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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *čŭ̀ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to stand
Russian meaning: стоять
Turkic: *dur-
Tungus-Manchu: *ǯur-
Korean: *čàrí
Japanese: *tàt-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 101, 277. Korean has a "verbal" low tone, showing that the noun is a deverbative (although the original verb is not attested).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *dur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stand
Russian meaning: стоять
Old Turkic: tur- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tur- (MK, KB)
Turkish: dur-
Tatar: tor-
Middle Turkic: tur- (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: tur-
Uighur: tur-
Sary-Yughur: dur-
Azerbaidzhan: dur-
Turkmen: dur-
Khakassian: tur-
Shor: tur-
Oyrat: tur-
Halaj: tur-
Chuvash: tъʷr-
Yakut: tur-
Dolgan: tur-
Tuva: tur-
Tofalar: dur-
Kirghiz: tur-
Kazakh: tu_r-
Noghai: tur-
Bashkir: tor-
Balkar: tur-
Gagauz: dur-
Karaim: tur-
Karakalpak: tur-
Salar: dɨr-
Kumyk: tur-
Comments: VEWT 500, EDT 529-530, ЭСТЯ 3, 296-301, Stachowski 232. Turk. > WMong. toru- 'get smwh., arrive smwh.' (KW 402).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ǯur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stand still
Russian meaning: стоять (спокойно, молча)
Even: ǯụr-ụl-
Comments: ТМС 1, 278. Attested only in Evn., but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čàrí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: seat; place, location
Russian meaning: сиденье; место, расположение
Modern Korean: čari
Middle Korean: čàrí
Comments: Liu 642, KED 1377.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tàt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to stand
Russian meaning: стоять
Old Japanese: tat-
Middle Japanese: tàt-
Tokyo: tát-
Kyoto: tàt-
Kagoshima: tàt-
Nase: tač-
Shuri: tač-
Comments: JLTT 765.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *čwVrV
Meaning: stand
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *čŭ̀ra
Kartvelian: Georg. čer-, ga-čer- 'make stop'
References: ND 405 *čUr[i] 'stand' (+ very dubious Arab. and WChad. forms; cf. also SC *=Vmć̣_V(r) 'stand'???).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVRV
Meaning : to stand
Eurasiatic : *čwVrV
Afroasiatic : *c̣Vr- stand (Sem., Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : *=Vmć̣_V(r) stand, stay
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=V́mć̣V(r)
Meaning: to stand, stay (?)
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=Vmć̣_Vr
Sino-Tibetan: *ćhiǝ̄H ( ~ ʒ́h-)
Basque: *e=sar̄i
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=Vmc̣_́Vr
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to stand, stand up
Proto-Nakh: *-ātt-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=ič̣:- /*ħi(r)č̣:-
Proto-Tsezian: *=arč- / *=eč-
Proto-Lak: =iza-n
Proto-Dargwa: *=ic:Vr-/=ilc:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔec:ʷär-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The root vowel is hard to reconstruct (because of complicated and rather unclear Ablaut patterns). The medial nasal resonant has caused the change *-mć̣- > *-tt- in PN and the deglottalisation in Lak., PL and PD; its labial character can be reconstructed on basis of the PL labialisation (although the resonant itself was regularly dropped).

    [The root is used in several languages in a compound meaning 'stirrup', lit. 'foot'+'stand (caus.)' or '(foot)-prop'+'stand', i.e. 'a place for putting feet on'. Cf. Av. ħoṭo-č̣:el (Chad. with assimilation and distortion ħonƛ̣lóč̣), Lak. č:armuzi < *č:an-b-uzi, Darg. Chir. ṭuIr-birc:an, Arch. moʎ:ol-orc:i. The Avar word, sometimes with severe distortions, was borrowed into many EC languages: Akhv. ħoṭoč̣:a, Cham., Inkh., Tsez., Gin. ħoṭoč̣el, Cham. Gig. ħeṭeč̣ (cf. an Avar dialectal variant ħeṭeč̣:el), Gunz. ħonṭoč̣al, Bezht. Tlad. haƛso, Khosh. hacijo.]

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *-ātt-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stand
Chechen: latt-
Ingush: latt-
Batsbi: latt-
Comments: For long *-ā- cf. Chech. pres. lätta, Ing. pret. lättad. The root reveals a complicated Ablaut pattern:

    a) PN *-itt- > Chech. h-itt- to stand upon , ʁ-itt- to stand up (dur.);

    b) PN *-ott- > Chech. h-ott- to stand upon, ʁ-ott- to stand up (term.), Ing. ott- to become, Bacb. ott- to stand up, stop;

    c) PN *-ātt- > Chech., Ing., Bacb. latt- to stand.

nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=ič̣:- /*ħi(r)č̣:-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to stand 2 to stand up
Avar: č̣:e- 1
Chadakolob: c̣(Vl)- 1
Andian language: =ič̣:- 2
Akhvakh: herč̣:- (Tseg.)2
Chamalal: =iṣ- 1
Tindi: heč:- 2
Karata: herč̣:- 2
Godoberi: hič:- 2
Comments: PA has variants *=ič̣:- 'to stand' (reflected in Cham. =iṣ-) and *ħi(r)č̣:- 'to stand up' (reflected elsewhere, cf. also Kar. Anch. heč̣:-, God. Zib. hirč:-, Cham. heṣ-, Gig. hinc̣- - with -n- under influence of hinz- 'to rise'), where *ħ- is possibly a preverb. The Av. form č̣:e- reflects an old Ablaut variant with dropping of initial vowel.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=arč- / *=eč-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to stand 2 to stay, to be situated 3 to become, to be
Tsezi: =ič- 3
Ginukh: =ič- 3
Khvarshi: =eč- 3
Inkhokvari: =eč- 3
Bezhta: =ečenoc̣- 1, =eč- 2
Gunzib: =arč- 1, =eč- 2
Comments: PTsKh *=eč-. Ablaut variants *=eč- and *=arč- ( < *-ačr-) are present in PGB. Cf. also Gunz. =eče-r-da 'straight, vertical'; Bezht. Tlad. =eč-el- 'to let, leave'.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =iza-n
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to stand up; to plant (smth.)
Lak form: =iza-n
Comments: G. pr. =i=zu-n. With Ablaut cf. also haz-s:a 'high, tall', haz dan 'to lift'.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=ic:Vr-/=ilc:-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to stand
Akusha: ṭaš-ilz-
Chiragh: ka=arc:-/=urc:-
Comments: Cf. also Ur. =iz(r)-/=ilz- 'to stand, stand up', Chir. he=ic:- / he=irc:- 'to stand up'. The verb reflects several old Ablaut grades.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔec:ʷär-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to stand 2 to stand up
Lezghian: aq:ʷ-az- 1
Tabasaran: ʁ-uz- 2
Agul: ʁ-uz- 1
Rutul: l-u=zʷa- 1
Tsakhur: ul'-o=zar- 1
Kryz: q:-u=zur- 2
Budukh: q:-urzǝr 2
Archi: o=c:i- 1
Udi: ajze-sun 2
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Bursh. aʕ-za- 'to stand', Tsakh. o=zar- 'to become tired' (for the semantics cf. Russ. 'стоять' - 'уставать'). In Tab. there exist two synonymous variants: ʁ-uz-uz (Düb. uʒ-us) and ʁ-ud-už̌-uz (Düb. q:-uǯ̌-us) 'stand up', reflecting probably proto-Tabasaran variants *ʔoc:V- (with secondary delabialisation) and *ʔec:ʷV- (preserving the labialisation). Note the common prefixation (*q:-) in Lezg., Tab., Ag., Kryz. and Bud.

    See Бокарев 1961, 65; Лексика 1971, 243; Гигинейшвили 1977, 84.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ćhiǝ̄H ( ~ ʒ́h-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: be at, sit, stay
Chinese: *ʒ́hǝ̄ʔ be at, in, on.
Tibetan: gźes (resp.) to sit, stay, wait.
Comments: ? Cf. Kulung chu-ma 'be, has to'; Karen *šV, Tujia cu-cu, Mao Naga ala-cho, Sichuan *Chǝ 'stand'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zài
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʒ́hǝ̄ʔ
Classic Old Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́
Western Han Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒhǝ̄́j
Middle Chinese: ʒʌ́j
English meaning : be in, at, etc.; to exist; ('be into smth.' =) to examine
Russian meaning[s]: 1) находиться (проживать) в...; 2) быть в живых; 3) входить в компетенцию; зависеть от...; решаться (кем-л.); 4) служебный глагол обстоятельства места и времени; 5) входит в сочетания с наречиями, указывающими на область или сферу действия; 6) перед глаголами выступает как префикс продолжающегося состояния; 7) с (чьей-либо) точки зрения; 8) при повторении с последующимв вэньяне остается без перевода или переводится безличной конструкцией
Shuowen gloss: 存也.從土.才聲.
Comments: In old texts occurs also with the meaning 'to examine' (Sch.: perhaps same word = 'to be into smth.'). The word is probably related to 存 *ʒ́hǝ̄n 'to be, exist' (through -n-derivation), which allows us to reconstruct an aspirated *ʒ́h- in OC (arguments for *ʒ́h- in 存 see in RDFS 99).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 32
Four-angle index: 154
Karlgren code: 0943 i-k
Vietnamese reading: tại
Shijing occurrences: 1.1, 13.3, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 21.1, 32.3, 38.1, 45.1, 45.2, 51.1, 53.1, 53.2, 53.3, 56.1, 56.2, 56.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 251
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 蟹開一上海從
ZIHUI: 0961 1072
Beijing: cai 3
Jinan: cɛ 3
Xi'an: cɛ 3
Taiyuan: cai 3
Hankou: cai 3
Chengdu: cai 3
Yangzhou: cɛ 3
Suzhou: ze_ 32
Wenzhou: ze_ 22
Changsha: cai 31 (lit.); cai 32
Shuangfeng: ʒ́ie 32
Nanchang: chai 32
Meixian: chai 3
Guangzhou: čɔi 32
Xiamen: cai 32 (lit.); ti 32
Chaozhou: to 22
Fuzhou: cai 31
Shanghai: ze_ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: cai 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *e=sari
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to set, put 2 to sit, seat oneself 3 to give way, sag, be prostrate
Bizkaian: ezarri 2, 3
Low Navarrese: ezari 1
Salazarese: izarri 1
Lapurdian: ezari 1
Zuberoan: ezari 1
Roncalese: isari 1, (Vidángoz) izari 1
Comments: See also *e=ar̄i and *e=śeri. These three verbs have contaminated each other and are hard to separate at the synchronic level.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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