Comment: Obl. base *q̇ila-, cf. Tab. q̇ila-, Rut. q̇ili-, (with vowel levelling) Ag. q̇Iala, Tsakh. q̇eva-. 3d class in most languages (but 4th class in Kryz.). The root had originally meant 'bitter', and this meaning is retained in Archi; in most other languages the adjective 'bitter' is still derived from the same root, but with different affixation: PL *q̇ä-q̇Vl- (with infixed class markers and various modifications of *-ä- in unaccented syllables): Lezg. tüq̇ül, Tab. q̇uṭli, Düb. q̇urq̇uli, Ag. q̇ulq̇ul-f, Rut. däq̇älɨ-d, Kryz. q̇äṭq̇ul.