Тамильское значение:to grind, rub in the hand, press softly as fruit, cram in the mouth as betel, subdue, subject, control
Тамильские производные:atavu to kill, attack; atuŋku (atuŋki-) to be forced out or in by pressure, be stuffed in, compressed; atukku (atukki-) to press with fingers (as a ripe fruit or boil), squeeze, pinch (as the stomach in grief), bite (as one's lips), chew, stuff into the mouth; n. state of being pressed in (as of parts of a vessel); atukkam reduced condition (as of a boil)
Малаяльское значение:to cram down, turn betel in the mouth
Каннада значение:to press, compress, squeeze, cram; to be depressed, bruised (as a metal vessel)
Каннада производные:adakisu, adugisu, adumisu to cause to press, etc.; adaku a bruise in a metal vessel; adugu to be mollified by being pressed with the fingers; adugisu to mollify by pressing
Комментарии:The presence of an inlaut *-m- in this root is well confirmed by external data. We have, therefore, to regard Kannaḍa forms like adamu, adimu, adumu as the most archaic, despite the confusing mixture of dialectal forms. In Tamil a form like *atumu would be impossible since -umu can only be found after resonants (cf. ur_umu, kuẓumu etc.); it is possible that Kan. adumu = Tam. atavu, with secondary loss of nasalisation in Tamil (although the 2nd syllable vowel is still irregular). However, the original *atum- may have yielded atuŋ- when combined with the intransitive suffix: *atum- + *-ŋ- > atuŋku, and atukk- when combined with the corresponding transitive suffix. The form atakku is then either dialectal or due to contamination with aṭakku 'control, repress, conceal' (cf. the spectrum of meanings).