Малаяльское значение:to rebuke, reprimand, frighten with sudden noise
Каннада значение:to tremble, shake; to scold, reprimand, menace
Каннада производные:adapu to speak intemperately, reprove
Тулу значение:to rebuke, frighten
Комментарии:Burrow & Emeneau place this in the same entry with *adir- 'to shake, tremble, intimidate, etc.'. While the semantic link is possible (atir also has the meaning 'rebuke'), the morphological ties are harder to understand. The form ataṭṭu is an obvious causative, but it cannot be from *adir-tu (which should have yielded Tamil atirttu); it can only be from *adaḷ-tu. The stem *adaḷ- is not, however, attested directly; there is Tulu addalipuni, with an unclear geminate, and possibly also Kan. adalu 'to tremble', if -l- dial. < *-ḷ-. As for the other Tamil forms, atampu (= Kan. adapu) < *adaḷ-mbu; atakaṭi is an unclear expressive formation.