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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *dḕgni
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: needle, thorn, arrow
Russian meaning: игла, шип, стрела
Turkic: *(j)igne
Mongolian: *ǯeɣü-wün
Tungus-Manchu: *dēŋgu
Japanese: *(d)inka
Comments: Владимирцов 196. Mong. *ǯeɣü-ɣün must go back to *ǯiɣe-ɣü-n. {An alternative proposition: TM *dēŋgu could be compared with PJ *dùmì 'bow' < PA *dḕŋu; in that case the present root could be reconstructed as *ǯegi.}
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *(j)igne
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: needle
Russian meaning: игла
Old Turkic: jiŋne (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jigne (MK)
Turkish: ijne
Tatar: inä
Middle Turkic: igne (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ignä
Uighur: ignä, jiŋnä, jignä
Sary-Yughur: jiŋne
Azerbaidzhan: ijnä
Turkmen: igne, iŋne
Khakassian: iŋe
Shor: ingä
Oyrat: ijne
Halaj: īnä ( < Az.)
Yakut: inne, ińe
Dolgan: iŋne, ińe, inne
Tuva: ine
Kirghiz: ijne
Kazakh: ĭjna
Noghai: ijne
Bashkir: ĭnä
Balkar: ijne
Gagauz: īnä
Karaim: ijne
Karakalpak: ijne
Kumyk: ine
Comments: EDT 110, VEWT 169, ЭСТЯ 1, 367-369, Лексика 106.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ǯeɣü-wün
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: needle
Russian meaning: игла
Written Mongolian: ǯegün (L 1044: ǯegüü, ǯeü, ǯegün)
Middle Mongolian: ǯou'un (HY 20), ǯe'u (SH), ǯūn (IM)
Khalkha: ʒǖn
Buriat: zǖ(n)
Kalmuck: zǖn
Ordos: ǯǖ
Dongxian: ǯun
Baoan: ǯuŋ
Dagur: ǯū, (Тод. Даг. 143) ǯeu
Shary-Yoghur: ǯǖn
Monguor: ʒ́ū (SM 94), ǯū
Mogol: ǯöwn (Ramstedt 1906)
Comments: KW 485, MGCD 465.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *dēŋgu
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 cross-bow 2 arrow
Russian meaning: 1 самострел 2 стрела
Ulcha: dēŋgure 1
Orok: dēŋgure 1
Nanai: dēŋgure 1
Oroch: deŋgu 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 234.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *(d)inka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: thorn, bur
Russian meaning: шип
Tokyo: igá
Kyoto: ìgâ
Kagoshima: íga
Comments: JLTT 421. The word is not attested in OJ, and the modern accentuation is controversial: Tokyo and Kagoshima point to *(d)ínkà, while Kyoto rather to *(d)ìnkâ.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʒwVgV
Meaning: thorn
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *steg- (+ *(s)teg- 1060?)
Altaic: [*ǯegi]
Kartvelian: *ʒig- (cf. also *ʒ́egw- 1271)
References: ND 2707 *ʒ́igU 'thorn' (w/o IE).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *steg-
Meaning: to stab, to pierce
Slavic: *stegtī, *stegǭ; *stegātī
Germanic: *stik-i- c., *stak-i- c., *stik-a- vb., *stak-l=, *staik-ia- vb., etc.
Russ. meaning: вонзать острие, прокалывать
References: WP II 612 f (different in Pok.)
Comments: Germanic has hopelessly confused the roots *stek- and *stīk-.
piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: стега́ть,
Near etymology: также "хлебать, жадно пить", "бежать" (ср. в семантическом отношении стеба́ть), сврш. застегну́ть, застёжка, укр. застíжка -- то же, цслав. остегнѫти "застегнуть, налагать оковы", остежь "chlamys", остегъ "одежда", русск.-цслав. застога "застежка", чеш. přistehnouti "пристегнуть", польск. śсiеg "стежок"; см. Мi. ЕW 320 (где также содержатся не относящиеся сюда данные).
Further etymology: Праслав. *steg-, *stog- родственно гот. stakins вин. п. мн. ч. στίγματα, д.-в.-н. stahhula м. "жало, шип", д.-в.-н. stесhеn "колоть", ср.-в.-н. stekken "втыкать"; см. Шаде, Wb. 868; Траутман, ВSW 285; Преобр. II, 379. Менее убедительно сравнение с лит. stìgti, stingù "торчать, оставаться на месте", лтш. stigt "провалиться", др.-инд. tḗjatē "он остр, острит", tḗjas ср. р. "острота, лезвие", tigmás "острый", авест. tiɣri- "стрела" (сюда же название реки Тигр -- греч. Τίγρις), д.-в.-н. stih "укол", лат. īnstīgō, -ārе "жалить, наносить уколы, подстрекать", греч. στίγμα "наколотая отметка; клеймо; пятно; точка", στίζω "колю, татуирую", στικτός "исколотый; пятнистый" (Цупица, GG. 168; Торп 490; Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 116; Грюненталь, ИОРЯС 18, 4, 136; Ильинский, РФВ 65, 219, последний относит сюда также зга).
Pages: 3,751
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *stiki-z, *staki-z, *stikan-, *stakl=, *staikian-, etc.
Meaning: pointed stick
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *stik-s m. (i) `point'; *stak-s m.? (i) `mark'; { stikls 'Becher, Kelch' }
Old Norse: { stikil-l 'Spitze eines Trinkhorn' }
Old English: stice `Stich, Stachel, Seitenstechen; stechendes Gefühl', stician `stechen; (intr.) stecken bleiben, festhalten'; sticel 'Stachel'; sticol 'steil, stechend'
Middle English: sticken `nähen'
English: stitch
Old Frisian: steka `steken'
Old Saxon: stekan (stak) `festheften, festhaften'; stiki; stekul 'rauh, steinig'
Middle Dutch: stēken `steken, stoten'; sticken; stēke; ; stekele 'stachlige Pflanze'
Dutch: steken; zuidnl. stekken `met een scherp voodwerp steken, prikken'; stikken; steek; stekel 'Stachel'
Middle Low German: steke `Stich, Stachel, Seitenstechen', sticken 'herrichten, Muster annähen, Pfeile schäften' { `stechen, feststecken, sticken, ansticken, anzünden, ersticken' }, stecken; stēk(e)
Old High German: stih (9.Jh.) `Stich, Punkt'; gisticken `befestigen, herrichten' (8.Jh.), { ir-sticken `ersticken' }, { steckēn `festritzen' }; steckōn (8.Jh.); stehhan (um 800) `stechen', stecken `anheften, annageln' (9.Jh.); stackila (10.Jh.), stackulla (8.Jh.); { stahhula `Stachel'; stehho `Stecken' }; stehhōn 'anstacheln, erstechen' (8.Jh.); stahhil (9.Jh.); stihhila (um 1100), stihhil 'Stachel, Spitze, Pfahl' (Hs. 12.Jh.); stehhal 'Becher' (9.Jh.); hornstehhal 'mit den Hörnern stossend' (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: stich st. m. 'Stich; Knoten, Punkt, Augenblick, abschüssige Stelle, steile Anhöhe'; md. sticken wk. 'erhabene Muster einnähen, gestalten, fälteln, mit (Zaun)pfählen versehen'; stɛcken, stɛchen wk. 'einstechend befestigen'; stecken 'eingestochen festhaften, sich befinden'; stëchen st. 'stechen; turnieren'; stachel; stichel st. m. 'Stachel', stickel st. m. 'spitzer Pfahl; Spitze, Stimulus'; stëchel, stichel, stickel 'stechend, spitzig, jäh, steil'
German: Stachel m., Stichel m., Stich m.; (wo) stecken; stechen (stach), stecken (tr.), sticken; stickel (bis ins 17.Jh.) 'steil ansteigend, hoch'
Comments: The roots *stek- and *stīk- are hopelessly confused here.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-mengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-notes,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ʒig-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: вид растения
English meaning: a k. of plant
Georgian: (Gur., Imer.) ʒigurai 'a k. of grass', (Imer.) ʒig-va 'thorny bushes'
Megrel: ʒig-ir-
Megrel meaning (Rus.): колючка
Megrel meaning (Eng.): thorn
Notes and references: EWK 479-480.
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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVKV
Meaning : thorn
Eurasiatic : *ʒ́wVgV
Afroasiatic : *zVḳw- 'sharp point' (Sem., Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : *šíḳV ?
Reference : ND 2707.
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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *šíḳV
Meaning: barberry, sweetbrier
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *š_iḳV / *ḳ_išV ( ~ ś)
Burushaski: *iśkī́n
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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *š_iḳV / *ḳ_išV ( ~ ś)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sweetbrier
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳiš:u
Proto-Lezghian: *š:iḳ-Vj / *š:iḳ-Vla
Notes: An And-Lezg. isogloss (involving a metathesis, but nevertheless rather reliable). In PA we have weak *ḳ instead of *ḳ: according to a local rule (ḳ: in Av.-And. languages does not occur before fricatives and affricates, tending in this position to pass tenseness to the next consonant).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ḳiš:u
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sweetbrier
Chamalal: č̣is:
Tindi: ḳ́eš:u
Bagvalal: ḳ́eš:ʷ
Godoberi: ḳiš:u
Comments: Cf. also Cham. Gig. č̣is:i.
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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *š:iḳ-Vj / *š:iḳ-Vla
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sweetbrier
Lezghian: žiḳi
Tabasaran: šḳi (lit.)
Rutul: ḳašḳal-bɨr
Tsakhur: ḳašḳale
Comment: Cf. also Lezg. Akht., Khl. šḳi. The Rut. form (which is from the Khniukh dialect) and the Tsakh. form are partially reduplicated, and have the suffix *-Vla (as opposed to *-Vj in the Lezg.-Tab. area). An irregular modification of the same stem is possibly Ag. Bursh. ḳuč̣ḳuč̣aj 'sweetbrier'.
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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *iśkī́n
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: a k. of barberry
Hunza: iśkī́n
Nagar: iśkī́n
Comments: Sh. iśkī́n
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