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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kàra(ma)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: thin stick, rod
Russian meaning: палочка, прут
Turkic: *Karmak
Tungus-Manchu: *kar-
Korean: *kármó
Japanese: *kàrimǝ̀
Comments: The root is not widely represented, but seems reliable; the meaning 'axle' in Kor.-Jpn. has developed < 'thin stick'. {ND 1199 adds WMo qaraŋɣa 'long front teeth of domestic animals; small arrow'.}
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Karmak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 fishing rod 2 hook
Russian meaning: 1 удочка 2 крюк
Karakhanid: qarmaq (KB) 1,2
Turkish: karmuk 2, dial. garmaɣ 1
Tatar: qarmaq 1,2
Middle Turkic: qarmaq (IM, MA) 1, 2
Uzbek: qɛrmɔq 2
Uighur: qa(r)maq 1,2
Azerbaidzhan: GarmaG 1,2
Turkmen: Garmaq 1,2
Khakassian: xarmax 1,2
Shor: qarbaq 1,2
Oyrat: qarmaq 1,2
Tuva: dial. qarmaq 1,2
Kirghiz: qarmaq 1,2
Kazakh: qarmaq 1,2
Noghai: qarmaq 1,2
Bashkir: qarmaq 1,2
Karakalpak: qarmaq 1,2
Comments: VEWT 238, ЭСТЯ 5, 309-310 (usually considered to be derived from *Karba-, but this is phonetically dubious).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: rod, thin branch
Russian meaning: прут, лоза
Evenki: kar, kari, karê
Comments: ТМС 1, 379. Cf. perhaps also Orok qarụmalịma 'children's sledge' (?).
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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kármó
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: axle, metal tube for axle
Russian meaning: ось, втулка
Middle Korean: kármó
Comments: Nam 19.
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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàrimǝ̀
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: axle, metal tube for axle
Russian meaning: ось, втулка
Old Japanese: karimo
Middle Japanese: kàmò
Comments: JLTT 436.
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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *kVrV
Meaning: sharp stick
Indo-European: *gʷerw-
Altaic: *kàra(ma)
Dravidian: SDr *kaṛ- 'sharp stick'
References: ND 1199 *ḲaŕV (part of Alt + Drav).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷerw-
Meaning: tree, stick, spear
Avestan: grava- 'Stock, Rohrstab'
Old Greek: *barǖ́-s ~ -ǘ-s: pl. barǘes = déndra Hsch.
Slavic: ? *gorā `лес'
Baltic: *gar-ia- n., *gir-iā̃, *gir-jā̂ f.
Germanic: *kwir-u- n.
Latin: verū, gen. verus, pl. verua n. `Spiess'
Other Italic: Umbr berus `verubus', berva `verua'
Celtic: OIr biur; Cymr, Corn, Bret ber `veru'
Russ. meaning: дерево, палка, копье
References: WP I 689
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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: гора́,
Near etymology: вин. п. го́ру, укр. гора́, ст.-слав. гора ὄρος, горѣ ἄνω, болг. гора́ "лес", сербохорв. го̀ра, вин. п. го̏ру, словен. góra, чеш. hora, польск. góra, в.-луж. hora, н.-луж. góra.
Further etymology: Родственно др.-прусск. garian ср. р. "дерево", лит. girià, диал. gìrė̂ "лес", др.-инд. giríṣ "гора", авест. gairi-, ср.-перс. gar, gīr, возм., также греч. гомер. βορέης, атт. βορέᾱς, βορρᾱς "северный ветер", алб. gur "камень"; см. Бернекер 1, 329; Траутман, BSW 78; Педерсен, KZ 38, 319; М. -- Э. 1, 555; Шпехт 24 и сл., 55. По Мейе (BSL 25, 144), исходной была основа на согласный. Ср. лит. nugarà "спина", но ср. Буга, РФВ 67, 239. От гора́ образовано горы́ч "юго-западный ветер", поволжск.; го́ры мн. "высокий правый берег Волги" (Мельников и др.).
Pages: 1,438
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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gar-ia- n., *gir-iā̃, *gir-jā̂ f.
Meaning: forest
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: girià, žem. gìrē `Wald, Forst'
Lettish: dzir̨a, dzire `Wald'
Old Prussian: garian V. 628, garrin Ench. 65:27 `Baum'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kwiru
Meaning: thorn
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: kʷɛru n (u) `thorn, spike'
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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 723
Root: gʷeru-
English meaning: pole, pike
German meaning: `Stange, Spieß'
Material: Av. grava- `Stock, Rohrstab' (zum Ablaut vgl. lat. genu: got. kniu);

    lat. uerū, -ūs n. `Spieß'; umbr. berva `uerua', berus `ueribus';

    air. bi(u)r n., später f., `Speer, Spieß', cymr. corn. bret. ber f., m. ds.;

    got. qaíru n. `Pfahl, Stachel';

    vielleicht als `Zweig' zu gr. βρύω `sprosse, strotze', βρύον n. `Moos, Kätzchen', ἔμβρυον n. `das Neugeborene' und (?) germ. *krūda- (idg. *gʷrū-to-) in ahd. mhd. krūt, asächs. krūd `Kraut'.

    Über lat. bruscum `Schwamm am Ahornbaum' s. WH. I 117.

References: WP. I 689.
Pages: 479
PIE database: PIE database
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