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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gĕ́dì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: back (of head), behind
Russian meaning: затылок, позади
Turkic: *ged
Mongolian: *gede
Tungus-Manchu: *gedi-muk
Japanese: *kítà
Comments: EAS 48, Владимирцов 206, Poppe 24, 53, Колесникова 1972а, 101-103, ОСНЯ 1, 228, АПиПЯЯ 71; Дыбо 4. Despite Doerfer's criticism (TMN 1, 492) the root still holds.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ged
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back, after
Russian meaning: сзади, позади
Old Turkic: kedin (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: keδin (MK, KB)
Middle Turkic: kijin (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: kejin
Uighur: kejin, käjin
Khakassian: kizĭn
Shor: käzin
Oyrat: kijin
Chuvash: kaj
Yakut: ke-lin; ketex 'back of head'
Dolgan: ke-lin; ketek 'back of head'
Kirghiz: kijin
Kazakh: kejin
Karakalpak: kejin
Comments: EDT 704, VEWT 246-247, ЭСТЯ 5, 23-24, Stachowski 144, 146. Forms like Yak. ketex 'back of head' clearly show that the root was *ged-; the monosyllabic *ge- (observable in Yak. ke-lin and perhaps Chuv. kaj) is most probably a result of secondary reinterpretation of the stems *gedin and *gerü (the latter < PA *kèro q. v.). It is exactly this reinterpretation that allows to reconstruct *g- in PT *ged- (the root is not attested in Oghuz languages).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gede / *geǯige
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 back of the head 2 plait 3 leaning or bending backwards 4 to bend backwards
Russian meaning: 1 затылок 2 коса 3 отклоняющийся назад 4 отгибаться назад
Written Mongolian: gede 1 (L 372), gedereg 'on back', geǯige 1,2 (L 381)
Middle Mongolian: gedergu 'lying on the back', geǯige 'back troups, reserve' (SH), giǯigä 'plait, scruff' (MA)
Khalkha: ged 1, ged-reg 'back (adv.)', geʒeg 1,2, gedger 3, gedij- 4
Buriat: gedɨ- 'to hog', gezege 2
Kalmuck: gedṛgǝ 'back (adv)', giǯǝgǝ 1, 2
Ordos: gedergēn 'backwards', geǯige 1,2
Dongxian: GǝǯǝGi 2
Baoan: gǝtǝgulǝ- 4
Dagur: gedī- (Тод. Даг. 131) 4, geǯige (MD 150) 2, gǝǯig 2
Shary-Yoghur: gedeger 3, gedī- 4
Monguor: gǝdē- 'tenir la tête haute, se pencher en arrière' (SM 131), gǝdēngī 3, gǝdē- 4, gidergu 'backwards' (SM 136)
Mogol: KT gäǯigä 'nape of the neck, occiput' (6-1a).
Comments: KW 131, 135, MGCD 290. Mong. > Kirgh. keǯige etc. (ЭСТЯ 6, 17-18), Evk. gedikēn 'plait' etc. (ТМС 1, 177), see TMN 1, 492, Doerfer MT 47, Poppe 1966, 192, 1974, 120 (but *gedi-muk cannot be < Mong.).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gedi-muk
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: back of the head
Russian meaning: затылок
Evenki: gedimuk
Even: gedъmъk
Negidal: gedemuk
Comments: ТМС 1, 177.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kítà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: North
Russian meaning: север
Old Japanese: k(j)ita
Middle Japanese: kítà
Tokyo: kitá
Kyoto: kítà
Kagoshima: kíta
Comments: JLTT 452.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gedV
Meaning: back
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ĝhed- 'podex, caccare' (Pok. 423) ?
Altaic: *gedi
Kartvelian: ? *ked- 'neck'
References: МССНЯ 342, ОССНЯ 1б 227-228; ND 601 *[g]edi 'nape of neck; hinder part' (Alt.: Kartv.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g'hed-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: anus; cacare
Hittite: Luw. katmarš-, Hitt. kamarš- 'mingere' oder besser 'cacare' (Tischler 473f)
Tokharian: B kenmer
Old Indian: hadati, hadate `to evacuate, discharge excrement'
Avestan: zaδah- m. `Steiss'
Armenian: ʒet (o-St.) `Schwanz (des Hundes, Fuchses, Löwen)'
Old Greek: khézdō, pf. -kékhoda, pass. ptc. kekhesméno-, aor. khésai̯, khesêi̯n `scheissen', müó-khodo-n `Mäusekot', khódano-s m. = hédra Hsch.
Slavic: ? *zādъ
Germanic: *gat-a- n.
Albanian: djes `scheisse'
Russ. meaning: anus; cacare
References: WP I 571 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: зад,
Near etymology: род. п. за́да; зады́ (мн.) "прошлое (напр., прежние уроки)"; за́дний, сза́ди, наза́д. Укр., блр. зад, др.-русск. задъ "спина, зад", также "прочь, в сторону", задь ж. "задница", задьница "наследство", зажь ж., собир. "наследники", ст.-слав. зади ὀπίσω, зажда νώτον (Супр.), болг. зад "зад, за, сзади" (Младенов 173), сербохорв. за̏дњи "задний", словен. zȃdnji, чеш. zаd "хвост (колонны)", zád᾽ "зад", слвц. zаd "зад", польск., в.-луж. zad.
Further etymology: Обычно сравнивают с авест. zadah- "роdех", греч. χόδανος "зад", χέζω "сасаrе", арм. jеt (основа на -о), род. п. jеtоу "хвост" (собаки, лисы, льва), др.-инд. hádati "сасаt", ирл. gеаd "задняя часть" (из *ǵhednó-), алб. dhjes "сасо", нж.-нем. gаt "зад"; ср. Бругман, Grdr. 2, 2, 733; Буазак 1052; Торп 123; Остен-Сакен, AfslPh 32, 130; Хюбшман 470; Педерсен, Kelt. Gr. 1, 160; Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 357; Хольтхаузен, ZfslPh 24, 267. С др. стороны, заслуживает внимания точка зрения Мейе (RЕS 9, 127; Белиħев Зборник 25), который отделяет слав. слово от перечисленных выше и связывает zadъ с zа, сравнивая при этом -dъ с греч. -θα, -θεν. Подобно этому, Видеман (ВВ 30, 222 и сл.) сравнивает -dъ с греч. ἔν-δον "внутрь" и далее -- с -δην, -δα.
Pages: 2,73
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *gata-n
Meaning: hole
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: gat n. `Loch, Öffnung'
Norwegian: gat `Loch, Falz'
Old English: geat n. `Tor'
English: gate
Old Frisian: jet n. `Loch, Öffnung'
Old Saxon: gat `Loch'
Middle Low German: gat `Loch; anus'
Low German: kate-gat `Katzenloch'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mlg,germet-lg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 627
Root: ghed-
English meaning: to defecate; hole
German meaning: `scheißen; Loch'
Material: Ai. hadati, hadate `scheißt', av. zaðah- m. `Steiß';

    arm. jet (o-St.) `Schwanz (von Tieren)';

    gr. χέζω `scheiße', Perf. κέχοδα; χόδανος `Steiß';

    phryg. ζέτνα πύλη (leg. πύγη?);

    alb. dhjes `scheiße', ndjete `abscheulich', fem. `Abscheu'; ndotem `verabscheue', geg. ndishem `abscheulich';

    anord. gat n. `Loch, Öffnung', ags. geat `Türe, Öffnung' (daraus nir. gead `der Hintere'), afries. jet n. `Loch, Öffnung', as. gat `Loch', mnd. auch `anus', ndd. Kattegat `Katzenloch'.

References: WP. I 571 f.
Pages: 423
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ked-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: шея
English meaning: neck
Georgian: ked-
Megrel: kind-ir-
Notes and references: EWK 373. В ОСНЯ 1, 228 с вопросом сравнивается с алт. *gedi 'зад, затылок' < ностр. *gedi (в МССНЯ 342 привлекается еще ПИЕ *ǵhed- 'зад').
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVTV
Meaning : back
Eurasiatic : *gedV
Afroasiatic : *gaʔid- (+Cush. *gd- 'back'
Reference : МССНЯ 342; ND 601.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *(ʔan-)gaʔid-
Meaning: upper part of breast with the neck
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔan-gīd(-aʔ)- 'neck' 1, 'breast' 2
Western Chadic: *nV-gʷīʔad- 'neck'
East Chadic: *gV(H)Vd- ? 'neck'
Low East Cushitic: *gaHad- 'breast'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-ech,afaset-lec,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 113
Proto-Semitic: *ʔan-gīd(Vʔ)- @
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'neck' 1, 'breast' 2
Arabic: ǯ̌īd- 'сou long et gracieux' [BK 1 361]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔangǝdʔa 2
Notes: Cf. Sem. *gīd- 'sinew, nerve' (SED 72), possibly related though semantically difficult
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *nV-gʷīʔad-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'neck'
Ngamo: gíʔyà [ShV]
Kifri=Giwo: ngìḍò [ShV]
Galambu: ngìryà [ShV]
Diri: ŋ̀gwáḍù [CLR: 252]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-ngm,wchet-krf,wchet-glm,wchet-dir,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *gV(H)Vd- ?
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'neck'
Sokoro: get-im [Lk: 44]
Notes: Cf. Ndam kwàd [JgD] with irregular velar and vowel.
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-sok,echet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *gaHad-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breast'
Somali: gaaddo
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,

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