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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kḗp`à
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: face, shape
Russian meaning: лицо, форма
Turkic: *gēp
Mongolian: *keɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *kepe
Japanese: *kápúa
Comments: A good common Altaic root; the original meaning is 'face' or 'jaws', with a more abstract meaning 'shape' developed in the Western area (a very usual semantic development).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gēp
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: form, example, image
Russian meaning: форма, пример, изображение
Old Turkic: kep ( ~ -i-) (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: keb ( ~ -i-) (MK)
Middle Turkic: käp (AH)
Sary-Yughur: kep
Turkmen: gǟp
Khakassian: kip
Shor: käp
Oyrat: kep
Chuvash: kap
Yakut: kiep
Tuva: xep
Kirghiz: kep
Noghai: kep
Karakalpak: kep
Kumyk: kep
Comments: EDT 686, VEWT 253, ЭСТЯ 5, 44-45 ( > Mong. keb, see Щербак 1997, 127). Bulg. > Old Slav. kapь. Turk. > Hung. kép 'image', see Gombocz 1912.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *keɣe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ornament, form, example
Russian meaning: украшение, форма, пример
Written Mongolian: kege(n) (L 442)
Khalkha:
Buriat:
Kalmuck:
Comments: KW 230. Mong. > Tat. kijä, Turk. kɨja etc. (VEWT 247).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kepe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 jaw 2 gills 3 boards (on boat's front)
Russian meaning: 1 челюсть 2 жабры 3 передние доски (на лодке)
Evenki: kewe 1
Even: kewē 1
Ulcha: kepi(n) 2, 3
Orok: kepi 3
Nanai: kepĩ 2, 3
Comments: ТМС 1, 442-443, 451. Despite Poppe 1974, 132, Evk. kewe has nothing to do with Mong. köbege 'edge'.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kápúa
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: face
Russian meaning: лицо
Old Japanese: kap(w)o
Middle Japanese: káfó
Tokyo: kào
Kyoto: káó
Kagoshima: káo
Comments: JLTT 438.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *kVṗV
Meaning: face, chin
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gebh- (cf. also *k'eip- 1503)
Altaic: *kḗp`à
Kartvelian: *ḳaṗ- ( + q̇ab- 862)
Dravidian: SDr *kep- 'cheek, temple' (to be distinguished from *ken-)
Comments: [Drav. *kaviḷ may belong here rather than to *chew]
References: Bomhard 1996, 173; ND 914 *keṗ(.)V 'jaw, chin', 1903 *q̇äbV 'jaw' (probably two roots?).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g'ēbh-, *gēbh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: jaw, gills
Slavic: *žā́brā, *zę̄́brā
Germanic: *kif-t-a- m., *kif-t-u- c., *ka[b]-l-a- m., , -ō f.
Russ. meaning: челюсть, жабры
References: WP I 571
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: жа́бра,
Near etymology: укр. жа́бри мн., блр. же́бры, болг. жа́бри мн. (Младенов), чеш. žábra, слвц. žiabra "жабра, челюсть". Наряду с этим: блр. щи́бры (мн.) -- то же и зебры (см.).
Further etymology: Праслав. праформа и этимология окончательно не установлены. Mi. EW (405) сравнивает с лит. žióbris, žiobrỹs "густера, вимба, Abramis vimba". Точно так же недостоверно сравнение с англос. céafl "челюсть", др.-исл. kjǫptr -- то же, нов.-в.-н. Kiefer -- то же (Хирт, BB 24, 258; Леви, IF 32, 164), потому что последние сближаются с лит. žė́beti, žė́biu "есть неохотно; грызть передними зубами", авест. zafarǝ "рот, пасть, зев", др.-ирл. gop "клюв, рот" (см. Клюге-Гётце 292 и сл.). Высказывались также предположения о родстве с др.-инд. jámbhatē "хватает" и связи через чередование гласных с губа́ (Потебня, РФВ 4, 210; Брандт, РФВ 24, 179). Но, возм., др.-инд. слово родственно слову зуб (см. Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 97; Младенов 164). Ср. зе́бры.
Pages: 2,31-32
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kifta-z, *kiftu-z, *ka[b]la-z, , -ō
Meaning: jaw
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: kjapta wk. `reden, sprechen', kjapt-r, kjɔpt-r, kept-r m. `Kiefer, Kinnlade'
Norwegian: kjefta `lärmen, schelten'; kjeft
Swedish: käft
Danish: kjäft
Old English: ceafl, -es m. `bill, beak, snout, jaw, cheek'
English: jowl
Old Saxon: pl. kaflos `Kiefern'
Middle Dutch: kēvel m. `kaak, kinnebak, tandvlees'
Dutch: pl. kevels m. `kaakbenderen; tandelose kaken'
Low German: keve `Kiefer, Kieme'
Middle High German: kivel(e) m., kiuwel st. m. 'kiefer, kinnbacken', { kiver }
German: Kiefer m.; dial. Kiefe `Kieme'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-lg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 573
Root: ĝep(h)-, ĝebh-
English meaning: jaw, mouth
German meaning: `Kiefer, Mund; essen, fressen'
Material: Mit ph: av. zafar-, zafan- `Mund, Rachen', Partiz. Med. vī-zafāna, vgl. s-St. (neben r/n-St.) in ɵrizafah- neben ɵrizafan-;

    mit bh : gallorom. expressiv *gobbo-, air. gop, nir. gob `Schnabel, Mund';

    germ. mit ph oder teilweisem bh anord. kjaptr oder kjǫptr (*keƀuta- oder *kefuta-) `Maul, Kinnbacke, Kiefer', mhd. kivel, kiver `Kiefer' (*kefra-) nhd. dial. kiefe `Kieme', ndd. keve `Kiefer, Kieme', wozu die Verben norw. kjava `sich zanken, streiten' (`die Kiefern rühren'), mnd. nd. kibbelen, kabbelen, kevelen `laut schwatzen', mhd. kibelen, kifelen `zanken', kiven, kiffen `nagen', kifelen `nagen, kauen'; dehnstufig anord. kāfl, as. cāfl, ags. cēafl (engl. jowl, jole) `Kiefer' (*kēfala-).

    Dazu als `Nager':

    ahd. chevaro, kevar, mhd. kevere `Käfer' (*kebran-); ablautend ags. ceafor (*kaƀra- oder*kaƀru-), ndd. kavel ds.;

    lit. žėbiù, žė̃bti `langsam essen', žė́biu, žė́beti `essen, picken';

    aksl. o-zobati `λυμαίνεσθαι', serb. zòbati `essen, fressen', zôb f. `Hafer', russ. zobátь `essen, picken', zob m. `Schnabel';

    čech. žábra `Kiemen der Fische', russ. žábry ds. könnten das ž von der e-Stufe bezogen haben und eine Variante mit g- enthalten.

    Ob ĝembh- `beißen' als nasalierte Form zu unserer Wz. gehört?

References: WP. I 570 f., Trautmann 364, Benveniste Origines 10 f., Kluge11 s. v. `Käfer' und `Kiefer'.
Pages: 382
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳaṗ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: челюсть, подбородок
English meaning: jaw, chin
Georgian: ni-ḳaṗ-, ni-ḳap-; ḳaṗ- 'to clash (of teeth, jaws)', ru-ḳaṗ- 'Baba Yaga'
Svan: ḳaṗ-räj, ni-ḳṗ-a, ni-ṗḳ-a; ḳaṗ- / ḳṗ- 'to clash (of teeth)'
Laz: ḳaṗ- 'to clash (of teeth)', ḳaṗḳaṗ- 'evil spirit'
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 148, EWK 184. Ср. ПИЕ *ǵep(h)- / *ǵebh- 'челюсть', алт. *Kep`a 'лицо, форма' (ср. также *q̇ab-), драв. *kavuḷ 'щека'. Ср. Бомхард 1996, 173.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVPV
Meaning : chin, jaw
Eurasiatic : *kVṗV
Afroasiatic : *ḳVp- (Ar., Chad.) 'chin, cheek'
Sino-Caucasian : *xqwībV
Austric : PAA *ka:p 'chin, cheek'
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-kópé 'face'.
Reference : ND 914, 1903.
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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xqwībV
Meaning: beak; jaw
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *q_wēbV (~-ɨ̄-)
Sino-Tibetan: *kēp
Yenisseian: *kup (~g-)
Comments and references : HGC 24. Tenseness in PEC is not quite reliable, thus one should probably reconstruct *xqwVbVL . (in PY cf. also *qop- ~ χ- 'crop, craw').
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q_wēbV (~-ɨ̄-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: beak
Proto-Lak: q:iIp:a
Proto-Lezghian: *qʷep: (~-ɨ-)
Notes: A Lak.-Agul isogloss. Lak. pharyngealization is possibly due to the influence of qiIṭ 'beak; adam's apple'. Borrowing is not excluded, thus the PEC antiquity of the root is dubious.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: q:iIp:a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: beak
Lak form: q:iIp:a
Comments: Cf. also Khosr. q:iIp:i id.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *qʷep: (~-ɨ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: beak
Agul: qup: (Burk.)
Comment: Isolated in Ag., but with a Lak. parallel.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-agu,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kēp
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cheek, jaw
Chinese: *kēp cheek, jowl.
Kachin: šǝkap2 the jaw.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-kach,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jiá
Preclassic Old Chinese: kēp
Classic Old Chinese: kēp
Western Han Chinese: kjāp
Eastern Han Chinese: kiāp
Early Postclassic Chinese: kiēp
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kiēp
Late Postclassic Chinese: kiēp
Middle Chinese: kiep
English meaning : cheek, jowl
Russian meaning[s]: щека; за щекой, защечный
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 181
Four-angle index: 8109
Karlgren code: 0630 h
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *kup ( ~ g-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: beak, lip, muzzle
Ket: kūp, pl. ku:ń
Yug: kup, pl. kufɨn
Comments: ССЕ 241. Werner 1, 459 *kuph (but Kott. hupar is a reflex of *χ[o]p q.v.).
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