Comments:VEWT 51, EDT 257-8, ЭСТЯ 1, 318-319, Егоров 69, Stachowski 123. Note -d- in Runic and the voicing of -t before a vowel in Az. and Turkm. Khak. has two forms of stem (is- and iste-, morphonologically distributed, so that is- < iste-; the same historical process could have occurred with. Küär. äš-, Kach. eš- (R 1, 905); so the only clear evidence for the stem *eĺ- are Tatar dialectal reflexes (in which case -t may be a causative suffix, see Bang 1925, Zajączkowski 1932). Shor este- 'to hear', estel- 'to be heard' do not belong here, being derived from *es > is 'mind, memory', like Mod. Uygh. aŋla- 'to hear' < aŋ 'mind'.