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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`àro
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to cut off, tear off
Russian meaning: отрезать, отрывать
Turkic: *čar
Tungus-Manchu: *čari-
Korean: *čărɨ-
Japanese: *tàt-
Comments: Martin 229, АПиПЯЯ 76, ОСНЯ 1, 209. The Japanese form may be alternatively derived from PA *t`at`V q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čar
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 whetstone 2 sickle 3 to whet
Russian meaning: 1 точильный камень 2 серп 3 точить
Tatar: čar 1, 'mill stone', čar-la- 3
Middle Turkic: čar-la- 3 (Pav. C.)
Shor: šar 1
Oyrat: čar 1
Chuvash: śorla 2
Yakut: sardaɣa, sardāna 'short heavy arrow with a broad head' (Пек.)
Kazakh: šar 1
Noghai: šar 1
Bashkir: sar 1
Karakalpak: šar 1
Salar: čār- 'to cut, stick in' (ССЯ: Udzh.)
Kumyk: čar 1, 'spool'
Comments: VEWT 99-100, Егоров 221, Федотов 2, 143 (borrowing < FU *śorva 'horn' is hardly credible). Bulg. > Hung. sarló 'sickle', see Gombocz 1912, MNyTESz 3, 494-495. The root is certainly genuine, although some influence of the Iranian čarɨk, čarx 'wheel' could have existed.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čari-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to tear
Russian meaning: рвать
Evenki: čari-
Comments: ТМС 2, 385. Attested only in Evk., but with probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čărɨ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cut off, chop off
Russian meaning: отрезать, отрубать
Modern Korean: čarɨ-
Middle Korean: čărɨ-
Comments: Nam 413, KED 1376.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tàt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cut, cut off
Russian meaning: резать, отрезать
Old Japanese: tat-
Middle Japanese: tàt-
Tokyo: tát-
Kyoto: tàt-
Kagoshima: tàt-
Comments: JLTT 766.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *CarV
Meaning: cut, sharp
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *(s)ker-
Altaic: *č`àro
Uralic: *ćärke- ? (cf. also *šurV 'cut, divide', *šera )
Kartvelian: *č̣ar- / č̣r- (also č̣ur- 'cut, castrate' 311)
Dravidian: *car- 'tear, split' (DED 155)
Comments: But for IE cf. also PA *č`ire (322) or ObU *ŝäɣ/krV 'chop, cut' (see ND 2186 *ŝägRV 'cut, pierce': Ur., IE + Arab.); for Ural. cf. Alt. *zi̯àre (2575) and Georg. zergn- 'trample down' (see ND 2684 *[źä]rga; cf. also 2702 *ẑärXV [Alt. + Sem.]).
References: ND 431 *č̣[a]rV 'to cut' (without IE and Ur.); 435 *č̣[ü]rV 'flintstone, knife' (with incorrect Alt.)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(s)kerǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to cut
Hittite: iskar- (II) 'stechen; hineinstecken' (Tischler 399ff); karš-, karšija- 'abschneiden' (517 ff)
Tokharian: A kärṣt-, B kärst- (PT *kärst-) 'cut off' (Adams 168-169)
Old Indian: kr̥ṇāti, kr̥ṇoti `to hurt, injure, kill', ptc. kīrṇa-
Armenian: khorem `ich kratze', kherem `kratze, schabe'
Old Greek: kéi̯rō, aor. kẹ̄̂rai̯, kérsai̯, ps. ekárēn, pf. kékarmai̯, av. kartó- `abschneiden; scheren; abästen, -mähen, -weiden, aufzehren'; kérma `abgeschnittenes Stück, bes. kleines Geldstück, Kleingeld, Scheidemünze', kọ̄rǟ́ `Schur des Haares, des Bartes, der Wolle'
Baltic: *skir̂- vb. tr. (1), *skir̃-t-a- c.
Germanic: *skir-a- vb., *skar-jan- m., n., *skar-a- m., *skar-ō f., *skar-jōn- f.; *skar-ɵ=, *skur-[ɵ]=, *skur=, *skēr-ia- n., *skēr-iōn- f.; *skōr-ō(n-) f., etc.
Russ. meaning: резать
References: WP II 573 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *skir̂- vb. tr. (1), *skir̃-t-a- c.
Meaning: divide
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: skìrti (skìria, skī́rē) 'trennen, teilen, scheiden, unterscheiden, usw.'; skir̃ta-s 'Unterschied'
Lettish: šk̨ir̃t (šk̨ir̨u, šk̨ĩr̨u) 'scheiden, trennen, sondern, teilen'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *skiran- vb., *skarjan (m., n.), *skara-z, *skarō, *skarjōn; *skarɵ=, *skur[ɵ]=, *skur=, *skēria-n, *skēriōn; *skōrō(n) etc.
Meaning: cut, shear
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: skera st. `schneiden, schlachten'; skarδ-r `schartig, beschädigt, verstümmelt'; skarδ n. `Scharte, Kluft; Mangel'; skor f. `Einschnitt; Spalte; Abteilung, Haufe; 400 Stück'; skurδ-r m. `Schnitt, Schlachtung; Riss, Furche'; pl. skǟri n. `Schere, Messer'; skȫra f. `Streit'; skɔr f. `Füge, Rand; Steg, Bank'
Norwegian: skjera vb.; skere `Pflugschar'; skard; skor; skurd `Kornernte'; dial. skar `Fuge'; skjära f., skjäre m.
Swedish: skära vb.; skörd; dial. skar `Schemel'; dial. skäre
Old Danish: skiäre vb.; skurd, skürd
Danish: skɔr
Old English: sceran, scieran `scheren, abschneiden'; scear m. `Pflugschar'; scēar, pl. sceara f. `schaar'; sceard `zerhauen, schartig'; sceard n. `schaarde, spleet, scherf'; scēarra `Schere'
English: shear, shard, shears, (plough)share
Old Frisian: skera `scheren, maaien'; skerd n. `snee, stuk'; skerd `gespleten, met kepen'; skēre f. `schaar, tang', sker n., skere f.? `ploegschaar'
Old Saxon: skeran `scheren'; sker-sahs `Schermesser'; skard `zerhauen, verwundet'; skāra f. `Schere'
Middle Dutch: schēren st. `schaven, schrappen, scheren'; scaert, scart m. `schaard, breuk, bres, opening, uitgebroken stuk, scherf'; scāre, scēre `schaar, nijptang, scheermes'
Dutch: scheren; schaarde, schaard, schaar f. `kerf in het scherp van wapen of werktuig'; schaar f. 'Schere'; ploegschaar
Middle Low German: schore `Einschnitt, Kerbe, Riss'; schārt {n.} `Riss, Spalte, Öffnung, Scherbe'; schāre, schār f., n. `ploegschaar'; schēre 'Schere'
Low German: schör, schār `zerbrechhlich, spröde'
Old High German: sceran (8.Jh.) `scheren, abschneiden'; scar m., scaro m., { scara f. } (Hs. 12. Jh.) `Pflugschar'; lidu-scart `verstümmelt' (9.Jh.);pl. scāri (9.Jh.), scāra (10.Jh.) 'Schere, Zange'
Middle High German: schart 'zerhauen, schartig, verletzt, verwundet', schart(e) f. `durch Schneiden, Hauen oder Bruch hervorgebrachte Vertiefung oder Öffnung, ausgebrochenes oder ausgehauenes Stück'; schuor st. f. `das Abscheren', schuor st. m. 'Schererei, Not, Plage'; schǟr(e) st. f. `Schere, Messel; Schwert, Sichel'; schar st. f. {m., n.} `schneidendes Eisen, Pflugschar'; schërn st. '(ab)schneiden, scheren, durch Scheren der Tonsur zum Mönch bestimmen, abernten, belästigen, quälen, abteilen, ordnen'
German: scheren, Schar f., dial. n. 'Pflugeisen', Scharte f., Schere f.; Schur f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-lg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 59
Proto: *ćärke-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to break; to ache
German meaning: brechen (intr., tr.) ~ -> Schmerzen haben, weh tun
Finnish: särke- 'zerbrechen, zerschlagen; schmerzen, weh tun' ( > Est. dial. särge- 'zerschlagen, spalten', Saam. N sär'gâ- -ǟrg- 'ache, be painful', särky- 'zerbrechen, bersten'; Veps. särge-, śärǵe- 'zerbrechen, spalten; schmerzen, weh tun')
Saam (Lapp): čērgiidi- (N) 'go to sleep (of limbs);, tjär'ka (U) 'scharfes Prickeln in eingeschlafenen Gliedern', tjier'kē- ~ tjär'kē- 'zuschneiden, abrunden (das Loch im Schuh)'. čä'rěka- ~ čērhka- (Pi.) 'starr, gefühllos werden', t́š́ė̆ä̆r̄Ḡα- (Ko. P) 'schmerzen (von der Wunde)'
Mari (Cheremis): šärɣe- (W), šerɣe- (O) 'öffnen, zerstreuen', šerɣalta- (O) 'ein Sträußchen auseinander teilen; zerreißen' (?)
Khanty (Ostyak): t́erǝɣ- (Trj.), śarĭj- (Ni.), śarĭ- (Kaz.) 'schmerzen, weh tun', t́ȧrǝj- (Ko.)
Mansi (Vogul): ćärk- (TJ), śɔ̄̈rɣ- (KU), śarr- (P), śārɣ- (So.) 'bedauern', śāriɣ- (So.), śārɣ- (N) 'weh tun'
Hungarian: sér- (altung., dial.) 'Schmerzen haben, weh tun', sér (veralt.) 'Wunde' (?), sért- 'verletzen; beleidigen, kränken'
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Mari is somewhat doubtful (first of all semantics!).
References: Budenz MUSz 184, 233; Donn. VglWb 667; Bár.SzófSz; SKES; КЭСКЯ; MSzFgrE; TESz
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-reshet,uralet-lit,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *č̣ar- / č̣r-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: резать
English meaning: to cut
Georgian: č̣ar-, č̣er-, č̣r-
Megrel: č̣ḳir-, č̣ḳǝr-
Svan: ? lā-r-e
Svan meaning (Rus.): покос
Svan meaning (Eng.): hay-time
Laz: č̣ḳor-, č̣ḳir-
Laz meaning (Rus.): резать, косить
Laz meaning (Eng.): to cut, scythe
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 255, EWK 536-537. Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 209) возводит к ностр. *č̣ArV 'резать', сравнивая с драв. *car- 'разрывать, расщеплять', а также (с вопросом) с ПИЕ *(s)ker- "резать" и эвенк. čari- 'рвать' (ср. еще яп. *tat- "резать", с возможной реконструкцией алт. *č`ara). См. также Бомхард 1996, 159 (который сравнивает картв. и драв. формы, привлекая еще ф.-уг. *ćärke 'расщеплять').
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVRV
Meaning : to cut, sharp
Eurasiatic : *CarV
Afroasiatic : *c̣ir- (also *č̣ur-)
Sino-Caucasian : *c̣ǝ̆wră
Reference : ND 431 (with somewhat different SH), 435 (probably more than one root; cf. also ST *ćVr(H) 'hoe, pick-axe').
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *c̣ir-
Meaning: cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ṣVr- 'cut, split'
Western Chadic: *c̣ar- 'lance, cut'
East Chadic: *syar- 'cut in strips'
Low East Cushitic: *c̣ir- 'cut'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-ech,afaset-lec,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 546
Proto-Semitic: *ṣVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut, split' 1, 'separate' 2
Syrian Aramaic: ṣry 1
Arabic: ṣwr 1
Soqotri: ṣer 2
Notes: Various derivatives based on the original *ṣVr- (*ṣVwVr-, *ṣVrVy-)
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-syr,semet-ara,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *c̣ar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'lance, cut'
Hausa: c̣árà
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *tinHil-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'pot'
Notes: vowel assim.
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *syar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut in strips'
Dangla: sèrè [Fd]
Migama: sérró [JMig]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-mig,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *c̣ir-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
Oromo (Galla): č̣ira
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-oro,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *c̣ɨ̆́wră
Meaning: sharp, sharp instrument
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *c̣ǝ̆wrē ( ~ c̣_-, -a)
Sino-Tibetan: *cŏr / *chŏr
Burushaski: *-́sir-
Basque: *sor̄oc
Comments and references : Cf. also Bsq *o=r̄ac 'needle, pin, hook'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣ǝ̆wrē ( ~ -a)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: pointed stick
Proto-Nakh: *c̣ur ( ~ -ū-)
Proto-Tsezian: *r[e]c̣u ( ~ l-)
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣ura ( / *ruc̣a)
Proto-West Caucasian: *c̣ʷǝ
Notes: Except for metatheses in PTs and (occasionally) in PL, correspondences are regular, and the etymology seems reliable. Abdokov (1983, 133) compares the WC forms with another EC root (see *c̣wɨ̄ɫɦV 'stick'), which seems less convincing both for phonetic and semantic reasons.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *c̣ur ( ~ -ū-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: arrow
Batsbi: c̣ur
Comments: Isolated in Bacb., but having probable external parallels.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *r[e]c̣u ( ~ l-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 wedge 2 beam
Tsezi: ric̣u 1
Ginukh: ric̣u 1
Khvarshi: rac̣u-c̣an (Radzhibov)
Inkhokvari: rac̣u-c̣an 2
Comments: PTsKh *R[e]c̣u; the second part of the Khvarsh. and Inkh. compound is not quite clear.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣ura ( / *ruc̣a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 vertical lock; bracelet 2 woman's adorned belt
Tabasaran: c̣ur 1
Tsakhur: c̣ura 2
Comment: The original meaning is probably "wedge serving as a lock" (with a secondary development > "bracelet, adorned belt"). 3d class in Tsakh. The Tab. Kand. dialect has actually two words: c̣ur 'vertical door-lock; bracelet; loop of the lock' and ruc̣ 'lock with a hook'. Since there are no reasons to suppose two originally different roots, one of these two words is obviously a result of interdialectal borrowing.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-cak,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *c̣ʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 spit, thick needle 2 bolt; plug, spigot
Abkhaz: a-č̣̌ǝ́ 1
Abaza: č̣ʷǝ 2
Comments: PAT *c̣ʷǝ. Abdokov (1983, 133) compares also Kab. janc̣ 'long pole, stick' (with possibly the same first component as in jan-ṭǝr 'log'), which is somewhat dubious (at any rate, we would expect -ṣʷ in Kab., and the reason for delabialisation is not clear).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *cŏr / *chŏr
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: chisel, sharp point
Chinese: *cor chisel, sharp point.
Tibetan: zor sickle, sor, gsor gimlet; a sort of trephine.
Kachin: (H) son, mǝson a bamboo spike.
Comments: Mikir tśor cut, chop, Bahing tśwar cut by one stroke. Ben. 56.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: juān
Preclassic Old Chinese: cor
Classic Old Chinese: con
Western Han Chinese: con
Eastern Han Chinese: cjon
Early Postclassic Chinese: cjon
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cjon
Late Postclassic Chinese: cjon
Middle Chinese: cjwen
English meaning : chisel, sharp point [LZ]
Russian meaning[s]: 1) вырезать, гравировать; 2) снимать с должности; понижать в должности; 3) проступок, вина
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 167
Four-angle index: 4043
Karlgren code: 0235 c
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́sir-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: to sharpen, whet
Hunza: -́sir-
Nagar: -́sir-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *sor̄oc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 whetted, sharpened 2 shrewd, sly 3 severe, exacting
Bizkaian: zorrotz 1, 2
Gipuzkoan: zorrotz 1, 2
High Navarrese: zorrotz 1, 2
Low Navarrese: zorrotz 1, 3
Lapurdian: zorrotz 1, 3
Zuberoan: zorrotz 1, 2, 3
Roncalese: zorrotz 1
Comments: Cf. *o=r̄ac 'needle, pin', another configuration of the same root.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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