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|▴ NUMBER||▴ WORD||▴ Brahui|
|10||bone||aɖ ~ haɖ 10 |
Bray 1934: 50, 126. Borrowed from Baluchi haɖ.
|96||what||a-nt ~ ha-nt 98 |
Bray 1934: 53, 131. Used either as substantive or adjective. The basic interrogative root is a-, also attested in other interrogatives (e. g. a-raː 'which', etc.).
|51||man||areː 52 |
Bray 1934: 54. Plural form: ari-sk. Meaning glossed as 'male individual, person'. Also attested in the variant ari-ɣ (contraction with the productive nominal suffix -aɣ).
|63||one||asi 64 |
Bray 1934: 56. Adjectival stem; the substantive 'one' is asi-ʈ [Bray 1934: 57].
|56||mouth||baː 57 |
Bray 1934: 59. Polysemy: 'mouth / edge'.
|30||fly v.||baːl kann-iŋg # 30 |
Bray 1934: 62. Literally = 'to make wing' (baːl is a nominal stem glossed as 'wing; flight'); the meaning of this compound expression is glossed as 'to take wing, fly away', but it is also encountered in a few examples where the meaning is simply 'fly'.
|61||nose||baːmus 62 |
Bray 1934: 63. Explained by Bray as a simplification of *baː-must 'in front of the mouth', but this internal etymology is not ideal.
|20||dry||baːr-un 20 |
Bray 1934: 66. The root is verbal in origin, cf. baːrr-iŋg 'to become dry', causative baːr-if-iŋg 'to make dry, to dry' [Bray 1934: 65].
|93||warm||baːs-un 95 |
Bray 1934: 66. Polysemy: 'hot, warm'. Verbal root: cf. baːs-iŋg 'to be hot, become hot'.
|52||many||baːz ~ bʰaːz 53 |
Bray 1934: 68, 72. Of Baluchi origin.
|24||egg||baida 24 |
Bray 1934: 62. Of Arabic origin. Cf. also xaːya ~ xwaːya 'egg / testicle' [Bray 1934: 183, 188], borrowed from Persian.
|5||big||bal-un ~ bʰal-un 5 |
Bray 1934: 63, 72.
|64||person||banda 65 |
Bray 1934: 64. Also attested as banda-ɣ (with the productive nominal suffix -aɣ). Meaning glossed as 'human being, creature, man'. Of Baluchi origin.
|16||come||ba-nn-iŋg 16 |
Bray 1934: 64. The word has a wide variety of allomorphs: imperative ba ~ bar-ak, present tense stem bar-eː-, past stem ba-ss-, negative stem ba-). The basic alternation is between ba- and bar-, reflecting an archaic feature of the Proto-Dravidian form.
|104||salt||beː 106 |
Bray 1934: 68. Cf. also nimik 'salt' [Bray 1934: 219] (borrowed from Persian).
|68||root||beːx 69 |
Bray 1934: 70. Of Persian origin. Meaning glossed as 'root, foundation, basis'. Secondary synonyms: (a) gužɣ 'root' [Bray 1934: 121] (also a transparent borrowing, judging by the word form, but the source is unclear); (b) roːta ~ roːt-k 'root' [Bray 1934: 252], borrowed from Baluchi roːtag. It is not well understood which of the words is more basic in modern Brahui, but, in any case, all of them are of non-Dravidian origin.
|73||seed||biʓ 74 |
Bray 1934: 73. Alternately, cf. tuxm ~ tuɣm 'seed; issue, offspring' [Bray 1934: 294], borrowed from Persian.
|39||hear||bin-iŋg 39 |
Bray 1934: 74. Cf. the causative stem: bin-if-iŋg 'to make to hear'.
|50||louse||boːɖ ~ boːɽ 51 |
Bray 1934: 76, 77. Meaning glossed as 'louse, vermin'. Of Baluchi origin.
|86||this||daː 87 |
Bray 1934: 91.
|89||tooth||dandaːn 90 |
Bray 1934: 93. Borrowed from Persian.
|82||sun||deː 83 |
Bray 1934: 96. Polysemy: 'sun / day / time'.
|98||who||deː 100 |
Bray 1934: 96. Plural (or pluralised) form: deː-r [Bray 1934: 97].
|94||water||diːr 96 |
Bray 1934: 98.
|9||blood||ditar 9 |
Bray 1934: 98.
|90||tree||draxt 91 |
Bray 1934: 99. Borrowed from Persian.
|37||hand||duː 37 |
Bray 1934: 101. No difference between 'hand' and 'arm'.
|88||tongue||duːiː ~ duviː 89 |
Bray 1934: 102, 104.
|106||snake||duːša 108 |
Bray 1934: 103. Etymology unclear; Bray suggests borrowing either from Baluchi dužan 'sting' or Sanskrit dūṣa- 'poison' and also mentions the folk etymology that derives the word from duː(iː) 'tongue' + šaː(ɣiŋ) 'to throw', i. e. 'tongue-thrower; biter'.
|85||that||eː ~ heː 86 |
Bray 1934: 107, 134. Remote demonstrative pronoun. Substantival form: sg. eː-d, pl. eː-fk.
|48||liver||ʓaɣar 49 |
Bray 1934: 146. Borrowed from Baluchi ʓagar.
|14||cloud||ʓammar 14 |
Bray 1934: 147. Borrowed from Baluchi ʓambare. Alternately, cf. koːkur 'cloud' [Bray 1934: 168], also borrowed from Baluchi.
|34||good||ʓwaːn 34 |
Bray 1934: 151. Borrowed from Baluchi ʓwaːn. Alternately, cf. also šar 'good, beautiful' [Bray 1934: 273] (the etymology is not quite clear, but initial š- clearly indicates a non-Dravidian origin).
|7||bite||gaʈ halliŋg 7 |
Bray 1934: 114. A compound formation from the formally nominal stem gaʈ '(a) bite' + the verb halliŋg 'to seize'. Alternately, cf. also various complex formations with the word baː 'mouth' q.v.: baː šaːɣ-iŋg 'to bite' (literally, 'to mouth-seize'), baː biʈ-iŋg 'to bite at' (literally, 'to mouth-throw'), etc. [Bray 1934: 59].
|45||know||ɕaː-iŋg 46 |
Bray 1934: 81. Polysemy: 'to understand / to know'. Past stem: ɕaː-is-. Suppletive negative stem: tipp- ~ titt-.
|26||fat n.||ɕarpiː 26 |
Bray 1934: 85. Meaning glossed as 'grease, fat'. Of Persian origin. Cf. also piːg 'fat, grease, espec. goat's fat used medicinally' [Bray 1934: 236], of Baluchi or Persian origin.
|3||bark||ɕoːɖiː ~ ɕoːɖiːnk 3 |
Bray 1934: 88. Polysemy: 'bark of tree / chip'. Of Indo-Aryan origin.
|6||bird||ɕuk 6 |
Bray 1934: 89. Marked as 'imitative', but textual examples confirm that this is indeed the default word for 'bird' in Brahui.
|1||all||giɽ 1 |
Bray 1934: 117. Cf. also ɣuʈʈ 'all' [Bray 1934: 126]; difference between these two words is not easily detected from the available examples. Cf. also drust 'all', borrowed from Persian [Bray 1934: 101].
|69||round||gird 70 |
Bray 1934: 116. Borrowed from Persian.
|44||knee||goːɖ 45 |
Bray 1934: 118. Presumably borrowed from Indo-Aryan (Sindhi goːɖoː, etc.). Another borrowing is zaːn 'knee' [Bray 1934: 310], from Baluchi; it is not clear which word is the more statistically frequent. Secondary synonym: pun [Bray 1934: 244], seemingly only used in idiomatic expressions, e. g. pun-teaːi tuːɬ 'to kneel down'.
|105||short||gwanɖ 107 |
Bray 1934: 122. Meaning glossed as 'short (of objects)'. Borrowed from Baluchi gwand. Cf. also paʈa-k 'short, stunted' [Bray 1934: 232] (usually said of people, as opposed to 'tall' rather than 'long'); ɕuʈu-k [Bray 1934: 91]; meaning glossed as 'short, espec. of a beard'.
|22||earth||ɖaɣaːr 22 |
Bray 1934: 104. Polysemy: 'land (culturable) / earth'. Borrowed from Baluchi diɣaːr.
|11||breast||ɖoːbar 11 |
Bray 1934: 106. Borrowed from Baluchi doːbar.
|77||small||ɣuɖɖuː 78 |
Bray 1934: 125. Dialectal variant guɖɖuː is also attested [Bray 1934: 120]. Additionally, cf. ɕun-ak 'small' [Bray 1934: 90], although, judging by the examples, this word is more readily used to denote age ('small' = 'young').
|92||walk (go)||hin-iŋg 93 |
Bray 1934: 137. Infinitive stem.
|12||burn tr.||huš-iŋg ~ uš-iŋg 12 |
Bray 1934: 142. Meaning glossed as: 'to set fire to, burn, scorch'.
|42||I||iː 42 |
Bray 1934: 143. Direct stem.
|91||two||iraː 92 |
Bray 1934: 144. Adjectival form; the substantive form is ira-ʈ.
|80||star||istaːr 81 |
Bray 1934: 145. Borrowed from Persian.
|92||walk (go)||kaː- 94 |
Bray 1934: 137. Suppletive stem of the present tense.
|38||head||kaːʈum 38 |
Bray 1934: 162. Polysemy: 'head / point / leader'.
|17||die||kah-iŋg 17 |
Bray 1934: 153. Present stem kah-eː-; past stem kas-k-.
|2||ashes||kaluːɽ 2 |
Bray 1934: 155. Cf. also his 'ashes' [Bray 1934: 138] (suggested borrowing from or connection with Baluchi heːs 'rust, dirt', but without any certainty). The difference between the two words is unclear, but kaluːɽ is more readily attested in neutral contexts (e. g. "it was burnt to ashes"), whereas his seems to figure mainly in idiomatic expressions.
|42||I||kan- 43 |
Bray 1934: 156. Suppletive oblique stem.
|67||road||kasar 68 |
Bray 1934: 160. Meaning glossed as: 'way, path, road'. Cf. also dag 'road, highway' [Bray 1931: 91] (borrowed from Baluchi).
|43||kill||kas-f-iŋg ~ kas-if-iŋg 44 |
Bray 1934: 160, 161. Regular causative formation from kah-iŋg 'to die' q.v. The old word xall-iŋg is also attested in the meaning 'to kill', but only sporadically; it seems to have been mostly preserved in the meaning 'to hit, strike, fire (a gun), throw (a stone)' [Bray 1934: 179].
|102||heavy||kub-eːn 104 |
Bray 1934: 171.
|18||dog||kuɕak 18 |
Bray 1934: 171. Probably borrowed from an Iranian source (Baluchi kuɕak, etc.). Cf. also buʈʈoː 'dog (children's word)' [Bray 1934: 80].
|19||drink||kun-iŋg 19 |
Bray 1934: 173. Polysemy: 'to eat / to drink / to bite'.
|23||eat||kun-iŋg 23 |
Bray 1934: 173. Polysemy: 'to eat / to drink / to bite'.
|84||tail||liʈʈik 85 |
Bray 1934: 194. Meaning glossed as 'animal's tail'. Distinct from the more specific buʈoːr 'tail of the fat-tailed sheep' [Bray 1934: 80].
|58||neck||lix 59 |
Bray 1934: 193.
|29||fish||maɕɕiː 29 |
Bray 1934: 197. Borrowed from Indo-Aryan (Sindhi maɕɕʰiː, etc.).
|41||horn||marɣ 41 |
Bray 1934: 201.
|55||mountain||maš 56 |
Bray 1934: 202.
|8||black||ma-un 8 |
Bray 1934: 204. The suffix -un is a productive adjectival morpheme, but the root ma- is not otherwise attested in Brahui (cf. 'white').
|78||smoke||moːɬ 79 |
Cf. also duhõː 'smoke' [Bray 1934: 102] (borrowed from Baluchi).
|49||long||mur-ɣun 50 |
Bray 1934: 211. Most likely related to murr 'far' q.v.; -un is a productive adjectival suffix, although the status of the velar component -ɣ- is not quite clear (however, it is also encountered in several other adjectives as well, cf. 'new'). Cf. also the causative verb mur-iːf-iŋg 'to make long, extend, stretch', from the same root.
|101||far||murr 103 |
Bray 1934: 211.
|60||night||nan 61 |
Bray 1934: 215.
|95||we||nan 97 |
Bray 1934: 215.
|31||foot||nat 31 |
Bray 1934: 216. No difference between 'foot' and 'leg'. Plural form: na-k (< *nat-k ?). Possibly of Indo-Aryan origin (Bray lists such forms as Sindhi lat 'leg', Oriya laːtta, naːta 'kick', etc.), but the evidence is not entirely conclusive.
|87||thou||niː 88 |
Bray 1934: 218.
|85||that||oː 86 |
Bray 1934: 220. Intermediate demonstrative pronoun (lying between daː 'this' and eː 'that /remote/'). Substantival form: sg. oː-d, pl. oː-fk.
|62||not||=a- 63 |
Bray 1934: 49. Negative infix in the conjugation of the verb.
|99||woman||paʈʈiː 101 |
Bray 1934: 233. Meaning glossed as 'female', but in some text examples the word is explicitly opposed to 'man' (= 'male human being'). Additionally, the meaning 'woman' may be expressed by the compound form paʈʈiː-band, where the second part is the reduced form of banda 'person' q.v. Bray compares the word alternately with Sindhi paʈʰiː 'woman' and Dravidian peʈʈa 'female'; it is not clear which solution represents the better etymology. Cf. also zaːifa 'woman' [Bray 1934: 309], borrowed from Baluchi / Arabic.
|71||say||paː-iŋg ~ paː-n-iŋg 72 |
Bray 1934: 226, 229. Imperative: paː. Present stem: paː-. Past stem: paː-reː-. The original root is paː- rather than paːn-.
|46||leaf||pan 47 |
Bray 1934: 228. Borrowed from Baluchi pan.
|27||feather||parra 27 |
Bray 1934: 231. Polysemy: 'feather / wing'. Borrowed from Persian parr.
|97||white||piː-un ~ piːh-un 99 |
Bray 1934: 236, 240. The suffix -un is a productive adjectival morpheme, but the root piː- is not otherwise attested in Brahui (cf. 'black').
|4||belly||piɖ 4 |
Bray 1934: 235. Polysemy: 'belly / stomach'.
|57||name||pin 58 |
Bray 1934: 236.
|65||rain||pir 66 |
Bray 1934: 237.
|15||cold||pud-eːn 15 |
Bray 1934: 248. Polysemy: 'cold / cool'.
|36||hair||puʈ 36 |
Bray 1934: 246. No difference between 'head hair' or 'body hair'. The connection with Baluchi pʰut, mentioned by Bray, is probably accidental (the word has a much better Dravidian etymology). Alternately, cf. pužža 'human hair' [Bray 1934: 247], clearly of non-Dravidian origin, but without any evident areal connections; it is not clear whether this word also pretends to "basic" status or if it is a special stylistic variant.
|109||worm||puː 111 |
Bray 1934: 248. Polysemy: 'worm / maggot / caterpillar'.
|32||full||puːra 32 |
Bray 1934: 244. Meaning glossed as 'full, complete'. Borrowed from Indo-Aryan (cf. Sindhi puːroː, etc.).
|59||new||puːs-k-un 60 |
Bray 1934: 245. For peculiarities of morphological analysis, see notes on 'long'.
|100||yellow||puːš-k-un 102 |
Bray 1934: 246. For peculiarities of morphological analysis, see notes on 'long'.
|70||sand||reːk 71 |
Bray 1934: 250. Meaning glossed as 'sand, stretch of sand, sand-hill'. Borrowed from Persian reːg.
|110||year||saːl 112 |
Bray 1934: 256. Borrowed from Persian.
|79||stand||sal-iŋg 80 |
Bray 1934: 256. Denotes both the static ('to be standing') and the dynamic ('to stand up') meanings.
|75||skin||sil 76 |
Bray 1934: 263.
|53||meat||suː 54 |
Bray 1934: 266. Meaning glossed as 'flesh, meat'.
|83||swim||taːr 84 |
Bray 1934: 286. This is formally a nominal stem ('swimming'); the verbal form is complex - taːr kann-iŋg, literally 'to make swimming'. Borrowed from Baluchi taːr-.
|108||wind||tahoː 110 |
Bray 1934: 282. Secondary synonym: havaː [Bray 1934: 134], borrowed from Arabic.
|47||lie||tamm-iŋg 48 |
Bray 1934: 284. Polysemy: 'to fall / to lie down, lie'. Cf.: oː musun tamm-aːne "he's lying on his face". Cf. leːʈ-iŋg 'to lie down' [Bray 1934: 193] (borrowed from Baluchi leːʈ-).
|33||give||ti-n-iŋg 33 |
Bray 1934: 288. Present stem: eːt- (most likely, suppletive, since the difference in structure is not explainable in terms of regular models). Future stem: ti-r-. Past stem: ti-ss-. Negative present stem: ti-f-. Negative past stem: ti-t-.
|54||moon||tuː-beː 55 |
Bray 1934: 293. The root tuː is still used freely in the meaning 'month' [ibid.], but the word 'moon' is a compound formation with *beː, possibly the original Dravidian word for 'white' (= Tamil veɭ-, etc.).
|74||sit||tuːl-iŋg 75 |
Bray 1934: 294. Denotes both the static ('to be sitting') and the dynamic ('to be standing') meanings. Imperative: tuːɬ. Past stem: tuː-s-.
|76||sleep||tuɣ 77 |
Bray 1934: 294. This is formally a nominal stem ('sleeping; dreaming'); the verbal form is complex - tuɣ kann-iŋg, literally 'to make sleeping'. Distinct from xaːɕ-iŋg 'to lie down, go to sleep' [Bray 1934: 176].
|40||heart||ust ~ hust 40 |
Bray 1934: 142, 301. Polysemy: 'heart / mind / kernel'.
|107||thin||uš-k-un 109 |
Bray 1934: 303. Meaning glossed as 'slender; narrow', but attested examples show that the word fits the semantic properties of 'thin' (e. g. may be applied to individual hairs, etc.). Alternately, cf. tana-k 'thin' [Bray 1934: 285], borrowed from Baluchi and not confirmed by textual examples.
|21||ear||xaf 21 |
Bray 1934: 177.
|28||fire||xaːxar 28 |
Bray 1934: 178.
|81||stone||xal 82 |
Bray 1934: 178.
|25||eye||xan 25 |
Bray 1934: 180. Same root as in 'to see' q.v.
|72||see||xan-iŋg 73 |
Bray 1934: 180. Polysemy: 'to see / to find / to give birth'. Same root as in 'eye' q.v.
|35||green||xarr-un 35 |
Bray 1934: 181. Derived from the verbal root xarr- 'to sprout' [ibid.]. Cf. also gwanik-iː [Bray 1934: 122], derived from gwanik 'shrub, whose leaves are used by nomads as a green dye' [ibid.].
|66||red||xiːs-un 67 |
Bray 1934: 186.
|103||near||xuɽk 105 |
Bray 1934: 187. Meaning glossed as 'close at hand, close'.
|13||claw(nail)||ziːl 13 |
Bray 1934: 312.