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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯álV
Meaning: a k. of thorny plant
Russian meaning: вид колючего растения
Turkic: *č(i)alɨ-
Mongolian: *čulkir
Tungus-Manchu: *čil-
Japanese: *tára
Comments: The root denotes a wild plant, probably thorny; the vocalic reconstruction is not quite certain. In TM one would expect a *čial-, but the diphthong may have been distorted in a long form with initial affricate; Mong. *čulukir may similarly represent a later assimilation < *čalu-kir. In that case one could reconstruct *č`i̯ála.

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *č(i)alɨ-(gan)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 bush, shrub 2 nettle 3 thorn
Russian meaning: 1 куст 2 крапива 3 колючка
Turkish: čalɨ 1
Middle Turkic: čalaɣan 2 (R - Vam.)
Uzbek: čalɔw 'ковыль волосистый'
Azerbaidzhan: čalɨ 1
Turkmen: čalɨ 'солянка кустарниковая'
Shor: šalɣɨn, (R) šalɣanaq 2
Oyrat: čalqančaq 2
Halaj: čalu 'eine Pflanze zum Verbrennen'
Kirghiz: čalqan 2
Gagauz: čalɨ 'blackthorn; thorn'
Comments: VEWT 97, Лексика 110. Clauson (EDT 420) relates here OT (МК) čalqan 'spread of an injury' which is not quite probable (rather a derivative from the polysemic čal-).

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čulkir
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of plant
Russian meaning: кумарчик гобийский
Written Mongolian: čulkir (МХТТТ)
Khalkha: culxir

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čil-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 growth, bushes 2 a k. of tree with red bark
Russian meaning: 1 растительность, кусты 2 вид дерева (краснокорый лозняк)
Even: čịldụqa 1
Literary Manchu: čolχo mō 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 393, 405.

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tára
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a k. of plant, Aralia manchurica (japonica)
Russian meaning: вид растения, аралия
Old Japanese: tara
Middle Japanese: tára
Tokyo: tara(noki)
Comments: JLTT 542.

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