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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kara ( ~ -u)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to look, observe
Russian meaning: смотреть, наблюдать
Turkic: *Karak
Mongolian: *kara-
Tungus-Manchu: *kara-
Korean: *kàrm-
Comments: KW 169, VEWT 235 (the TM forms in ТМС 1,380 - Man. qara-, qarun etc. - are obviously borrowed from Mongolian, see Doerfer MT 51, 138, Rozycki 135), Lee 1958, 114, АПиПЯЯ 287.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Karak
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 eye-ball 2 eye 3 a gentle address ("my dear")
Russian meaning: 1 зрачок 2 глаз 3 ласковое обращение
Old Turkic: qaraq 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qaraq 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: köz karasɨ 1, Osm. (XV) qaraq 2
Middle Turkic: qaraq (Pav. C., Бор. Бад., Sangl.) 1, (Abush.) 2
Uzbek: qɔrɛčiq 1
Uighur: qar(i)čuq 1
Azerbaidzhan: göz Garasɨ 1
Turkmen: Garaq 1
Khakassian: xarax 2, dial. xaračɨ 1
Shor: qaraq 2
Oyrat: qaraq 1, 2
Chuvash: koś xori 1
Yakut: xarax 2
Dolgan: karak 2
Tuva: qaraq 2
Tofalar: qaraq 2
Kirghiz: qaraq 3, dial. qareq 1, 2
Kazakh: qaraq 3, qarašɨq 1
Noghai: qarašɨq 1
Karakalpak: qaraq 3, qarašɨq 1
Comments: VEWT 235-236, TMN 3, 434-436, EDT 652, ЭСТЯ 5, 295-296, Ашм. VII, 36, Лексика 210, Stachowski 138. Deriving *Karak from *Kara 'black' (see also TMN 1, 401) is highly dubious both for semantic and morphological reasons; forms like Tur. göz karasɨ result from secondary reanalysis. Cf. also the forms *Kara-la- 'to stare' (Az. qarala-, Uygh. qarala-, see ЭСТЯ 5, 289), *Karaj- 'to watch, preserve' (Yak. xaraj-, Dolg. karaj-; Yak. xarɨs 'care, wariness', Dolg. karɨstā- 'to care, beware', see Stachowski 138, 140) - which, in contrast to qara- 'look' ( < Mong.) are unlikely to be borrowed.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kara-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to look 2 patrol, watch
Russian meaning: 1 смотреть 2 патруль, караул
Written Mongolian: qara- 1, qaraɣul 2 (L 932, 933)
Middle Mongolian: qara- 1, qara'ul (SH) 2, qara- (MA, HYt) 1
Khalkha: xara- 1, xarūl 2
Buriat: xara- 1
Kalmuck: xarǝ- 1
Ordos: xara- 1
Dagur: xarāla- 1 (Тод. Даг. 174), xarōl 2
Shary-Yoghur: χarūl 2, χarǝmul 'sight'
Monguor: xarụ̄la- (SM 164), xarǝ- 1; xarǝmul 'sight'
Mogol: qara- 1 (Ramstedt 1906)
Comments: KW 169, MGCD 329, 331, 334. Mong. > Chag. etc. qara-, qarawul (see TMN 1, 401, Щербак 1997, 208; a backloan from Turkic is probably ZM qarawol (8-6a) 'vanguard'), ЭСТЯ 5, 288-289, 290-291.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kara-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to guard, protect 2 to watch
Russian meaning: 1 беречь, защищать 2 наблюдать
Evenki: karama-, karma- 1, kara-m-na- 'to envy'
Even: qarɣụs- 1 (Arm.), qarqị- 'to wait'
Spoken Manchu: qarmǝ- (797) 1
Literary Manchu: qarma- 1 (perhaps also χarša-, ТМС 1, 380)
Ulcha: qarGa-čụ- 2
Orok: qarGa- 2
Nanai: qarGa-čị- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 381-382. The Evk. form kar(a)ma- is cited from Lee 1958 (quoting Shirokogoroff 1944 which was unavailable to us).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kàrm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to keep, preserve 2 to wash the dead, bury
Russian meaning: 1 хранить 2 обмывать покойника, хоронить
Modern Korean: kam-čhu- 'to hide'
Middle Korean: kàrm- 1, 2
Comments: Nam 22, KED 50.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *karV
Meaning: to observe, wake
Indo-European: *ger-
Altaic: *kara ( ~ -u)
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(e)ger-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to wake up, to be awake
Old Indian: {járate `erwacht', jagárti `wacht', pf. jagāra }, gārayate `to know; to make known, teach'
Avestan: ǰaɣārayantǝm `den wachenden', pf. ǰagāra
Other Iranian: MPers vīgrās `erwachte'
Old Greek: egéi̯romai̯, aor. égreto, pf. egrḗgora (`ich wache'), med. egḗgermai̯ `erwachen'; egéirō, aor. egẹ̄̂rai̯ `wecken, erwecken'; égersi-s `das Erwachen, die Erweckung', eks-egértǟ-s `Anreger, Anstifter', an-egérmōn `wachsam', adv. egertí `wachsam, eifrig'
Germanic: *karsk-a- adj., *karsk-i- adj., *karsk-iōn- f.
Latin: expergīscōr, -īscī, -perrēctus/pergitus `aufwachen, erwachen'; expertus < experctus;p expergēfaciō `aufwecken, ermuntern'; expergō, -ere/exporgō, -ō `aufwecken'
Albanian: ngrē `ich hebe auf, wecke auf'
Russ. meaning: просыпаться, бодрствовать
References: WP I 598 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *karska-, *karskia-, *karskiōn
Meaning: fresh, quick
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: karsk-r `rasch, mutig', kersk-r `lebhaft, munter', kerska f. `Fröhlichkeit, Kurzweil'
Norwegian: karsk
Swedish: karsk
Old Danish: karsk
Middle Low German: kask, karsch `munter, frisch'
Middle High German: karsch adj. 'frisch, munter'
German: dial. karsch `frisch, munter'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-mlg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 577
Root: ger-4, grēi-
English meaning: to grow; to awake
German meaning: `wachsen, wecken'
Material: Ai. járate `erwacht', jā-gar-ti `wacht', Perf. jā-gā́ra, Partiz. -gṛ-váṁs- `munter, eifrig', jā́gr̥vi- `aufmerksam, wach, munter', аv. jaɣārayantǝm `den wachenden', Perf. jagāra, Partiz. Perf. Akt. jagāurvah-, jigāurvah- `wach, wachsam', Kaus. ā-garayeiti `weckt', mit fra- inchoativ fra-ɣrisǝmnō `erwachend' (*grī-sk-), Kaus. fra-ɣrā-ɣrāyeiti, dissimil. fra-ɣrā-rayeiti `erweckt', mpers. vīgrās `erwache', vīgrāsēnāg `Erwecker';

    gr. ἐγείρω `wecke' (ob ἐ- das Adv. *e? vgl. ē oder ō in av. ā-garayeiti und oben S. 280; anders Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6483), Aor. ἔγρετο, ἐγρέσθαι, Perf. ἐ-γρή-γορα (für ε-γη-γορα - vgl. ai. jā-gā́ra - mit dem ρ von ἐγρέσθαι; Med. (spät) ἐ-γή-γερ-μαι; vom Perf. gingen aus ἐγρηγορτί `im Wachen', ἐγρήγορσις); ἐγρήσσω `wache' zu *γρη-τ- (vgl. av. fra-ʒrātō `beim Erwachen'); kaum aus *ἐγρήσκι̯ω (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 7082);

    alb. tosk. ngrē̈ (woraus ngrē), geg. ngrêi `hebe auf, errichte, wecke, spanne ein Gewehr'(*n-grǝ-n-i̯ō), Partiz. n-gritë (*-grī-t-);

    vermutlich anord. karskr, kerskr `frisch, lebhaft', mnd. karsch `frisch, munter', alem. chärzsch.

References: WP. I 598 f., WH. I 429 f.
Pages: 390
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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