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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`ā́jV ( ~ -ē-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, sandbar
Russian meaning: песок
Turkic: *čāj
Mongolian: *čeɣel
Comments: A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Not quite reliable because of scarce attestation in Turkic (the form may actually have an Iranian origin).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čāj
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 small river 2 sand, pebbles 3 flood, freshet 4 shallow
Russian meaning: 1 речка 2 песок, галька 3 половодье, наводнение 4 мелководный
Turkish: čaj 1
Middle Turkic: čaj 1, čeke 2
Azerbaidzhan: čaj 1
Turkmen: čāj 1, čǟge 2
Shor: šajɨq 3
Oyrat: čaj-r-am 4
Yakut: čaj 2 (?)
Bashkir: saj 'a river weed' (?)
Balkar: čaj (in the hydronym qaračaj)
Comments: The word is poorly attested (almost only in some modern Oghuz languages and Chag., see VEWT 95, Лексика 94; the Yakut parallel is phonetically unclear - borrowed from Tuva or Altai?). Turk. *čāj-ka (Turkm. čǟge, Chag. čeke) > Kalm. cekɛ̄ (KW 426). The forms (despite semantic difference) may have an Iranian origin: Pers. (Pekhl.) čāh 'well, spring' < *čāɵa > Av. čāta, Kurd. čāl, Bel. čāt, Osset. čad 'lake', Wakhi čot 'pond' (Horn 97, Аб. 1, 285, 329, Расторгуева 1990, 191, ЭСВЯ 130); a certain Persian loan is Khal. čā 'Brunnen, Grube'. Osset. č'aj 'well' is regarded by Abaev as a borrowing from Pers. through Georgian (č̣a 'well'). The relationship to the verbal stem čāj- 'to swill' (ОСНЯ 3, 59-60) ( < 'wash water off from the surface'?) is yet to be determined.
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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čeɣel
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 deep (water) 2 spring, place with springs 3 small pool
Russian meaning: 1 глубокая (вода) 2 источник, место с родниками 3 пруд, лужа
Written Mongolian: čegel 2 (L 169)
Middle Mongolian: če'el (SH) 1
Khalkha: cēl 2
Buriat: sēl 1
Kalmuck: cēl 3
Dagur: čēle (Тод. Даг. 181)
Comments: KW 428.
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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *čajV ( ~ *č`-)
Meaning: stone, sand
Indo-European: *stoi̯ǝ-
Altaic: *č`ā́jV ( ~ -ē-)
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *stAy-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: stone
Old Greek: stī́ǟ f., stī̂o-n n. `Steinchen, Kiesel'
Slavic: *stēnā́
Germanic: *stai-n-a- m.
Russ. meaning: камень
References: WP II 610 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: стена́,
Near etymology: укр. стiна́, др.-русск. стѣна, ст.-слав. стѣна τεῖχος, κρημνός (Супр.), болг. стена́, сербохорв. стиjѐна "скала, камень", вин. ед. сти̏jену, словен. stẹ́na, чеш. stěnа "стена", слвц. stena, польск. śсiаnа, в.-луж., н.-луж. sćěna.
Further etymology: Родственно гот. stains "камень", др.-исл. steinn -- то же, далее сравнивают с греч. στία, στῖον "кремень", др.-инд. stуā́уаtē "затвердевает"; см. Мейе, Ét. 446; В. Шульце, KZ 27, 427; Хольтхаузен, Awn. Wb. 280; Траутман, ВSW 281; Клюге-Гётце 590. Заимствование из герм. недоказуемо, вопреки Шрадеру--Нерингу (2, 50), Хирту (РВВ 23, 336), Соболевскому (AfslPh 33, 480; ЖМНП, 1911, май, стр. 165), Зеленину (ЖСт. 22, 235); см. Кипарский 85 и сл.; Брюкнер 529; ZfslPh 4, 217. Сближение последнего с греч. σκηνή "палатка" сомнительно. То же можно сказать о его сравнении с лит. siênа "стена" (аналогично Калима, Festschr. Suolahti 552).
Trubachev's comments: [См. еще Мошинский, Zasiąg, стр. 107. -- Т.]
Pages: 3,754
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *staina-z
Meaning: stone
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: stain-s m. (a) `stone'
Old Norse: stein-n m. `Stein, Edelstein, Steinhaus; Farbe', Run. Norw acc. sg. staina
Norwegian: stein
Old Swedish: Run. nom. pl. stAinAR
Swedish: sten
Danish: sten
Old English: stān m.
English: stone
Old Frisian: stēn m.
Old Saxon: stēn m.
Middle Dutch: steen m.
Dutch: steen m.
Old Franconian: stein m.
Old High German: stein (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: stein st. m. 'fels; hohler stein, felshöhle; felsen-, bergschloss, feste; stein'
German: Stein m.
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