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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1961
Proto-Semitic: *ʕa/inz- ( ʔoz; ʕǝnšu; Gur. 'cow')
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'goat'
Akkadian: enzu (ezzu, inzu) 'she-goat, goat (gen.term)' OB on [CAD e 180].
Ugaritic: ʕz 'res caprina, chivo, cabra' [DLU 95]. // In 127:31-32 (bt bn bnš yḳḥ ʕz wyḥdy mrḥḳm 'the family of a man takes a goat and looks afar'; also in a similar passage 127:25, v. [Del Olmo Religión 69-72]) and 1.80:4 (b bz ʕzm ṭ!bh̊ šh 'he slaughtered a kid from the udder of goats').
Phoenician: ʕz 'goat' [T 240], [Krah. 362]. // In the Punic inscriptions KAI 69:7 (bybl ʔm bʕz 'for a ram or a goat') and KAI 74:4 (ʕrt hʕzm 'skins of goats').
Hebrew: ʕēz 'goat' [KB 804], pB. [Ja. 1060] (also ʕizzā 'she-goat' [ibid. 1068]). // While clearly denoting she-goat in the singular (cf. the symmetrical opposition (ʕizzīm ~ tǝyāšīm // rǝḥēlīm ~ ʔēlīm in Gn 32.14), ʕ. may have a collective meaning in the plural.
Aramaic: Off. ʕnz, ʕz 'goat' [HJ 875, 1245]. // Outside administrative texts, found in Aḥiq 118-119 (nmrʔ pgʕ lʕnzʔ why ʕryh ʕnh nmrʔ wʔmr lʕnzʔ ... 'A leopard met a goat and she was naked; and he said to the goat...'), v. [PY XLVIII], [Kott. 225]. // Plm. ʕz 'goat' [HJ 875] (v. [PAT 395]).
Biblical Aramaic: ʕizzīn (pl.) 'goat' [KB 1945]. // In Ezr 6.17 (ṣǝpīrē ʕizzīn 'billy goats' in a list of sacrifices).
Judaic Aramaic: ʕīz (det. ʕizzā) 'goat' [Ja. 1068], ʕizzā [Levy WTM III 632]; ʕz (det. ʕyzh, pl. ʕäzzīn, ʕyzyn) 'goat' [Sok. 401], br ʕzyn 'kid of she-goat' [ibid. 101], brt ʕyzyn 'she-goat' [ibid. 112]. // Sam. ʕz 'female goat' [Tal 630].
Syrian Aramaic: ʕezzā 'capra' [Brock. 535], [PS 2934]. // -n- reappears in st. const. ʕǝnez as well as in ʕannāzā 'caprarius' [ibid.].
Mandaic Aramaic: ʕnza 'goat, nanny-goat' [DM 353].
Arabic: ʕanz(-at)- 'chèvre' (also 'femelle de gazelle, d'aigle et de vautour, d'outarde') [BK 2 383], [Fr. III 231], [Lane 2173], [LA V 381-2] (cf. [Hommel 247]).
Epigraphic South Arabian: Sab. ʕnz 'goats' (coll.) [SD 17]. // Attested in three passages. In Ry 507/8 and Ry 508/4 ʕ. is used as a collective (ʔʔblm wbḳrm wʕnzm 'camels, large cattle and goats', as tribute). On the contrary, in DAI Barʔān 1/2 one single goat is mentioned (ʔyt ʕnz thwkb wrdt brʔt brʔm lrʕy wl tɣrṣ̂ 'jede Ziege, die man an der Mauer von Brʔm zum Weiden herabgestiegen vorfindet, soll geschlachtet werden' according to [Sima 29]).
Mehri: wōz (det. ḥōz) 'she-goat' [JM 9].
Jibbali: ʔɔz 'she-goat' [JJ 5].
Harsusi: wōz (det. ḥōz) 'she-goat' [JH 4].
Soqotri: ʔoz (ʔuz, ʔóoz) 'chèvre, mouton' [LS 55].
Notes: Akk. azzatu (ḫazzatu) 'she-goat' [CAD a2 531], [AHw. 339] with -zz- instead of -nz- is of interest (attested in OB texts from Chahar Bazar and in Nuzi where according to [CAD] it is used as "a word for an age category of she-goats"). It is tempting to consider these peripheral terms as WS borrowings but note that in none of the known ancient WS languages forms with the fem. marker -at- are common. On the other hand, cf. Arb. ʕazzat- 'petite gazelle femelle' [BK 2 241], [Fr. III 149], [Lane 2032], [LA V 389]. // Akk. ḫazzu (ARM 2 37:8,10) and ḫanzu 'goat' (Malku V 36, = enzu) are obvious WS loans (v. [CAD ḫ 83], [Streck 96]). ʔ instead of ʕ in MSA is unusual and requires an explanation. // Cha. Eža End. anž Enm. Msq. ãnž End. Gyt. añž Cha. Enm. Gyt. ãž 'heifer, calf' [LGur. 78] probably belong to the present root with a meaning shift (cf. Leslau's remark "Perhaps from Arb. ʕanz 'goat' unless it is common with Arabic ʕanz, Heb. ʕēz"). Note also Wol. anzat 'cattle that conceived' [LGur. 78], End. Enm. Gyt.. azay 'cow before she bears young' [ibid. 122]. // Tgr. ʕasäs, f. ʕasasit 'goats' [LH 464] may be of interest (a variant root with -s instead of -z?). Note also Tna. ʕǝnšu 'specie di gazzella molto piccola' [Bass. 692]. // [Fron. 29]: *ʕanz- 'capra' (ESA, Arb., Syr., Hbr., Ugr., Akk.); [KB 804]: Hbr., Arm., Pho., Arb., Akk., Eth. (with reference to [Leslau Contributions 39]); [DLU 95]: Ugr., Hbr., Pho., Arm., Akk., Arb.; [Brock. 535]: Syr., Arm., Pho., Hbr., Arb., Akk.; [LS 55]: Soq., MSA, Arb., Hbr., Arm., Akk.; [Firmage 1152]: Akk., Hbr., Ugr., Arm., Arb.; [Hommel 246]: *ʕizzu 'Ziege' (Arb., Hbr., Pho., Arm.).

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