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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gàrá ( ~ -e-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: arm
Russian meaning: рука, верхняя часть руки
Turkic: *Karɨ
Mongolian: *gar
Japanese: *kàtá
Comments: KW 145, Владимирцов 391, Poppe 24 (Turk.-Mong.; but ТМ *ŋāla 'hand, arm' cannot belong here), Колесникова 1972а, 95-97; АПиПЯЯ 290, Дыбо 310-311, Лексика 247. Borrowing in Mong. < Turk. is quite improbable, despite Щербак 1997, 134 (even Doerfer in TMN 1, 207, 3, 461 describes the Turk.-Mong. match as "Zufall" - which in all his works is actually a synonym for "cognate").
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 arm 2 forearm 3 shin-bone of animal 4 various measures of length
Russian meaning: 1 рука (верхняя часть) 2 предплечье 3 голенная кость животного 4 различные меры длины
Old Turkic: qar 1, qarɨ 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qarɨ (MK) 1
Turkish: karu-ǯa 1
Tatar: qarɨ 1, qara 4 (dial.)
Middle Turkic: qar 1 (Vam.), qarɨ 1 (Abush.), 2 (Houts.), 4 (in all sources)
Uzbek: qari 1,4, qara 3 (dial.)
Uighur: qeri 4, qaja 3 (dial.)
Sary-Yughur: qar 2
Azerbaidzhan: gari 3 (dial.)
Turkmen: Garɨ 3,4
Shor: qarɨ 1
Oyrat: qarɨ 1
Halaj: qarɨ 4
Chuvash: xor 2, 4
Yakut: xarɨ, xara 2, 3
Tuva: qɨrɨ 2
Tofalar: qɨrɨ 2
Kirghiz: qar 1, qarɨ 1
Kazakh: qar 2, qarɨ 2, 3
Noghai: qarɨ 4
Bashkir: qar 3
Balkar: qarɨ 4
Karakalpak: qar 2, qarɨ 2, 4
Comments: TMN 3, 461-2, ЭСТЯ 5, 278-283, Дыбо 160-164, Дыбо 1989, Федотов 2, 361, Лексика 246-247. The usage of *Karɨ as a measure ('cubit') may seem natural, but in fact reflects a merger with a different root, see under *K(i)arɨĺ. Turk. > Hung. kar 'arm', see Ligeti 1933, MNyTESz 2, 369.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-klpx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hand, arm
Russian meaning: рука
Written Mongolian: ɣar (L 350)
Middle Mongolian: qar (HY 46, SH), qār (IM), ɣar (MA)
Khalkha: gar
Buriat: gar
Kalmuck: ɣar
Ordos: Gar
Dongxian: qa
Baoan: xar
Dagur: gari, gaŕ (Тод. Даг. 130, MD 148)
Shary-Yoghur: Gar
Monguor: Gar (SM 118)
Mogol: ɣar; ZM ɣar (2-9a)
Comments: KW 144-145, MGCD 284.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàtá
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: shoulder
Russian meaning: плечо
Old Japanese: kata
Middle Japanese: kàtá
Tokyo: káta
Kyoto: kàtá
Kagoshima: katá
Comments: JLTT 442.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gara
Meaning: wing; arm
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *gàrá ( ~ -e-)
Dravidian: *gar_-
Eskimo-Aleut: *arɣa
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *gar_-
Meaning : long feather
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *gar_-i
Proto-Telugu : *gar_-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gar_ (*-r)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *gar_-i
Meaning : wing, feather
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : gar_i
Kannada meaning : wing, feather
Tulu : gari
Tulu meaning : wing, feather
Proto-Nilgiri : *gar (*-r_)
Number in DED : 1394
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *gar (*-r_)
Meaning : quill of feather
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : garl
Additional forms : Also Kota tōkrl small peg used in pegging down hide to dry (tōl+karl)
Number in DED : 1389
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *gar_-
Meaning : wing, feather
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : gari
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : gar_i
Additional forms : Also (VPK) gari, -gara a lnng leaf (of millet, corn, etc.)
Number in DED : 1394
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gar_ (*-r)
Meaning : feather
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : gar (pl. gaḍl)
Naikri : gar (pl. -śil)
Notes : Alveolar r_ confirmed by external data.
Number in DED : 1394
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *arɣa
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: hand
Russian meaning: рука, кисть руки
Proto-Yupik: *árɣa
Proto-Inupik: *arɣaɣ (~ -lɣ-)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 4
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *árɣa
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: hand 1, glove 2, starfish 3
Russian Meaning: рука, кисть руки 1, перчатка 2, морская звезда 3
Sirenik: ácxǝχ 1, cf. ǝ́cχa 'shoulder'
Chaplino: īxa 1, īxat pl. 2, ijǝ́ksaɣǝt pl. 3, ásxɨq* 'fist' < Sir
Naukan: aj_xaq 1, 2, aj_xáʁoq 3
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: aixaq 1
Chugach (AAY): axsiq 3
Koniag (AAY): aiɣzāq 2, Kod axsiq 3
Chugach (Birket-Smith): aiɣạq 1, aixạʁuät pl. 2
Central Alaskan Yupik: aixaq 1, āzɣāq, aizɣāq 2, āxsak/q 3
Nunivak (Peripheral): āxaχ 'hand, sea flipper'
Norton Sound (Peripheral): aixa (aixǝ-) 1
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 4
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chug,yupet-koni,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-nrts,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *ạrɣąɣ (~ -lɣ-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: hand 1, glove 2, starfish 3, wrist 4
Russian meaning: рука, кисть руки 1, перчатка 2, морская звезда 3, запястье 4
Seward Peninsula Inupik: aɣrak, aɣraq 1, aɣrāq 2, aɣraun 4
SPI Dialects: Imaq áɣraq 1, 2, áɣrat pl. 2, W aʒɣąq* (āk, ēt) 1, KI aɣʁąq* (aɣʁait) 1
North Alaskan Inupik: arɣak 1, arɣāq 2, arɣaun 4
NAI Dialects: B aɣ́iɣaq* 1, Ingl aɣ́iɣaq* 'finger', aɣ́iɣat* pl. 'hand', Qaw arɣauri- 'to shake hands'
WCI Dialects: Cor aʒɣaq* 1, M aʒiɣaq* 1, Cop alɣak 1, alɣaujaq 3, Sig ajɣak 1, ajɣāq 2, Net arɣak 1, alɣaɣiaq 3 [Pryde], aɣɣauti 4, 'radius'
Eastern Canadian Inupik: aɣɣak 1, aɣɣajāk du. 2, aɣɣājaq 3, aššāt 'lower arm'
Greenlandic Inupik: aššak (agssak*) 1, aššāššat pl. 3
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 4
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : arm
Eurasiatic : *gara
Afroasiatic : ? Eg. ǯry hand
African (misc.) : ? Cf. Bantu *-gàdà 'feather'. ? San. gwara 'forefinger'.
Notes : So far attested only in Eurasiatic (and Eg.?)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-afr,globet-notes,

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