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Semitic etymology :

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\data\semham\semet
Number: 2210
Proto-Semitic: *šVt-, *ʔi-šVt- {} *sVt-, *ʔi-sVt-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: posterior, buttocks
Akkadian: (?) išdu (ištu, ildu, irdu, ešdu, ušdu) 'damp course, base, foundation (of a building, reign), bottom, root, lower extremities' OAkk on [CAD i 235], [AHw 393].

    Note that the word is used in particular in the dual išdān which is found in AKK only with nouns denoting body parts or their semantic derivates

Eblaitic: (?) DÚR = iš-dum [DLU 56]
Ugaritic: (?) ʔišd 'pierna' [DLU 56], /ʔišdu/ [Huehner 111]
Hebrew: šēt, pl. constr. šǝtōt- 'Gesäss, Grundlage, Fundament' [KB deutsch 1536]
Syrian Aramaic: ʔeštā, pl. ʔeštātā, ʔešyātā; nest. ʔāšyātā 'podex, nates; fundus' [Brock 810-11]
Modern Aramaic: NASS ištä 'bottom, foundation' [Tser 0213] IRAN íšta'il fondo, la base' [Pen 93]
Mandaic Aramaic: šata 'buttocks, pubic regions' [DM 446]; also ʕšta (<*ʔVšt-) 'basis, bottom, posterior, anus, buttocks' [ibid. 358]
Arabic: ʔist- (with ʔalif waṣlah) 'derrière, fondement, cul' [BK 1 31].

    Cf. sath-, satah-, sitah- 'derrière, cul' [ibid. 1051] (on h as a triconsonantizer, see Introduction)

East Ethiopic: SEL suto 'flesh of back above the hip' [LGur 566].

    According to Leslau, from CUSH (Hadiya suto), but hardly so in view of the comparative data

Gurage: END ušt 'waist' [ibid. 102]
Mehri: šīt (suff. šáyt-V, šǝ́t-C), pl. šǝtōtǝn 'backside, buttocks; anus; root' [JM 396]
Jibbali: šɔ̄ 'back, spine' [JJ 264]
Harsusi: šīt 'backside, posterior' [JH 125]
Soqotri: šéh 'parties sexuelles de la femme' [LS 413], šího, dual šihoiti, pl. šihéten 'dos' [ibid.], šihoʔ 'small of the back' [JJ 264], QALAN-V šī́hoeʔ 'sacrum' [SSL 4 98].

    The final -ʔ in the two latter forms is difficult to explain. Cf. also [SSL LS 1475; 1476]

Notes: Unseparable from the meaning 'foundation' likely to be the primary one. Cf. examples with non-anatomic meaning only: UGR št 'base, pie' [Olmo 633]; PHO ʔšt 'pillar' [T 36], HBR PB šāt 'foundation' [Ja 1636]; ARM: JUD šatyā 'foundation' [Ja 1638]; ETH GUR: CHA MUH šät, EŽA šet 'leveled ground before a house is built' [ibid. 587].

    Note that in JIB and SOQ, the last radical -t is perceived as a feminine marker and dropped (cf., however, its reappearance in dual and pl. in SOQ).

    Presumably a form with the *-t suffix < *ʔVšš- {} *ʔVss- 'foundation, base' (with -šš > -š before -t?): AKK uššu 'Fundament' [AHw 1442] (according to [AHw 1442] and [Kauf 110], borrowed from SUMER uš8 'Fundament' [IK 1149] and then to ARM to ARB; cf. also e(s)sû 'Niederung' SB [AHw 250]); HBR PB ʔūš 'foundation' [Ja 35] (<JUD?); ARM: BIB ʔuššayyā, pl. (du.?) det., 'Fundament' [KB deutsch 1675], JUD ʔuššā, ʔawšā 'foundations, fortification' [Ja 35]; ARB ʔiss-, ʔuss-, ʔasās- 'base, fondement' [BK 1 30-31]; SAB ʔs1 'base' [SD 7]; TGR (?) ʔässäsä 'to set in order' [LH 363] (where it is compared with ARB ʔassasa 'to lay the foundation'); JIB sɔs 'foundation' [JJ 220] (according to Johnstone < *ʔss; OMAN ARB sās quoted [ibid.] admits a loan from ARB).

    Note that in JIB and SOQ, the last radical -t is perceived as a feminine marker and dropped (cf., however, its reappearance in dual and pl. in SOQ).

    As to the AKK, EBL and UGR forms with -d, one wonders whether these should be made into a separate root *ʔišd- {} *ʔisd- 'foundation, bottom, lower extremities' or explained from *ʔiš(V)t- by contamination with *(ʔi-/wi-)sād(-at)- {} *(ʔ/yV-)cad(-at)- 'base, foundation': UGR msdt 'Grundfeste' [Aist 131] (placed under *ysd); HBR yǝsōd 'foundation wall, base' [KB 317], ysd 'to found, establish' [KB 417]; JUD ʔīsādā 'head-side, pillow' [Ja 53], SYR ʔesādā 'a capite, sub capite' [Brock 32]; ARB ʔisādat- 'coussin' [BK 1 31], wisād(at)-, wasād(at)- 'coussin, oreille; lit de repos' [ibid. 2 1533] (cf. also sady- 'trame d'une tissue' [ibid. 1 1074]); SAB ms3d 'base, plinth of statue' [SD 163] (placed under *ws3d); TGR cf. sudot 'nuque' [LH 197, apud d'Abbadie] (primary meaning 'base of the head'?); MHR sáddǝt 'raised platform, island in a valley' [JM 341], JIB (EAST) sédt do. [ibid.].

    [Fron 46] (*šit- 'natica' /JIB,ARB,SYR,HBR,UGR,AKK/); [Holma 128]: AKK, HBR, SYR, ARB; [DLU 56]: UGR, AKK, EBL; [KB deutsch 1536]: HBR, UGR (št), AKK (išdu), SYR (ʔeštā), ARB (ʔist-, wisād-), PHO (rejecting connection with ARM ʔuššā and AKK uššu); [LS 413]: SOQ, MSA, ARB, HBR, AKK

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ebl,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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