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Modern (Beijing) reading: hán
Preclassic Old Chinese: g(h)ǝ̄m
Classic Old Chinese: g(h)ǝ̄m
Western Han Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Early Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝ̄m (~ ɣ-)
Middle Chinese: ɣʌm
English meaning : to hold in the mouth; hold back (e.g. anger)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) держать во рту; 2) содержать (таить) в себе; 3) сносить (обиду); сдерживать (напр. слезы)
Comments: In Viet. cf. also ngậm 'to hold in the mouth' (although the tone is different, and it may be just a chance coincidence).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 30
Four-angle index: 1338
Karlgren code: 0651 |l ́
Vietnamese reading: hàm
Jianchuan Bai: ka7
Dali Bai: ka7

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