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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kĕ̀ru ( ~ *k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: old, worn out
Russian meaning: старуха
Turkic: *Kạrɨ
Mongolian: *kari-, *kar-si-
Japanese: *kùtà-
Comments: Cf. also Turk. *Kurt-ga 'old woman' (see ЭСТЯ 6, 168-169).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kạrɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 old 2 old woman or man 3 to become old
Russian meaning: 1 старый 2 старуха, старик 3 стареть
Old Turkic: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɨ (MK, KB) 1, qarɨ- (MK, KB) 3
Turkish: karɨ, kart 1
Tatar: qarɨ, qart 1
Middle Turkic: qarɨ (MA, Abush.) 1, qarɨ- (MA, Abush.) 3
Uzbek: qari 1, qari- 3
Uighur: qeri 1,2, qeri- 3
Azerbaidzhan: Garɨ, Gart 2,1
Turkmen: Garrɨ 1, Garra- 3
Khakassian: kirǝ 1, kirǝ- 3
Shor: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3
Oyrat: qarɨ 1, qarɨ- 3
Yakut: kɨrɨj- 3
Dolgan: kɨrɨj- 3
Tuva: qɨrɨ- 3
Tofalar: qɨrɨ- 3
Kirghiz: qarɨ, qart 1, qarɨ- 3, qart 3
Kazakh: qarɨ ~ qɛri, qart 1
Noghai: qart 1
Bashkir: qarɨ, qart 1
Gagauz: qarɨ 1,2 (also 'woman')
Karakalpak: qarɨ, ɣarrɨ 1
Kumyk: qart 1
Comments: EDT 644, TMN 3, 440, ЭСТЯ 5, 311-312, 314-316, Лексика 84-85, Stachowski 169, 170.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kari-, *kar-si-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to weaken, become old
Russian meaning: слабеть, стареть
Written Mongolian: qari- (МХТТТ)
Khalkha: xari-, xarši-
Buriat: xaraši-
Kalmuck: xäŕ- (КРС)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùtà-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be tired, worn out
Russian meaning: уставать, изнашиваться
Tokyo: kutabiré-
Kyoto: kútábíré-
Kagoshima: kùtàbìrè-
Comments: JLTT 717. Cf. also redupl. kuta-kuta (ni) 'tired, worn out (adv.)'; with a different (emphatic?) accent: MJ kutabari 'a person who is too old (sl.)', mod. Tokyo kutabàr- 'to live too long (sl.)', Kyoto kútábár-, Kagoshima kutabár- id.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gwVrV
Meaning: old
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ǵera-
Altaic: *kèru ( ~ *k`-)
Kartvelian: Georg. gvar- 'wachsen, gedeihen'
Dravidian: *kīṛ-
References: ОСНЯ 1, 297-298; МССНЯ 367; ND 664 *gar[ʡ]i 'old' (only Turk.+SH), 670 *garhU 'to be(come) big, grow' (Kartv. + SH + dub. IE); 948 *kiŕHa 'old' (IE + Drav.). Sic...
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g'era-, *g'rā-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: grown-up, old; to mature, to grow old
Hittite: karu (Adv.) 'früher', karuili- 'früherer, ehemalig, uralt' (Tischler 526 f)
Tokharian: A, B kwär- ~ kur- (PT *kwär-) 'age, grow old' (Adams 236); B śrāñ (pl.) 'old (of people)?' (644)
Old Indian: járati `to make old or decrepit, cause to grow old', jīryati, jūryati `to grow old, become decrepit', ptc. jīrṇá-, jūrṇá-; jaraṇá- `old, decayed'; jarás- f., jarā́ f. `decay, old age'; jā́ra- `becoming old'
Avestan: azarǝṣant- `nicht alternd', azarǝma- `nicht abnehmend', zairina- `aufreibend, erschlaffend', zarǝta- `altersschwach'; zaurvan- m. `Greisenalter, Altersschwäche', zaurura- `altersschwach, gebrechlich'
Armenian: cer `alt, Greiss'
Old Greek: gérōn, -ontos m. `Greis', géras, -aos/-ōs n. `Ehre, Ehrengabe, Belohnung', gerai̯ó- `alt'; gē̂ras, -aos/-ōs n. `Alter'; gēráskō, inf. gēránai̯, aor. egḗrǟ, inf. gēránai̯/-ā̂nai̯, ptc. gērā́s; egḗrasa; att. grâu̯-s, gen. grǟós, ep., ion. hom. grǟǘ-s, grǟ̂u-s f. `alte Frau'
Slavic: *zьrēti; *zorī́tī; -*zorъ
Germanic: *kir-Vl-a- m., *kar-il-a- m.
Russ. meaning: взрослый, старый; взрослеть, стареть
References: WP I 599 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: зреть
Near etymology: II., зре́ю, зре́лый, укр. зрíти, зрíю, ст.-слав. зьрѣти, зьрѣѭ τίκτειν (Супр.), болг. зре́я "зрею", сербохорв. зре̏ти, зри̑м, словен. zréti, zrȇjem, чеш. zráti, zraji, слвц. zrеt᾽, zrejem "созревать", др.-польск. źrzeć, źrzeję, в.-луж. zrać. Далее см. зерно́.
Further etymology: Ср. др.-инд. járati, jī́ryati "становится дряхлым, трухлявым, стареет", járant- "старый, дряхлый", jā́ras "дряхлость", авест. zarta- "немощный от старости", греч. γέρων "старец", γῆρας ср. р. "старость", γεργέριμοι мн. "созревшие плоды", арм. сеr "старый, старец", др.-исл. karl "мужчина, старец"; см. Перссон, Beitr. 671; Траутман, ВSW 372; Гофман, Gr. Wb. 43 и сл.; Педерсен, Kelt. Gr. I, 52.
Pages: 2,106
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kirVla-z, *karila-z
Meaning: man
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: karl m. `Mann, alter Mann; Untertan'
Norwegian: kall, kar
Old Swedish: Run. karilR
Swedish: karl `Mann, Kerl'
Danish: karl `Mann, Kerl'
Old English: ceorl `freier Mann der niegrigsten Klasse, hemann'
English: churl `Bauer, Tölpel'
Old Frisian: tzerl, tzirl `ondergeschikt persoon'
Middle Dutch: kērel, kerl, caerl `vrij man, die niet tot de ridderstand behoort'
Dutch: kerel m.
Middle Low German: kē̆rl(e) `freier, gewöhnlicher Mann, kräftiger Mann'
Old High German: karl (8.Jh.) `(Ehe)mann, Gelibter, treuer Mann'
Middle High German: kërl(e), karl(e) st./wk. m. 'mann, ehemann, geliebter'
German: Kerl m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kīẓ-
Meaning : old
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kīẓ-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kīẓ-
Meaning : old
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kiẓam, kiẓaṭu
Tamil meaning : old age; aged person, animal, or thing (contemptuous)
Tamil derivates : kiẓamai, kiẓavu old age; kiẓavan_, kiẓavōn_ old man; fem. kiẓavi; kiẓatan_ old fellow (used in contempt); fem. kiẓaṭi
Malayalam : kiẓavan
Malayalam meaning : old man
Malayalam derivates : fem. kiẓavi, kiẓatti
Kannada : keẓava, keẓiva
Kannada meaning : old man
Tulu : kīrụ
Tulu meaning : ancient, old
Number in DED : 1579
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : old
Eurasiatic : *gwVrV
Afroasiatic : *gVrʕ- 'old' (Cush., Chad. + Berb. *gVr- 'be bigger, older')
Sino-Caucasian : *xq̇(w)VrV
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kúdù 'old'; Ijo kUrai 'year'. (?) San. ḳarē 'full grown person'.
Reference : ОСНЯ 1, 297-298; ND 664 (SH - Turk.), 670 (SH - Kartv.).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇(w)VrV́
Meaning: old, ripe
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ĭrq̇wĂ
Sino-Tibetan: *grĭ
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=ĭrq̇wĂ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ripen
Proto-Nakh: *-iʔ-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=iq̇-
Proto-Tsezian: *=iq̇-
Proto-Lak: =ija-
Proto-Dargwa: *=iq̇ur-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔi(r)q̇ʷV
Proto-West Caucasian: *ṭǝʁʷa- ( ~ -Gʷ-)
Notes: The PWC form must be analysed as consisting of the old class marker *d- + the root, with subsequent metathesis of glottalisation (*ṭǝʁʷa- < *d-ǝq̇ʷa-). The EC-WC comparison seems quite plausible phonetically and semantically.

    In EC the root interacts actively with *=arq̇Vr 'to reach' and *=ǝ̆q̇wVn 'to be enough, sufficient', but there seems to be a good reason for keeping all these three roots apart.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *-iʔ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ripen; to grow
Chechen: q-iʔ-
Ingush: q-e
Comments: The root is homonymous with *q-iʔ- 'to have time' (q.v.) - as a result of contamination.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=iq̇-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to ripen 2 ripe
Avar: ʕe- 1
Andian language: =iq̇u= 2 (Leksika)
Akhvakh: =iq̇- 1 (Ratl.)
Tindi: =ill- 1, =illu= 2
Karata: =eʔ- 1
Godoberi: =iʔa= 2
Comments: Cf. also Akhv. Tseg. =iʔ-, Tlan. =iq̇-, Kar. Tok. =iʕ- id. The Tindi form with -ll- probably reflects a suffixed variant *=iq̇-Vl- > *=iʔl- > =ill-. In Avar the root is homonymous with ʕe- 'to be enough, sufficient' - which is a secondary merger (see *=ǝ̆q̇wVn 'to be enough'). The root *=iq̇- 'to ripen' should be also distinguished from *=iq̇- (/*=aq̇-) 'to reach' (see *=arq̇Vr), although their reflexes in Av.-And. are very similar and they certainly had influenced each other.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=iq̇-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to grow
Bezhta: =iq̇- (Tlad.)
Comments: Attested only in Bezht., but having probable external parallels.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =ija-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ripen
Lak form: =ija-n
Comments: G. pr. =i=nu. The root is homonymous with =ija- 'to reach' (PEC *=arq̇Vr), as a result of phonetic merger (cf. the same phenomenon in PN).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=iq̇ur-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ripe
Akusha: =iq̇ur-il (Kait.)
Comments: Cf. also Tsud. biḳur-se (an MSU recording, probably with a misspelling instead *biq̇ur-se). It is very probable that Ak. b=urq̇a 'old' also belongs here (with Ablaut).
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔi(r)q̇ʷV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to ripen 2 to be ripe 3 ripe
Tabasaran: q-u=q̇- 1
Rutul: h-i=q̇a- 2
Kryz: s-u=q̇- 1
Archi: o=q̇i- 1
Udi: ap:i /p:-ap:i 3
Comment: Cf. also Ud. ap:e-sun 'to become ripe, boiled', p:ap:-sun (Vart. bap:-sun) 'to be in time', Vart. b-ap:i ( = Nidzh. p:ap:i) 'ripe'. The Udi forms clearly point to PL labialised *q̇ʷ and distinguish this root clearly from PL *ʔirq̇är 'to come, reach' (Ud. ej-sun / e-sun). Medial -r- regularly gets lost in verbal roots of all the languages that have preserved PL *ʔi(r)q̇ʷV.

    An old derivate from this root (with reduction of the initial syllable) may be Tab. q̇abi (Düb. q̇awi) 'old' (cf. an analogous development in Dargwa).

    See Хайдаков 1973, 141.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ṭǝʁʷa- ( ~ -Gʷ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to ripen
Adyghe: ṭǝʁʷa-n
Kabardian: ṭǝʁʷa-n
Ubykh: ṭǝʁʷá-
Comments: PAK *ṭǝʁʷa-.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *grĭ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: old, large
Chinese: *grij old; 祁 *grij great, large.
Tibetan: bgre (p. bgres) to grow old.
Burmese: krih be old; be big
Comments: Sh. 50; Luce 10. Cf. also Nung *j-ri 'big'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: qí
Preclassic Old Chinese: grij
Classic Old Chinese: grij
Western Han Chinese: grjǝj
Eastern Han Chinese: grǝj
Early Postclassic Chinese: gij
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gij
Late Postclassic Chinese: gi
Middle Chinese: gi
English meaning : old, aged
Comments: For *g- cf. Xiamen, Fuzhou ki2 (Chaozhou khi2 is secondary).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 0552 l
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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