṓ-; *xwarb-á- m.; *xwirb-íl-a- m.; *xur[f]-ō- vb.
Celtic: MIr corr `Wasserloch', corrach `unbeständig'
Russ. meaning: вертеть(ся)
References: WP I 472 f
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xwírfan-/*xwirbán- vb., caus. *xwarbian-, iter. xwarbṓn-; *xwarbá-z; *xwirbíla-z; *xur[f]ōn- vb.
Meaning: to turn, to wind
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *hʷɛrban st. `live, walk'; *hʷarbōn wk. `walk about'; *ga-hʷairb-s (a) `amenable'
Old Norse: hverfa st. `sich wenden; gehen, fahren'; hverfr; hvirfil-l m. `Wirbel, Ring; Scheitel'; hvarf `das Verschwinden'; hverfa wk. `wenden, kehren'; horfa wk. `sich wenden zu; sehen, blicken'; hvarfa f. `Weidenring'; hvarfa wk. `umherstreifen, wandern'
Norwegian: kverva vb. tr., itr.; kvirvel; horva vb.; kverva f.
Old Swedish: hvärva vb.
Swedish: värva `(an)werben'; virvel; dial. hvärva tr.; virvel
Old Danish: hverve tr.; horfe, horve vb.
Danish: hvirvel
Old English: hweorfan `sich kehren, wenden, reisen, sich ändern'; hwearf m. `Austausch, Wechsel'; caus. hwierfan; hwearfian; hwyrfel
Old Frisian: hwerva `zich draaien, zich wenden, toewallen, handel drijven'
Old Saxon: hwervan `sich drehen, zurückkehren, wandeln'; hwarf `Kreis, Menschenmenge'; caus. hwerbian; harvon
Middle Dutch: werven (warf), warven, waerven `draaeien; zijn best doen voor iets; onstaan, toenemen', tr. `verweren; bewerkrn; doen, handelen; veroorzaken; aanwerven; winnen, verdienen'; wervel m.
Dutch: werven; wervel
Middle Low German: werven, warven `sich drehen, tätig sein, betreiben, ausrichten, vollführen'; wervel
Old High German: (h)werban st. (9.Jh.) `sich drehen, wenden, umkehren, einhergehen, sich bemühen'; { wirvil }, (h)wirbil `Kreisel, drehbares Gerät, Wirbelwind'; werbil `Wirbel'; warb `Wendung, Umdrehung, kreissförmiger Kampfplatz; caus. (h)werben; (h)warbōn
Middle High German: wërben, wërven st. intr. `sich (in einer kreislinie, um eine achse) bewegen, drehen; sich umtun, bemühen, tätig sein'; refl. 'seinen weg nehmen (vin den flüssigkeitwn im körper); geschehen', tr. 'in bewegung setzen; (durch einen boten) berufen, einladen, bestellen'; wirbel st. m. `wirbel, scheitel; wendeltreppe; kreisförmige Bewegung von Wasser und Luft'; warp (-b-), warf st. m. 'drehung, wendung'
German: werben; Wirbel m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1073
Root: ku̯erp-, auch kuerb-
English meaning: to turn, wind
German meaning: `sich drehen'
Material: Gr. καρπός `Handwurzel' (Drehpunkt der Hand), καρπάλιμος `behende, schnell' (Bildung wie εἰδάλιμος; Schwund des durch Diss. gegen den ausl. Labial); daneben mit ausl. Media κύρβις `drehbarer Pfeiler mit Gesetztafeln';

    tiefstufig wohl mir. carr f., cymr. par m. `Speer' (Stokes ZceltPh. 1, 172; vgl. etwa tela vibrāre, fulmina torquēre);

    got. ƕaírban `περιπατει̃ν' (ƕeilaƕaírbs `wetterwendisch', gaƕaírbs `gehorsam'), anord. hverfa `sich drehen, kehren, verschwinden', ags. hweorfan `sich wenden, reisen, sich ändern', as. hwerƀan `sich drehen, zurückkehren wandeln', ahd. hwerban, hwerfan `sich wenden, zurückkehren, (um etwas herum) tätig sein'; trans. `in Bewegung setzen, betreiben', nhd. werben (vgl. z. Bed. lat. ambīre), got. usw. ƕarbōn `wandeln', woneben tiefstufig anord. horfa `sich wenden, denken, gehören' (*hwurƀōn), Kaus. anord. hverfa, as. hwerƀian, ags. hwierfan, ahd. werban `wandeln', anord. hverfr `schnell', hvirfill, ahd. wirvil, wirbil `Wirbel' (und ahd. werbil aus *hwarbila- ds.), as. hwarf `Kreis, Menschenmenge', ahd. warb `Wendung, Umdrehung kreisförmiger Kampfplatz', ags. hwearf m. `Austausch, Wechsel', anord hwarf `das Verschwinden';

    toch. A kārp- `herabsteigen', В kā̆rp- `sich wenden nach, gehen'.

References: WP. I 472 f.
Pages: 631
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *koẓ-
Meaning : tube, pipe; hole, pit
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *koẓ-[al]-
Proto-Telugu : *koṛ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kuṛ-ub-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *koṛ-, *koṛ-āɣ-
Brahui : xurr-um
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *koẓ-[al]-
Meaning : tube; to curl
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kuẓal
Tamil meaning : any tube-shaped thing, flute, pipe, tubularity, curling hair, woman's hair dressed by coiling and tying up behind in a roll
Tamil derivates : (kuẓalv-, kuẓan_r_-) to curl (intr.); kuẓar_ci curling (as of a woman's hair); kuẓai, kuẓāy tube, pipe; kuẓi pit, hole, hollow, cavity, depression, excavation, pond, well; (-v-, -nt-) to be hollowed out (as a hole, pit, cavity), sink hollow; (-pp-, -tt-) to form pits, hollows, cavities, sink, excavate, inscribe, engrave; kuẓici pot, hub of a wheel; kuẓiŋ-kai palm of the hand; kuẓippu forming pits, a hollow, depression; kuẓivu hollowness; kuẓumpu pit
Malayalam : kuẓal
Malayalam meaning : tube, flute, women's hair tied in a knot
Malayalam derivates : kuẓali woman with fine hair; kuẓa what is hollow, eye of a needle, aperture in the head of an axe or hoe, bone in forearm or foreleg; kuẓi hollow, hole, excavation, pit, grave; kuẓiyuka to become hollow, deepened; kuẓikka to dig a hole, dig out
Kannada : koẓal
Kannada meaning : flute, fife
Kannada derivates : koẓavi, koẓave, koẓāyi, koẓivi tube, blow-pipe (esp. used to blow fires with), tubular stalk; kuẓi, guẓi, kuṇi, guṇi hollow, hole, pit, grave; kuẓi to make a hole, dig; kuṇike a hollow, cavity; (K2) kuḷumpe a hollow place where water accumulates; (Bark.) gumme a deep pond; (Gul.) gumma depth; kōvi tube, flute, gun (< Te.)
Kodagu : koḷa
Kodagu meaning : flute
Tulu : koḷavè, kolavè, kolāyi
Tulu meaning : a hollow tube
Tulu derivates : guri, guḷi hole, pit; (B-K) nelakkuri, nelakkuḷi mortar for pounding rice; kurepini, kurepuni to bore, scrape, excavate, drill; korepini, korepuni to bore; koḷalụ fife; koḷambè a drain; gurumbè anything hollow; gurmpè, gurmbè pond, pool, puddle; gurụmpe puddle, temporary reservoir in a dry field; (B-K) gurumpu a low-lying place where water accumulates; gurkè, (B-K) kurikke, kuḷike, gurike, gurke a close-mouthed big copper vessel used to heat water for bathing, etc.
Proto-Nilgiri : *koṛǝl (?)
Number in DED : 1818
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *koṛǝl (?)
Meaning : tube, Kota clarinet, tune of clarinet, curl
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : korl, koḷāy
Toda : kwēɫ̣
Additional forms : Also Kota koḷ clarinet; goṛḷ hollow between two sloping hills
Notes : The derivative *koṛ-āj > Kota koḷāy is of PSDR origin. A complex case overall (PN *-ṛ- in a rare context; Toda -wē-, in particular, is an extremely rare reflex); it is unclear whether Kota korl and koḷ are dialectal variants or one of them (or both?) is a borrowing.
Number in DED : 1818
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *koṛ-
Meaning : tube, hole
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kōlu
Dialectal forms (1) : krōlu (B)
Inscriptional Telugu : kṛocu "to dig"
Additional forms : Also krōvi tube, flute; goyyi, (B also) groyyi pit; (B) groyyu to be formed into a hole or pit; groccu, (K also) kroccu to dig; (Inscr.) kṛōce, kṛocce be engraved; kukki pit, hollow; (VPK) goppu digging out weeds
Number in DED : 1818
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-tel_inscr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kuṛ-ub-
Meaning : pit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : kuṛub (pl. kuṛbul)
Ollari Gadba : kuṛup "a well"
Poya Gadba : kuṛub "hole in the ground, pit"
Number in DED : 1818
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-poya,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *koṛ-, *koṛ-aɣ-
Meaning : hole, pit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *koṛ-
Konda : kuṛŋi- (-t-)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kṛɔj
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kṛā-ɣu
Notes : The second component, seen in PPM and PK, is unclear: the usual suffix is simple *-ɣ-. Cf. such forms as Tamil kuṛ-āy. Konda -u- unclear; maybe due to back articulation of preceding/following velars.
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *koṛ-
Meaning : ditch, hole
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Gommu Gondi : koṛi "ditch, hole, grave"
Muria Gondi : koṛpanj (pl. koṛpahk) "pit to trap animals"
Maria Gondi : koṛi "ditch, hole, grave"
Number in DED : 1818
Number in CVOTGD : 933, 941
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_g,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kuṛŋi- (-t-)
Meaning: to be hollowed out, (floor) to form pits
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda kuṛk- (-t-) to hollow out, make pits
Number in DED : 1818
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-addition,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kṛɔj
Meaning : pit, hole, ditch
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : kṛoy
Manda : kṛay
Number in DED : 1818
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kṛā-ɣu
Meaning : pit, hole
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : kṛāu (pl. kṛānga) "pit, hole, cave"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : graiyū (pl. grānga) "hole"
Kuwi (Schulze) : glāyu "a well"
Sunkarametta Kuwi : gṛāyu "hole, pit"
Parja Kuwi : gṛāyu "hole, pit"
Additional forms : Also Kui krōḍu (pl. krōṭka) quiver, tube; krūpa pool, spring, place for washing clothes
Notes : In Kuwi an unexplained voicening.
Number in DED : 1818
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : xurrum
Meaning : grainpit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 1818
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *akra-ɣ- (*aqra-ʁ-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: wheel, to roll, round
Russian meaning: колесо, крутить, круглый
Proto-Yupik: *ak(r)a-ɣ-, *ak(r)a-m-kǝ- (-m-ɫu-), *aq(r)a-ʁ-
Proto-Inupik: *akra-ɣ- (-lu-), *aqraʁ-
Comments: Cf. *akma-Lu- 'round' as well as *aqra- ~ *aRqa- 'ball'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 36
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *ak(r)a-ɣ-, *ak(r)a-m-kǝ- (-m-ɫu-), *aq(r)a-ʁ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: wheel 1, round 2, to roll 3
Russian Meaning: колесо 1, круглый 2, крутиться, вращаться 3
Chaplino: akámkǝxtaq (ʁǝt) 2, 'ring'
Naukan: akáɣrak 1, akámɫuʁōq 'small ring', akámkǝxtáq 2, akákuq 3
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: akaɣ- 3, akaɣŋa- 2
Central Alaskan Yupik: akaɣ- 3, akalʁia 1, 2
Nunivak (Peripheral): aqaχtoχ* 'to roll along'
Norton Sound (Peripheral): akaxtaq 'dough'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 10
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-nrts,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *akra-ɣ- (-lu-), *ạqraʁ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to roll, to turn round or over 1, wheel, tyre 2, wheeled vehicle 3
Russian meaning: крутиться 1, колесо, шина 2, колесный транспорт 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: akšak- 1, 'to knead dough'
SPI Dialects: Imaq akšaq 'ball', W aqsʁaqtoq*, KI aqsʁattoq* 'to roll along'
North Alaskan Inupik: akšak- 1, 'to slide like caribou killed on slope', akšaliɣaq 2
NAI Dialects: B aqsʁaqtoq*, Ingl aqʁaqtoq* 'to roll along', Qaw akšalak- 1, akšaktuaq 3, PH aɣralɣun 3
Western Canadian Inupik: aksak- 1, aksak 'sth. round', aksaluɣaq 2
WCI Dialects: Cop axxaluaq 2 [Pryde]
Eastern Canadian Inupik: atsa(k)- 1, atsakāq 'ball of snow made by rolling', atsajuaq 2, atsalua- 'to turn wheel'
Greenlandic Inupik: agssagpâ* 'to roll along' [Jen.], aššakaʁ- 'to turn over, to roll over', aššakā- 1, aššakāšuq 2, aššaɫɫaɣ- 'to turn over, around, on side'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 10
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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