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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ằŕá
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to walk, step
Russian meaning: ходить, шагать
Turkic: *gEŕ-
Mongolian: *gar-
Tungus-Manchu: *giari- / *gira-
Japanese: *kàtí
Comments: ЭСТЯ 3, 11, JOAL 125, 126, АПиПЯЯ 74, 289, Дыбо 13.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gEŕ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to walk, walk through
Russian meaning: ходить, проходить через
Old Turkic: kez- (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kez- (MK, KB)
Turkish: gez-
Tatar: giz-
Middle Turkic: kéz- (Sangl., MA, Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kez-
Uighur: g/käz-
Azerbaidzhan: gäz-
Turkmen: gez-
Halaj: käz-
Tofalar: kes-
Kirghiz: kez-
Noghai: kez-
Bashkir: giδ-
Balkar: [kezik 'очередь']
Gagauz: gez-
Karaim: gez-
Karakalpak: gez-
Salar: gez- (Kakuk)
Kumyk: gez-
Comments: VEWT 260, EDT 757, ЭСТЯ 3, 10-11. Cf. also (with -r-) Yak. kerij- 'walk around'. The derived Turk. *geŕik 'turn, order' ( < *'going through') > MMong. kešik (SH), WMong. kesig 'wake, turn' (see TMN 1, 467-468, Clark 1980, 40). The verb itself was also borrowed, cf. WMong. kesü-, Khalkha, Bur. xese-, Dag. kese- 'to wander, roam'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to go out
Russian meaning: выходить
Written Mongolian: ɣar- (L 350)
Middle Mongolian: qar- (HY 36, SH), qor-, qur- (IM), ɣăr- (MA)
Khalkha: gar-
Buriat: gara-
Kalmuck: ɣar-
Ordos: Gar-
Dongxian: qeri- (MGCD qɨri-)
Baoan: xăr- (MGCD xarǝ-)
Dagur: gar- (Тод. Даг. 130), gare- (MD 148), garǝ-
Shary-Yoghur: Gar-
Monguor: Gari- (SM 120)
Mogol: ɣaru-; ZM ɣaru- (41-2)
Comments: KW 145, MGCD 285.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *giari- / *gira-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to walk 2 to step
Russian meaning: 1 гулять 2 шагать
Evenki: gira-kta- 2
Even: gịraŋ-, gịrqъ̣- 2
Negidal: gịjān- 2
Literary Manchu: Garda- 'to run', ǵari- `to walk round, walk away'
Ulcha: Gē̂rị- 1, Gịran- 2
Orok: Gịran-
Nanai: Gịari- 1, Gịran- 2
Oroch: gǟri- 1, gia- 2
Udighe: geä-li- 1, geäna- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 141, 142, 147, 154-155.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàtí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: walking
Russian meaning: хождение пешком
Old Japanese: kati
Middle Japanese: kàtí
Tokyo: káchi
Kyoto: káchí
Kagoshima: kachí
Comments: JLTT 444. The Kyoto accent is irregular, otherwise all evidence points to *kàtí.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gVrV
Meaning: to walk, go
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ghrad- / -e-
Altaic: *gi̯ằŕá
References: ND 685 *gi/eŕa ~ *gi/eRya 'to step, walk'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ghrad-/-e-
Meaning: to step, to go
Old Indian: MInd (Aśoka) adhigicya (*adhi-grdhya) `beginnend'
Avestan: aiwi-gǝrǝδmahi `wir beginnen, ingredimur', gǝrǝzdi- f. `das Inbesitznehmen, Bekommen'
Slavic: *grę̄dǭ, *grę̄stī́
Baltic: *grid- vb. tr., *grid-ī̂- vb.
Germanic: *grit-i- c., *grit-a- vb.
Latin: gradior, gradī, gressus sum `schreiten, einherschreiten', gressus, -ūs m., gressiō f. `Schritt'; grassārī `einhergehen, zu Werke gehen, vorschreiten'; gradus, -ūs m. `Schritt, Fussstellung; Stufe; Grad, Rang', pl. grallae f. `Stelzen'
Celtic: OIr ad-grēinn `er verfolgt'
Russ. meaning: шагать, идти
References: WP I 651 f
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: гряду́,
Near etymology: грясти́, ст.-слав. грѩдѫ, грѩсти ἔρχομαι πορεύομαι (Cynp., Клоц.), болг. греда́ "иду", сербохорв. гре́де̑м, грести, словен. grédem.
Further etymology: С обобщением носового инфикса (ср. лат. iungō: iugum) к лит. grìdyju, grìdyti "идти, путешествовать (пешком)", жем. grìdėti, авест. aiwigǝrǝðmahi "мы начинаем", др.-инд. gṛdhyati "быстро надвигается на что-либо" (?), лат. gradior "шагаю", гот. grid ж. вин. п. "шаг, ступень", ирл. in-greinn, do-greinn "преследует"; см. Траутман, BSW 98; KZ 42, 369; Бецценбергер, ВВ 16, 243; Педерсен, IF 2, 291; Kelt. Gr. 2, 339; Бернекер 1, 349 и сл.
Pages: 1,467
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *grid- vb. tr., *grid-ī̂- vb.
Meaning: carry, drag
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: grìsti 'tragen, schleppen, bringen', grìdīti `gehen, wandeln, sich irrend herumtreiben, herumirren'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *griti-z, *gritan- vb.
Meaning: step, etc.
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *griɵ-s (-d-) f. (i) `standing'
Middle High German: griten st. (?) 'die beine auseinanderspreizen'
German: bair. gritt `Schritt', gritten `die Beine speizen', grittel `die Gabel, die die Schenkel am Rumpf bilden'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 691
Root: ghredh-
English meaning: to march
German meaning: `schreiten'
Material: Av. aiwi-gǝrǝδmahi `wir beginnen, ingredimur', gǝrǝzdi- f. `das (*Antreten =) Inbesitznehmen, Bekommen'; aber mind. (Aśoka-Inschr.) adhigicya `beginnend' = ai. adhi-kr̥tya-, S. LéviGA 1912;

    lat. gradior, -ī `schreiten', gradus, -ūs `Schritt, Stufe', grallae `Stelzen' (lat. grad- aus *ghredh-, Ablautstufe wie in lit. grìdiju);

    got. griþs (nur Akk. Sg. grid) `Schritt, Stufe' (aber mhd. grit `Schritt', griten `die Beine auseinanderspreizen', nhd. bair. gritt, gritten ds. und - allerdings eindeutig der i-Reihe angehörigem - graiteln `die Finger oder Beine auseinandersperren' u. dgl. gehören zu germ. *grī̆- `gespreizt, auseinanderklaffend', das auswärtiger Anknüpfung bisher entbehrt);

    lit. grìdiju, -yti (Juškevicz) `gehen, wandern, umherirren'.

    Nasalpräsentia:

    air. in-grenn-, to-grenn- `verfolgen' (-enn- aus -n̥dh-n-, themat. n-Präs., 3. Sg.*ghrn̥-dh-ne-t), vgl. Thurneysen KZ. 63, 114f., Kuiper Nasalpräs. 170 f.;

    aksl. grędǫ, gręsti `kommen', russ. grjadú, grjastí `gehen, schreiten' usw.

References: WP. I 651 f., WH. I 615 f., Trautmann 98.
Pages: 456-457
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : to walk, run
Eurasiatic : *gVrV
Afroasiatic : *gir-/*gur-
Sino-Caucasian : *kVrV
Austric : PAA *Kǝra 'road'
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-gàd- 'come (go) back'. Cf. Bush. *kara 'to fly'.
Reference : ND 685.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gir-/*gur-
Meaning: go, run
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *gVrVy- 'run, flow' 1, 'pass' 2
Berber: *gVwVr- 'go, walk'
Western Chadic: *gVʔVr-/*gVrVʔ- 'go around' 1, 'come (out)' 2
Central Chadic: *gwar- 'go (into)' 1, 'return' 2, 'follow' 3
East Chadic: *gir- 'come'1, 'run' 2
Beḍauye (Beja): agir 'return'
Low East Cushitic: *gor-
High East Cushitic: *geHer- 'run'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 436
Proto-Semitic: *gVrVy-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'run, flow' 1, 'pass' 2
Arabic: gry [-i-]1
Mehri: gerō 2
Harsusi: gerō 1
Notes: Derived from biconsonantal *gVr-
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-mhr,semet-hss,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *gVwVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'go, walk'
Rif: uʁur
Iznassen: uyur
Notes: Based on *gVr-
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-rif,brbet-izn,brbet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *gVʔVr-/*gVrVʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'go around' 1, 'come (out)' 2
Dera=Kanakuru: gur- 2 [CLR]
Guruntum: ngoori 1 [Ja:185] ? if not < 'round'
Mangas: cf. gare [Cs] 'drive away'
Bokos: garaʔ 1 [JgR]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-der,wchet-grn,wchet-mgs,wchet-bks,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *gwar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 1 'go (into)', 2 'return', 3 'follow'
Tera: gɨ̀ri 2 [Kr: 8]
Logone: gǝ́r 1 [??]
Banana: gwǝrǝ 3 [Kr: 183]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-ter,cchet-log,cchet-bnn,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *gir-/*gur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 1 'arrive', 2 'run'
Nanchere: gúr 2 [Lk: 89]
Lele: gìr 2 [Grg]
Gabri: gére 2 [Lk: 88]
Kabalai: gǝ̀rǝ́ 2 [Cp], gígira [Lk: 93]
Dormo: geré 2 [Lk: 91]
Mubi: ŋ-gira 2 [Lk: 188]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-nch,echet-lle,echet-gbr,echet-kbl,echet-dor,echet-mub,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: agir
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'return'
Notes: Metathesis of *giraʔ-, cf. WCh
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *gor-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'turn off (towards)'
Oromo (Galla): gora
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-oro,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *geHer-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'run'
Hadiya (Gudella): geer-
Notes: Metathesis from *giʔar-, cf. WCh
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-had,hecet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *kVrV́
Meaning: to walk, go
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=arkV ( ~ -ǝ-,-ŏ-)
Sino-Tibetan: *krɨā(H) (~g-; -ŋ)
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=arkV ( ~ -ǝ-,-ŏ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to walk, to run
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=Vk-(Vr)-
Proto-Dargwa: *=ark- / =irk-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔarke
Proto-West Caucasian: *kǝ ( ~ ḱ-)
Notes: The root is not widely spread, but seems phonetically and semantically plausible.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=Vk-(Vr)-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to run
Avar: =ek-ér-
Chadakolob: =ekér-
Comments: With another suffix cf. perhaps And. ka-b-d- 'to enter' (?).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ark- / =irk-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to return
Chiragh: ar=ark-/ar=irk-
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔarke
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to go (away) 2 to return
Tabasaran: qt-a=k- 2
Agul: aldaq-ark- 2
Archi: =ak:i- 1
Comment: In Tab. and Ag. the stem is used mostly with preverbs; without a preverb cf. Ag. Bursh. arki- 'to get into, find oneself (somewhere)'. With other preverbs cf. Ag. Bursh. qat:-arki- 'to lag behind; to lose, be defeated', Rich. k:et:-ik- id., ald-ark- 'to turn round', Tab. Düb. q-a=k- 'to return'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *kǝ ( ~ ḱ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to step
Kabardian: čǝ-n
Comments: PAK *kǝ- (see Kuipers 1975, 49).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *krɨā(H) (~g-; -ŋ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: walk, go
Chinese: *grāŋ walk, go.
Tibetan: ãgro (i. ãgro(s)) to walk, ãgroŋ (resp.) (p. grons) to die, ãgron id.
Burmese: krwaʔ to go (about monks); LB *kh[r]a road
Lepcha: graŋ to be able to walk (child)
Comments: Tib. also has ãgrod to go, to travel - which may be regarded as a suffixed form, but may also belong to a different root (see *rū̆t). Cf. also Nung *khra 'road'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: xíng háng
Preclassic Old Chinese: grāŋ ghāŋ
Classic Old Chinese: grāŋ
Western Han Chinese: grāŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: grēŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: gẹ̄ŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gẹ̄ŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: gẹ̄ŋ
Middle Chinese: ɣạ̈iŋ ɣâŋ
English meaning : to go, march, travel; road
Russian meaning[s]: 1) идти, ходить; продвигаться; отправляться; проходить (о времени); 2) заставить идти; гнать (лодку); вести (дело); 3) пускать в дело (в ход); ходячий; ходовой; 4) действовать, поступать; проводить; 5) идет!, годится, сойдет; можно; быть способным (годным); 6) стихия (в китайской космогонии); 7) передвигать; подвижной, переносный; 8) скорописный; скоропись; 9) хватит; достаточно; 10) походное снаряжение; вещи, багаж; 11) дорога; 12) в будущем, вм. 將; 13) в вэньяне оформляет наречие (обычно перед двусложным сказуемым); [xìng] поступок; поведение; [háng] 1) ряд, шеренга; строка; обозначение порядка родства в одном поколении; 2) рынок; фирма; лавка; 3) профессия, специальность; 4) рынок; рыночная цена; курс
Shuowen gloss: 人之步趨也.從ぉぅ.凡行之屬皆從行. [78]
Comments: For initial *g- in *grāŋ cf. Min forms: Xiamen kiã2, Chaozhou kĩã2, Fuzhou kiaŋ2, Jianou kiaŋ9.

    Also read *grāŋ-s, MC ɣạ̈̀iŋ (FQ 下孟), Mand. xìng, Viet. hạnh; Schüssler glosses this derivate (for E.Zhou) as 'to go round on inspection tour'; in later times it is used as a deverbative 'conduct, behaviour'. The character is also used for *ghāŋ, MC ɣâŋ (FQ JY 寒岡), Mand. háng, Viet. hàng 'row, rank' (hence also 'row of goods, wares' > 'merchandise, market'; for initial *gh- here cf. Fuzhou auŋ6, Jianou ɔŋ6 'row of trees' from a related form, MC � ɣầŋ).

Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 144
Four-angle index: 2962
Karlgren code: 0748 a-d
Vietnamese reading: hành
Shijing occurrences: 3.1_, 15.1, 17.1, 31.1_, 33.4_, 35.2, 39.2, 41.1_, 51.1, 51.2, 54.3_, 54.4, 58.4_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 306
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 宕開一平唐匣; B: 梗開二平庚匣
ZIHUI: A: 5887 2313; B: 5887 2591
Beijing: A: xaŋ 12; B: śiŋ 12
Jinan: A: xaŋ 12; B: śiŋ 12
Xi'an: A: xaŋ 12; B: śiŋ 12
Taiyuan: A: xa_̃ 1; B: śiŋ 1
Hankou: A: xaŋ 12; B: śin 12
Chengdu: A: xaŋ 12; B: śin 12
Yangzhou: A: xâŋ 12; B: śĩ 12
Suzhou: A: ɦa_ŋ 12; B: in 12; ɦaŋ 12
Wenzhou: A: ɦuɔ 12; B:
Changsha: A: xan 12; B: śin 12
Shuangfeng: A: ɣaŋ 12; B: ɣin 12 (lit.); ɣiõ 12
Nanchang: A: hɔŋ 12; B: śin 31
Meixian: A: hɔŋ 12; B: haŋ 12
Guangzhou: A: hɔŋ 12; B: haŋ 12
Xiamen: A: hɔŋ 12 (lit.); haŋ 12; B: hîŋ 12 (lit.); kiã 12
Chaozhou: A: haŋ 12; B: kiã 12
Fuzhou: A: xouŋ 12; B: xeiŋ 12
Shanghai: A: ; B: iiŋ 32 (lit.); ɦa_̃ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: ; B: xiǝŋ 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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