Comments:ТМС 1, 40. No doubt a common TM root, although phonology is extremely peculiar. Initial *x- is indicated here by Manchu χ- (which is a facultative reflex of PTM *x-, more often disappearing in Manchu) and supported by external evidence. If this is the case, the Southern forms (Nanai, Orok and Ulcha) are to be explained as Northern (but not Manchu!) loanwords.