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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=a / =i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (an auxiliary verb)
Proto-Nakh: *=u / =a
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *-i
Proto-Lak: =u- / =i-
Proto-Dargwa: *=u
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔa / ʔi
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The stems *=a and *=i probably demonstrate the aspectual Ablaut *a/*i.

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