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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gŏ̀re
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to see; understand
Russian meaning: видеть; понимать, узнавать
Turkic: *göŕ ( = *gör-s) / *gör-
Mongolian: *gori
Tungus-Manchu: *gur-
Korean: *kɨ́rì-
Comments: PKE 85, АПиПЯЯ 281, Дыбо 14. ? Cf. Mong. girkaj 'having good eyesight'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *göŕ ( = *gör-s) / *gör-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 eye (*göŕ) 2 to see, look (*gör-)
Russian meaning: 1 глаз 2 видеть
Old Turkic: köz 1, kör- 2 (Orkh., Yen.,OUygh.)
Karakhanid: köz 1, kör- 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: göz 1, gör- 2
Tatar: küz 1, kür- 2
Middle Turkic: göz (Sangl., Pav. C.), köz (Vam.) 1, kör- (MA, Abush., Sangl.) 2
Uzbek: kụz 1, kụr- 2
Uighur: köz 1, kör- 2
Sary-Yughur: köz 1, gör- 1
Azerbaidzhan: göz 1, gör- 2
Turkmen: göz 1, gör- 2
Khakassian: kös (Sag.) 1, közenek (Kɨzil.) 'window', kör- 2
Shor: kös (R) 1
Oyrat: kös, dial. köz 1, kör- 2
Halaj: kẹr- 2
Chuvash: koś 1, kor- 2
Yakut: kör- 2; köhün- 'to be seen'
Dolgan: kör- 2; köhün- 'to be seen'
Tuva: köstük 'eye-glass', köskü 'visible, good-eyed', köskenek 'window', kör- 2
Tofalar: kösküt- 'to show', kör- 2
Kirghiz: köz 1, kör- 2
Kazakh: köz 1, kör- 2
Noghai: köz 1, kör- 2
Bashkir: küδ 1, kür- 2
Balkar: köz 1, kör- 2
Gagauz: göz 1, gör- 2
Karaim: goz/koz 1, kor- 2
Karakalpak: köz 1, kör- 2
Salar: gö(:)z 1, gör- 2
Kumyk: göz 1, gör- 2
Comments: VEWT 292, TMN 3, 637f, EDT 756 (*göŕ), 736 (*gör-), Федотов 1, 310, 314, ЭСТЯ 3, 60-64 (*göŕ), 77-79, 81-84 (*gör-), Лексика 209, Stachowski 155, 156. The Chuv. reflex requires a supposition of a final cluster (*rs) in the nominal stem; this may be a suffixed deverbative. OT körüg 'glance; image' > MMo, WMong. körüg 'image'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gori
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hope
Russian meaning: надежда
Written Mongolian: gori (L 361)
Khalkha: goŕ
Buriat: gori
Kalmuck: gör (КРС)
Ordos: Gori
Dagur: goro-, guru- 'to understand, think about smth.'
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to look out, appear 2 to understand
Russian meaning: 1 выглядывать, показываться 2 понимать
Even: göpken- 1
Negidal: gupket-/č- 1
Ulcha: gurpun- 1
Orok: golpon-, gorpon- 1
Nanai: gurpun- 1
Solon: guru- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 163, 174. Sol. > Dag. goro-, guru- (Тод. Даг. 132).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kɨ́rì-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to long for, miss, think of
Russian meaning: стремиться к, думать о ком-л.
Modern Korean: kɨri-
Middle Korean: kɨ́rì-
Comments: Nam 68, KED 237.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gUrV
Meaning: to understand, see
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gʷhren- (+ *gʷhrē- 1772)
Altaic: *gŏ̀re
Kartvelian: *gar-
Dravidian: *gur_- (*-d_-)
Eskimo-Aleut: *irǝ
References: ND 660 *g[ü]ʕrV 'to look, look for' (Kartv.+differ.IE+Alt.+Drav.), 674a *goR[X]E 'to track, smell, hear' (IE +SH).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷhren-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: diaphragm; intelligence
Old Greek: phrḗn, -enós, pl. phrénes, -enō̂n f. `Zwerchfell', `Sinn, Seele, Geist, Verstand, Herz', phronéō `gesinnt sein, denken, verständig sein', phróni-s f. `Einsicht, Kunde'; phrontís, -ídos f. `Nachdenken, Sorge, Besorgnis', á-phrōn `unverständig, töricht', eu̯-phrái̯nō `froh machen, erheitern'; sṓ-, pró-phrōn
Germanic: *grun-a- m.; *grun-ō- vb.
Russ. meaning: диафрагма; соображение
References: WP I 699
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *gruna-z; *grunōn- vb.
Meaning: suppose
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: grun-r m. `Argwohn, Vermutung, Zweifel', gruna wk. `beargwöhnen'
Norwegian: grun(e); gruna vb.
Swedish: dial. gruna `vermuten'
Old Danish: grunde `ründe ersinnen'(infl. von deutsch rund)
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-odan,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 759
Root: gʷhren-
English meaning: phrenic; soul, mind
German meaning: `Zwerchfell als Sitz des Geistigen, Verstand, Denken'?
Material: Gr. φρήν `Zwerchfell' (Pl. `Eingeweide'), `Seele, Geist, Verstand, Herz', φρονέω `denke', φρόνησις `Denken, Verstand', φροντίς (: aisl. grundr) `Sorge', ἄφρων `unverständig, töricht', σώφρων `verständig', εὔφρων `frohen Sinnes, erfreuend, wohlwollend', εὐφραίνω `mache froh, erheitere';

    aisl. grunr m. `Verdacht', gruna `beargwöhnen', grundr m. `Nachdenken', grunda `denken'.

References: WP. I 699.
Pages: 496
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *gar-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: искать, находить
English meaning: to search, find
Georgian: mo-na-gar-i
Georgian meaning (Rus.): добытое с трудом
Georgian meaning (Engl.): that which took a lot of work to acquire
Megrel: gor-
Laz: gor-
Notes and references: EWK 77-78. Ср. драв. *gur_- 'намереваться, целиться', алт. *gorV 'видеть; понимать, узнавать'; ПИЕ *gʷhre-n- 'разум' (возможно, также *gʷhrī- "чуять").
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *gur_- (*-d_-)
Meaning : 1 to aim 2 to mark 3 to write
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *gur_-/*kur_-
Proto-Telugu : *gur_-
Proto-North Dravidian : *kur-k-
Notes : Unclear *k- in PNDR (assimilated with suffixal -k-?)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-ndr,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *gur_-/*kur_-
Meaning : to draw; to aim
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kur_i (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to design, intend, think, draw, sketch outline in painting, aim at, narrate briefly, tell, foretell, predict; n. mark, sign, symbol, aim, mark to shoot at, goal, motive, omen, generative organ
Tamil derivates : kur_ippi (-pp-, -tt-) to call to mind by sign or hint; kur_ippu intention, gesture, summary, mark, sign
Malayalam : kur_i
Malayalam meaning : a mark, sign, aim
Malayalam derivates : kur_ikka to mark, note, write, point at, refer to; kur_ippu memorandum, abstract; kur_icci pudendum muliebre
Kannada : kur_i
Kannada meaning : to mark, take note of, regard
Kannada derivates : kur_i, kur_ipu, gur_i a mark, sign, aim, object of aim; kur_upu, kur_uvu, kur_uhu a mark, sign, token, characteristic; gur_ikār_a marksman; gur_utu, gur_atu, gur_uta, gurta, gurtu, guttu, gottu a mark, sign; knowledge, acquaintance; gontu (Hav.) knowledge; ? kūn, kūnu, kūna a mark, sign; acquaintance
Kodagu : kuri- (kurip-, kuric-)
Kodagu meaning : to paint, decorate; announce (marriage) to house-gods and witnesses
Kodagu derivates : kuri drawing, spot on forehead or sectarian mark, embroidery, act of making formal contract of engagement of marriage; guri an aim; gurtɨ a mark; gottɨ māḍ- to know; gott(ɨ) uṇḍɨ/ille it is/is not known (dat., to a person); gott(ɨ) āg- to become known (dat., to a person)
Tulu : guri
Tulu meaning : an aim, mark, butt, responsibility
Tulu derivates : gurta a mark, sign, token, recognition; gottu, gontu knowledge, understanding, acquaintance
Proto-Nilgiri : *gur_ǐ
Miscellaneous : KOR (O) gottu knowledge
Number in DED : 1847
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *gur_ǐ
Meaning : aim
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : guryv "good aim"
Toda : kur_y "aim"
Additional forms : Also Toda kur_p a mark (made by a person to show he was there)
Notes : Kota kur 'strip of embroidery' hardly belongs here.
Number in DED : 1847
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *gur_-
Meaning : an aim, object aimed at, design, purpose, sign, token, esteem
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : gur_i
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : gurt(u) uṇḍu "to be remembered (dat. by a person); neg. gurtu lēdu"
Additional forms : Also gur_incu to intend, have in view; [1] gur_inci, [2] gur_ici concerning; gur_ikā̃ḍu a good marksman; gur_utu a mark, sign, token
Number in DED : 1847
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *kur-k-
Meaning : to write
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malto : kurke
Number in DED : 1847
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *irǝ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: eye
Russian meaning: глаз
Proto-Yupik: *irǝ (-(ɣ)-miɣ-, -ɣa-)
Proto-Inupik: *irǝ (-ɣ-miɣ-), *ir-ɣa-, *irri-t-
Comments: Cf. the verbs *irǝ-ku- 'to see, to look', *irǝ-ɫuɣ- 'to become blind'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 97
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *írǝ (-(ɣ)-miɣ-, -ɣa-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: eye 1, air-hole, ventilate 2
Russian Meaning: глаз 1, отдушина в пологе 2
Sirenik: ǝ́ca (ǝj) 1, icǝm kulíŋa 'eyelid', //ǝrmǝɣ- 'to look through, to sight'
Chaplino: íja (ǝt) 1, ījaq (t) 2, ijǝ́ɣātǝk du. 'eye-glasses', cf. rīrŋiquq 'to look observantly; присматриваться'
Naukan: ī (ik) 1, ījaq 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: ī, īŋaq, īŋalaq 1
Chugach (Birket-Smith): ī̮ (ī̮k du., ī̮t pl.) 1
Central Alaskan Yupik: ī, īŋaq 1, īɣmiuʁ- 'to signal with one's eyes'
Nunivak (Peripheral): ī* (īɣix* du., īɣit* pl.), īx 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 97
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *irǝ (-ɣ-miɣ-), *ir-ɣa-, *irri-t-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: eye 1, to wink 2, eye-glasses, snow-googles 3, to get sth. in one's eye 4
Russian meaning: глаз 1, моргать 2, очки 3, попасть в глаз (о соринке) 4
Seward Peninsula Inupik: iri 1, irimik- 2, iɣrāk du. 3, irrit- 4
SPI Dialects: Imaq ɨ́rɨ 1, W iɣ́i* (iɣ́ik, iɣ́it) 1
North Alaskan Inupik: irɨ 1, iriŋmiɣaq- 2, irɣāk du. 3, irrit- 4
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl iɣ́i* 1
Western Canadian Inupik: iji 1, ijinmik- 2, ijɣāk du. 3
WCI Dialects: Cor īʒ* (ijik, ijit) 1, M iʒi* 1, Net iri 1, Car Baker Lake ijjia- [Schn.] 4, Net itri 'dust in eye' [Dor.]
Eastern Canadian Inupik: iji 1, ijji(t)-, ijji- 4, ijji 'dust in eye'
ECI Dialects: Tar ijauttīk du. 3, NBI, SB iɣɣāk du. 3
Greenlandic Inupik: iši (isse*) 1, išimmiɣ- 2, iššit-, iššia- 4
GRI Dialects: NWG iššat, EG ittāt, Up itsāt 3, NG ixxāk du. 3
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 97, 98
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-ecis,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : to understand, see
Eurasiatic : *gUrV
Afroasiatic : *giʕar-/*giʕur- (+ Berb.; ? + ECush. 'ear')
Sino-Caucasian : ST *ghʷār 'search' (or *Kruā 'learn')
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-gèd- 'think'.
Reference : ND 660, 674.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *giʕur-
Meaning: seek
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Egyptian: d_ʕr (ME) 'seek'
Central Chadic: *gira- 'look for' 1, 'keep guard, watch' 2
Saho-Afar: *gVHur- 'seek'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-sho,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: d_ʕr (ME)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'seek'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *gVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'look for' 1, 'keep guard, watch' 2
Daba: gìr 1 [Li]
Musgoy: gǝr 1 [Mo]
Gude: gǝra 2 [Hs]
Masa: gạr 1 [Mo], gā:rā 1 [Jg]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-dab,cchet-mus,cchet-gde,cchet-mas,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *gVHur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'seek'
Saho: guur
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-saho,

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