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\data\uralic\uralet
Number: 1
Proto: *aća
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: meadow with a brook, valley
German meaning: (Bach)wiese, Tal
Estonian: aas (gen. aasu, aasa) 'Wiese, Bachwiese'
Udmurt (Votyak): aź-dor 'безлесистая местность' ?
Komi (Zyrian): aʒ́ (SM VO) 'пойма (SM), прорубь (VO)', Lu. aʒ́ 'gute, trockene Wiese'
Hungarian: dial. aszó 'Tal, niederung; (aung.) Fluß, Bach'
K. Redei's notes: Das wotj. Wort kann nur dann hierher gestellt werden, wenn seine frühere Bedeutung 'Wiesenrand, Steppe' war und es nicht mit dem Kompositum az'-dor 'переднее место' ('fore-place') identisch ist. Zu dem ung. Wort s. auch *s8s'3 'trocken, dorren' Ug. (Réd.)
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Hun. -s- (orthographically sz) points to Ur. *s', not *c'. The reconstruction of the final *-a for the Uralic stem is apparently based on Hu. *asa-k (see Ugret.dbf) as well as on the -a(-) in the second syllable of the Est. oblique forms (the loss of the final vowel in Est. and Perm. gives no certain information about its quality). The Est. oblique forms with -u (like aasu) are likely to be secondary, having arisen as a result of analogical processes (influence of other declination types). The length of the first syllable vowel in Est. is secondary: in Est. monosyllabic words, short vowels are generally not allowed. As for the the length in the forms like aasu, where the second syllable vowel was preserved, it may be caused by a leveling. Contrary to Rédei, Komi UV aʒ' 'ice-hole' doesn't belong here; it may be related to Mansi So. as, K äs 'hole, orifice' (Toivonen Affr., 135, 229).
References: КЭСКЯ; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Steinitz Fgr.Vok. 38; ИВПЯ 167
Number: 2
Proto: *ačka
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: white
German meaning: weiß
Finnish: ahka 'Eidergans', haahka, hahka id., hahkea, haahkea 'grau'
Estonian: ahka (gen. ahka) 'Eiderente', hahk (gen. haha) 'grau'
Mordovian: ašo (E), akša (M) 'weiß; rein'
Mari (Cheremis): ošǝ̑, oš (KB), ošo, oš (U B) 'weiß; blond; rein'
Khanty (Ostyak): aš (DN), ȧš (C) 'weißer Ton, Lehm; Kreide'
K. Redei's notes: Das finn. und est. anlautende h ist sekundär: vgl. finn. ieho, ehko, est. ohv ~ finn. hieho, hehko, est. ho~hv 'Färse, junge Kuh'. Der Vogelnahme finn. ahka, haahka, hahka, est. ahka 'Eidergans, -ente' kann mit der am ganzen Körper des Vogels dominierenden weißen Farbe erklärt werden (sein ganzer Rücken und die Flügeldecke sind weiß). Ostj. 'Lehm' ist ebenfalls eine mit der weißen Farbe zusammenhängende sekundäre Bedeutung. Das Lautverhältnis mord. e. š ~ m. kš ist unregelmäßig; die Lautform des anzunehmenden m. *aša wurde möglicherweise von türk.-tat. akča 'Münze, Geld', kirg. akša 'weißlich; Geld' usw. beeinflußt. Ostj. C ȧ weißt auf urostj. *ä hin; die Lautentsprechung DN a ~ C ȧ spricht dafür, daß das Wort wohl kaum zum uralten Wortschatz der ostj. Sprache gehört. Falls die ostseefinnischen Wörter wirklich hierher gehören, so ist das k-Element der ursprünglichen Lautverbindung -čk- im Mord., Tscher. und Ost. geschwunden (Réd.).
References: SKES; DEWO 5
Number: 3
Proto: *aδ́V (oδ́V)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: place for lying, to bed, spread
German meaning: ein mit etwas bedeckter, zum Liegen geeigneter Platz; Schlafen bereiten; betten
Udmurt (Votyak): vaĺ- (S), waĺ- (G) 'ausbreiten, unterbreiten (eine Decke), aufdecken (z. B. einen Tisch)'; vaĺes (S), waĺes (G) 'Bett, Matraze, Unterbett'
Komi (Zyrian): voĺ 'Renntierhaut' (S. Ud.), 'als Bett ausgebreitete Renntierhaut' (I), voĺ-paś (S), oĺ-paś (P) 'Bett'
Mansi (Vogul): aĺā.t 'Bett' (TJ), ɔ̄ĺatjiw, ɔ̄ĺatpum 'Bettheu'
Hungarian: ágy 'Bett; Beet; Bodensatz', dial. ágy- 'Getreidegarten zum Drusch oder zum Austreten auf die Tenne ausbreiten'
Sammalahti's version: *ood'i
References: FUV; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 719; MSzFgrE; EtSz.; TESz.; SzófSz.; ИВПЯ 32
Number: 4
Proto: *aja-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to drive, chase
German meaning: treiben, jagen
Finnish: aja- 'treiben, jagen; fahren'
Estonian: aja- 'fortbewegen, treiben; nachgehen, verfolgen'
Saam (Lapp): vuoggje- -j- 'drive (a horse, reindeer)', drive on, drive over' (N), vuodjē- 'fahren' (L), vī̊jje- (K T), vujje- (Kld), vuajje- (Not.) 'fahren, lenken'
Udmurt (Votyak): uj-, uĺ- (S), u̇j- (K), ujị̑- (G) 'treiben, verfolgen'
Komi (Zyrian): voj- (Skr) 'иметь норов, не слушаясь повода, очень быстро спускаться с горы', vojli̮- (Vm. I) 'бегать, скакать, носиться', vojed- 'бежать, побежать', vojledli̮- 'treiben, jagen'
Mansi (Vogul): wujt- (K), wojt- (KM), vujt- (KO) 'verfolgen, jagen'
Sammalahti's version: *aja
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; Donn. VglWb. 798 Anm.; MUSz. 392, 856; Steinitz Vgr.Vok. 39; Munkácsi B. Árja és kaukázusi elemek a finn-magyar nyelvekben 622
Number: 5
Proto: *ajŋe
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: temple
German meaning: Schläfe
Finnish: aivo(t) 'Gehirn, Hirn; Schläfe, Schläfenbein', aivena 'Schlaf, Schlafbein'
Estonian: aju 'Gehirn, Verstand'
Saam (Lapp): vuoiŋȃš-, pl. vuoi'dŋȃšȃk 'brain' (N), vuoiŋam ~ vuoi'ŋam 'Gehirn' (L), vujvešn (Kld.), vuevešn (Not.) 'Gehirn'
Mordovian: uj (M) 'Mark, Gehirn'
Hungarian: agy 'Gehirn, Mark; Nabe; (altung.) Schädel'
Sammalahti's version: *ajŋi
Yukaghir parallels: abor 'Gehirn; brain'
References: FUV; SKES; MSzFgrE; TESz.; EtSz.; SzófSz.; Donn. VglWb 815; Paasonen Beitr. 31; Angere J. Die uralo-jukagirische Frage 50
Number: 6
Proto: *akta
English meaning: hang up, put up (a trap, net)
German meaning: aufhängen, -stecken, -stellen (Falle,Netz)
Finnish: ahta- 'drängen, (zusammen)packen, (voll)stopfen, (zusammen)pferchen', ahtaa- 'Riege aufstecken'
Estonian: ahta-, ahti- 'aufstecken (Getreide zum Darren)'
Saam (Lapp): wŭ͕o͕kχtȧje, wŭ͕o͕kχtȧŋ͕́ɛ̮ (Wfs.) 'in die Erde eingeschlagener Pfahl zum Aufhängen und Trocknen der Netze'
Mordovian: afto- (M) 'поставить сеть, капкан', aftuma (E), aftoma (M) (SKES) 'Netz'
Mari (Cheremis): opte- (KB U B) 'legen; gießen, schütten (Wasser, Getreide), errichten, stellen, aufladen', (B) optoš, optǝ̑š, (Č) oktǝ̑š 'петля для ловли уток'
Komi (Zyrian): okti̮- (S Lu.) 'eine Falle od. ein Fangeisen) aufstellen', o̯kti̮- (SO) 'насторожить звероловное оружие', okta (V) 'Falle', okti̮m- (Ud.) 'großer Haken (Angel) an einer Schnur zum Fangen von Fischen'
Khanty (Ostyak): i̮ɣǝt- (V), eχǝt- (DN), ĭχǝt- (Kaz.) 'aufhängen'
Sammalahti's version: *i6kta - mit Sam.!
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; DEWO 49; Collinder Comp.Gr. 84; ИВПЯ 57
Number: 7
Proto: *ala
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: space below smth., below
German meaning: Raum unter etw., Unter-, das Untere
Finnish: ala 'Platz, Gebiet, Bereich', alla (postp.) 'unter, unterhalb'
Estonian: ala 'Unterraum; Grund, Ursprung'. all (postp.) 'unten, unter, unterhalb'
Saam (Lapp): vuolle ~ vuollĕ -l- 'down; (in comp.) 'space or part under smth...' (N), -vuollē 'der Platz unten oder nahebei, Unterlage' (L), vī̊ille (T) 'das Untere', vī̊ilne, vī̊iln (T), vūiln (Kld.), vueiln (Not.), voiln (Not.) (adv., postp.) 'unter, unten'
Mordovian: al (E M) 'das untere, unten befindliche', alo (E), ala (M) 'unten, unter'
Mari (Cheremis): ül- (KB, B), ülö-, ül- (U) 'das Untere, Unter-', ülnǝ (KB), ülnö (U, B) (adv. postp.) 'unten, unter'
Udmurt (Votyak): ul (S) 'Unterteil, Unterraum, Unteres', ulǝ̑n (K) 'unter, unten', ul (G) 'Unterraum, Unteres', ulị̑n (G) 'unter'
Komi (Zyrian): -ul (S), -i̮v (P) in ǯoǯ-ul, ǯe̮ǯ-i̮v 'Raum, Keller unter dem Fußboden', uli̮n (S), uvi̮n (P) 'unten, unter', ul (PO) 'das untere', ulø.n (PO) 'niedrig, unten, unter'
Khanty (Ostyak): i̮l (V), it (DN), il (O) 'unterer, nieder', i̮lǝn (V), itǝn (DN), ilǝn (O) 'unten'
Mansi (Vogul): jalē̮.k (TJ), jalχ (KU), jalk (P), jolik (So.) 'der Untere', jalǝ,n (TJ), jɔ̄̈ln (KU), jalǝn (P), jolǝn (So.) 'unten', jil (TJ) 'hinab; hinunter'
Hungarian: al- 'Unter-; unterer Teil; Streu', alatt (adv. post.) 'unten, unter'
Nenets (Yurak): ŋilna (O) 'unter, unten', ŋilʔ 'hinunter, hinab'
Enets (Yen): iðo (Ch.), iro (B) 'Boden', iðone (Ch.) 'unter'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋilea 'das Untere'
Selkup: ȋȋl (Ta.), ȋl (Ke.), ȋl, ȋ.l 'Boden, das Untere', ȋȋl (Ta.), illé (N) 'unterhin'
Kamass: jildǝ 'untenhin', jilgǝn 'unten'
Janhunen's version: (38) *i6la
Sammalahti's version: *i6la
Yukaghir parallels: -al 'unter; under'
References: FUV; SKES; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 728; MSzFgrE; TESz.; EtSz.; SzófSz.; Donn. VglWb. II, 116; Paas. Beitr. 38; ИВПЯ 212; Collinder JukUr. 75
Number: 8
Proto: *alka
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: end (front or back), beginning; to begin
German meaning: (vorderes od. hinteres) Ende, Anfang; anfangen, beginnen
Finnish: alka- 'anfangen, beginnen', alku 'Anfang, Beginn'
Estonian: alga- 'anfangen, begründen', alg (gen. alu) 'Anfang'
Saam (Lapp): aĺge- lg- 'begin to, set to work upon' (N), aĺkē- (L), āilke- (Kld.), ailke- (A) 'anfangen', aĺgo -lg- 'beginning, origin' (N), aĺkō (L), ālk (T), alk (Not. A) 'Anfang' [possibly < Finn.; here perhaps *vōlkē- 'go away'?]
Khanty (Ostyak): alǝŋ (V) 'Anfang; Ende', otǝŋ (DN) 'Ende, Endstück', alǝŋ (O) 'vorderes od. hinteres Ende' ( > Mans. ā̊liŋ), ulǝŋt- (V), otǝŋt- (DN), ɔлǝŋt- (Kaz.) 'anfangen, beginnen'
Mansi (Vogul): awǝ.l (TJ), owl (KU), ōl (P), ɔ̄wl (So.) 'Anfang; Ende'
Enets (Yen): oðo 'früher, vorher', oðoti (Ch.), orete (B) 'der vorderste, der erste'
Selkup: ol (Ta.) 'das Obere, Wipfel', (Ty.) 'Kopf', ōli̮ (Tur.) id., ollэ (Ke.) 'das Obere, Wipfel', olam- (Ta.) 'beginnen', old- (Ke. OO) 'anfangen'
Kamass: ulu 'Kopf'
Addenda: Koib. ulu 'head'
K. Reshetnikov's notes: For the meaning of Lapp. *vōlkē- 'to go away' cf. engl. to start 'to begin / to depart'. However, this Lapp. word can be alternatively compared with Finn. valkama 'wharf, harbour' (Lehtiranta 152). The Proto-Lapp. stem represented by such forms as Lul. al'kē- 'anfangen', al'kō 'Anfang', al'ge- 'begin to, set to work upon' etc. is borrowed from Finnic.
References: FUV; SKES; DEWO 83; Collinder Comp.Gr. 120
Number: 9
Proto: *alV-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to bewitch, conjure, condemn
German meaning: Zauberworte hersagen, verzaubern
Mordovian: alta-, alvta- (E) 'versprechen', alsta- 'versprechen, zusagen, weichen; verwünschen'
Mari (Cheremis): ulte- 'beten', ulδa- 'молиться'
Khanty (Ostyak): ali̮l- (V) 'fluchen, verfluchen; schelten, schimpfen; verzaubern'
Hungarian: áld- 'segnen; (altung.) opfern', áldoz- 'opfern; das heilige Abendmahl nehmen'; ? átok 'Fluch', átkoz- 'fluchen, verfluchen, verwünschen'
K. Reshetnikov's notes: It is possible that Hun. átok and átkoz- belong to another root - see *att3 (1747); see also Notes in UGRET 9.
References: MUSz. 731; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.
Number: 10
Proto: *ama-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to scoop
German meaning: schöpfen
Finnish: amme (gen. ammeen) 'Wanne, Kufe', ammen (gen. ammenen) 'Schöpfer, Eimer' ( > Saam. N ammaš 'großer Zuber, große Wanne', ammenta- 'schöpfen')
Estonian: ammuta- 'schöpfen', ? anum (gen. anuma, anume) 'Gefäß'
Mordovian: amuĺa- (E), amoĺa- (M) 'schöpfen'
Khanty (Ostyak): um- (V) 'schöpfen', ŭm- (Kaz.) 'schöpfen, herausschöpfen', umpǝ (DN), ompi (O) 'Schöpfkelle' ( > Nen. S ŋomp)
Mansi (Vogul): ūm- (N) черпать, ūmp (KU), ūmpi (So.) 'ковшик'
References: SKES; DEWO 97
Number: 11
Proto: *amta-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to give
German meaning: geben
Finnish: anta- 'geben; schenken' ( > Saam. ȃd'de- 'give; present', K T Kld. ainte- 'give')
Saam (Lapp): vuow'de- -wd- 'sell' (N), vuob'tē- ~ vuog'tē- id. (L), uū̯dt̨̄e- (K Ko Not.) 'geben'
Mordovian: ando- (E M) 'nähren, ernähren, füttern'
Udmurt (Votyak): ud- (S, K) 'tränken, zu trinken geben'
Komi (Zyrian): ud- (Lu. P PO) 'tränken, zu trinken geben, füttern und tränken'
Hungarian: ad- 'geben; schenken'
Sammalahti's version: *i6mta-
References: FUV; Donn. VglWb. I, 27; SKES; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 716; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; ИВПЯ 212
Number: 12
Proto: *amV-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to sit
German meaning: sitzen
Khanty (Ostyak): amǝs- (V) 'sitzen', omǝs- (DN) 'sitzen; sein, stehen', amǝs- (O) 'sitzen; sich setzen, stellen', amǝt- (V O) 'setzen, sitzen lassen, aufstellen', i̮mǝl- (V) 'sich setzen', omǝt- (DN) id.
Mansi (Vogul): ōn- (TJ), onl- (KU), wunl- (P), ūnl- (So.) 'sitzen'; ont- (TJ KU), wunt- (P), ūnt- (So.) 'sich setzen' (?)
Nenets (Yurak): ŋāmćo- 'sitzen', ŋāmtā- 'sich setzen' (O)
Enets (Yen): addu- (Ch.), adi-, addo- (B) 'sitzen', adde- 'sich setzen'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋomtụtụ- 'sitzen', ŋomtụʔa- 'sich setzen'
Selkup: aamta- (Ta.) 'sitzen', omti̮- (Tur.) 'sich setzen', aamda- (Ke.) 'sitzen', omte- (Ke.) 'sich setzen', amte- (Ty.) 'sitzen'
Kamass: amna- 'sitzen', amnō- 'sich setzen, wohnen, leben', Koib. амнамъ
Sammalahti's version: ? *ams3-
References: Steinitz DEWO 103; Paas. Beitr. 88 Anm.
Number: 13
Proto: *anV (*onV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: big, much
German meaning: gross; viel
Udmurt (Votyak): uno (S), uno, u̇no (J), ị̑no (Uf.) 'viel'
Komi (Zyrian): una (S), una. (P PO) 'Menge; viel'
Khanty (Ostyak): ănǝ (DN) 'dick, feist', unǝ (Sog., Ni.), wǫn (Kaz.) 'groß'
Nganasan (Tawgi): aniʔe groß
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Ud Ko - rather to 137, as assumed also in UEW (Reshet.) A preliminary etymological solution. Phonological shape of Ngan. aniʔe is somewhat unclear, since it is attested only by Castrén, who didn't distinguish Ngan. a and ǝ marking both as a. The comparison is more plausible if a- in the Ngan. word = ǝ- < Sam. *ǝ- (not = a- < Sam. *ä- or *э-). Contrary to Rédei, the Khanty word hardly can be borrowed from Komi una 'much, many' (Khanty Ni. and So. unǝ is similar to Komi una, but there are also UD ănǝ and Kz. wọn, which can't be deduced from the Komi form).
References: Stein.Fgr.Vok.49; DEWO 111
Number: 14
Proto: *anV(-ppV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: mother-in-law
German meaning: Schwiegermutter
Finnish: anoppi (gen. anopin) 'Schwiegermutter'
Saam (Lapp): vuone -dnam- (N), vuonēv (L), vī̊in (gen. vi̊ønnaime) (T), vūine (gen. vuønnaim) (Kld.), vuene (gen. vuannem, -am) (Not.)
Khanty (Ostyak): ŏntǝp (Trj.), untǝp (Ko.), ontep (O)
Mansi (Vogul): ɔ̄nip (So.)
Hungarian: dial. napa (altung. nap) (?)
Nenets (Yurak): ŋinab (O) 'Vater der Frau, älterer Bruder der Frau', ńe-ŋinab 'Schwiegermutter' (O)
Enets (Yen): inobo 'Schwiegervater; älterer Bruder der Frau'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋinaba
Kamass: ǝmbi, ǝmbǝ 'Schwiegervater, Stiefvater'
Janhunen's version: (39, 40)
Sammalahti's version: *i6na(jppi6)
Addenda: Koib. имдетъ 'тесть', Mot. иникемъ
K. Reshetnikov's notes: This Uralic word is a compound: its second part is undoubtedly nothing but *ɨpp/e/ (*appe in the reconstruction accepted in UEW) 'father-in-law' (URAET 21) - see Janhunen 1981: 227-228, 236-237 (consequently, Rédei's interpretation of the reflexes of *-ppV as suffixes is wrong - at least from the historical point of view). As for the first part, *ɨn/a/-, it obviously means 'mother-in-law': this meaning is attested in Lapp., where this root is preserved beyond the compound. Since in Uralic compounds the first part determines the second one and not vice versa, the meaning we deal with in this case is apparently 'mother-in-law father-in-law'='female father-in-law'='mother-in-law' (cf. Nenets n'e-ŋɨnab 'mother-in-law', where ŋɨnab is 'father-in-law' and n'e means 'woman'). Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that the use of this word for denoting male relatives in Samoyed is secondary (so Helimski's question about the semantical reconstrution /warum Schwiegermutter, nicht Schwiegervater?/ can be answered). Cf., however, Mtr. инике-мъ, which seems to reflect the stem *ɨna preserved beyond the compound (just like Lapp. *vōnē-m), but means 'father-in-law'.
References: FUV; SKES; DEWO 127; MUSz. 392; SzófSz.; TESz.; MSzFgrE; Paas. Beitr. 19; Collinder Comp.Gr. 405
Number: 15
Proto: *ańa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: wife of an elder relative; ? mother
German meaning: Frau eines älteren Verwandten (des Bruders, des Onkels); ? Mutter
Saam (Lapp): vi̊øńńe (oa) (T), vuǝńńe 'Frau des älteren Bruders'
Mordovian: niz-ańa 'Schwiegermutter' (E), ańaka 'ältere Schwester' (M) (?)
Udmurt (Votyak): ańi̮ 'Hanfgarbe' (J)
Komi (Zyrian): e̮ńe, e̮ńa 'Schwägerin (Brudersfrau, Mannesschwester)', uńe 'Tante', ońa (VU) 'Schwiegertochter (Frau des Sohnes), Schwägerin', ? ań 'Schwiegermutter (der Frau)', (V P) ań 'Frau (V); Mutter des Mannes (P)'
Khanty (Ostyak): ăńǝki̮ (V), ăńǝχǝ (DN), ȧ̆ńǝχi (O) 'Frau des älteren Bruders; Stiefmutter'
Mansi (Vogul): āńī (TJ) 'Frau des Vaterbruders', uńńǝm (LU) 'meine Tante', ɔ̄̈ń (KO), āń (P), āńēkoa 'Großmutter mütterlichseits', ōńi, ōń (K) 'Tante', ā̊ńi̊' 'Schwägerin' (N)
Hungarian: ángy 'des Gatten Schwester; die Frau des (älteren) Bruders; des Onkels oder Großonkels Frau; des Vetters Frau; die Frau eines jeden älteren Verwandten', ? anya (anyát, anyja) 'Mutter, dial. Schwiegermutter'
Nenets (Yurak): ńeje (O) 'jüngere Schwester der Mutter'
Selkup: ońa (TaU), ońo (Ty.) 'Frau des älteren Bruders'
Sammalahti's version: FU *an'a
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Not LO, but LU (i.e. LL)! Cf. Komi un'e 'aunt' - can't the Mansi form with -u- be a Komi loan? Note the similarity between the Komi and Selk. forms (a secondary contact relation can't be excluded). On the other hand, NeO n'eje 'mother's younger sister' (mentioned in UEW as a cognate of the Uralic words in question) is unclear - it doesn't correspond to Selk. with regard to vocalism. Contrary to UEW, Permic *an'V > Komi Pm., Wi. an' 'Schwiegermutter (der Frau), Mutter des Mannes', Vg. an' 'Frau', Udm. Ye. an'ɨ 'Hanfgarbe', Mans. UK ȫn', Pe. ān', Ss. ān'-ēk̥a 'Grossmutter mütterlicherseits', Hun. anya 'Mutter', (dial.) 'Schwiegermutter', -ány (=ān') in le-ány 'Tochter, Mädchen', literally 'small woman' (le- < Ugr. *lVjV 'klein, jung') and apparently Mord. E -an'a in niz-an'a 'mother-in-law', M an'a-ka 'elder sister' should be kept apart from the forms listed above (see URAET 1802). Besides, Komi Ud. un'e 'Tante' is also likely to belong to another etymon (URAET 1801).
References: FUV; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 745; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Munkácsi B. Árja és kaukázusi elemek... 132
Number: 16
Proto: *aŋa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to untie, open
German meaning: lösen, öffnen, aufmachen
Finnish: avaa- 'öffnen, ausbreiten, erweitern', avanto 'Wuhne'
Estonian: ava- 'öffnen, aufmachen'
Mordovian: ankśima, avśima (E), ańćema (M) 'Wuhne'
Khanty (Ostyak): aŋǝ- (V) 'öffnen (einen Knoten), aufmachen, aufbinden (z. B. eine Fuhre)', eŋk- (DT) 'losmachen, -binden', eŋ- (O) 'ausziehen (Kleidungsstück, Schuh', aufknoten'
Mansi (Vogul): ē̮ŋk- (TJ, LU), āŋoχo- (So.) '(die Kleider) ausziehen, ablegen (die Schneeschuhe)', ø̄ŋkws- (P) 'das Fell (des Bären) abziehen'
Hungarian: old- (altung. ód-) 'lösen, auflösen; (knoten) losbinden'
Sammalahti's version: *i6ŋa
References: FUV; SKES; DEWO 143; MUSz. 723; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Bárczi G. Magyar hangtörténet 1958: 98
Number: 17
Proto: *aŋe
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: opening, hole
German meaning: Öffnung, Einschnitt, Vertiefung
Saam (Lapp): vuoŋȃs -gŋ- 'halter or band on the muzzle of a dog, to prevent it from biting reindeer' (N), vuoŋasti- '(einen Hund) mit Maulkorb versehen' (L)
Mordovian: on-kśt́, oj-kst (E), ov-ks (M) 'Gebiß am Zaum'
Mari (Cheremis): äŋ 'Mündung' (KB), aŋ 'Öffnung des Sacks' (PS)
Udmurt (Votyak): i̮m (S), ǝ̑m (K), ị̑m (G) 'Mund, Öffnung, Mündung'
Komi (Zyrian): vom (S), ve̮m (Ud.), e̮m (P) 'Mund, Mündung', u̇m (PO) 'Mund'
Khanty (Ostyak): ŏŋ (V), oŋ (DN), uŋ (O) 'Mund, Mündung'
Hungarian: aj, áj (dial.) 'Kerbe; Tal, Schlucht', ajak 'Lippe'
Nenets (Yurak): ńaʔ (O), ńāŋʔ (Nj.) 'Mund'
Enets (Yen): êʔ (gen. eoʔ) (Ch.), naʔ (gen. nâʔ) (B)
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋâŋ
Selkup: oang (Ta.), aang, ā́ng (Ke.), āq (Ty.) 'Flußmündung', åq (Tur.)
Kamass:
Janhunen's version: (106) *аŋi6
Sammalahti's version: *аŋi6
Addenda: Koib. an, Mot. ag-ma, Karag. ен-де; Taig. äŋ-de
K. Reshetnikov's notes: The appearance of *ä- in Samoyed *äŋ in the place of Ur. *a (or *ō?) is probably due to a contamination with *äŋǝ- 'chin' (< *Ur. *äŋ/e/, see 44). It is also possible that we deal with a purely phonetical phenomenon - indeed, such development is observed in some cases (see, for instance, URAET 19; cf. also Janhunen 1981, 255-256), but a satisfactory explanation for it is still to be found.
References: FUV; КЭСКЯ; MUSz. 721, 723; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.; Paas. Beitr. 27; Stein. Fgr.Vok. 45
Number: 18
Proto: *aŋke
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: narrow, pressed
German meaning: eng, bedrückt, Bedrängnis; eng werden
Finnish: ankea 'schwer, bedrängt, bedrückt, niedergeschlagen', ange (gen. ankeen) 'Bedrängnis'
Estonian: angu- 'gerinnen, starr werden'
Hungarian: aggód- 'sich kümmern; (dial.) zu Quark aus Kuhmilch werden (saure Milch am warmen Ort)', (dial.) óg- 'sich ängstigen, sich kümmern, für etwas Sorge tragen'
K. Redei's notes: Das ostseefinnische Wort ist möglicherweise eine Entlehnung aus dem Germanischen (vgl. got. aggwus 'eng...'). Zu dem ung. Wort s. noch *šoŋk3 'eng, Bedrängnis, eng werden'. (Rédei.)
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Therefore, it is possible that FU *aŋk3 doesn't exist at all.
References: SKES; EtSz.; SzófSz.; MSzFgrE; TESz.
Number: 19
Proto: *aŋtV (*oŋtV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: horn
German meaning: Horn
Khanty (Ostyak): ăŋǝt (V), oŋǝt (DN), aŋǝt (O) 'Horn'
Mansi (Vogul): ɛ̮̄ńt (TJ), ɔ̄̈ńt (KU), ē̮ńt (KO), ońt (P), āńt (So.)
Nenets (Yurak): ńāmt (O) 'Horn, Geweih (u. a. des Renntiers)'
Enets (Yen): eddo (Ch.), naddo (B)
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋamta
Selkup: âamdǝ (Ta.), áamddэ (Ke.), aamd, amd (N) 'Horn, Geweih'
Kamass: amno
Addenda: Koib. amna 'Horn', mot. amdu
K. Reshetnikov's notes: Helimski's suggestion concerning Samoyed is really witty: indeed, the comparison of the Ugric word with Sam. *äŋtǝ 'edge (of a knife etc.)' is far better phonetically (and quite acceptable semantically). However, at present no alternative hypotheses about origin of Sam. *ämtǝ 'horn' can be suggested (~ Yukagir amun 'bone'?).
References: DEWO 144; Collinder, Comp.Gr. 132
Number: 20
Proto: *aŋV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: polar duck
German meaning: Schneehuhn, Eisente, Polarente; Harelda glacialis, Anas hiemalis
Saam (Lapp): hâŋ'ŋa -ŋŋ- ~ hâŋ'ŋja 'long-tailed duck, Harelda glacialis' (N), haŋŋā ~ haŋŋēk ~ haŋŋōk 'Eisente; Harelda hiemalis' (L), aŋŋalagges, haŋŋalikka, angalok (N Friis), aŋ̀ŋ-лon̨̄dE (Kld.), aŋ̀ŋa-лo̮D̨̀t̨E (Ko. Not.), aŋ̀ŋa-lo̮D̨D̨E (P) 'Polarente (Harelda)', aŋŋàlahka 'zahme Ente' (Malå) ( > Finn. dial. hankelas, hankelo, hankilo 'Eisente, Winterente (Fuligula glacialis); Stockente (Anas boschas)')
Khanty (Ostyak): i̮ŋk (V), eŋχ (DN) 'Schneehuhn, Rebhuhn [?]'
Mansi (Vogul): ǟŋghā̊ (T), øŋkhė (K) 'Schneehuhn', āŋkǝ (P) 'id., Rebhuhn', ē̮ŋkǝ (KM) 'Schneehuhn'
Nenets (Yurak): ŋāŋū 'Eisente, Polarente; Anas hiemalis'
Enets (Yen): ŋau 'Ente'
Nganasan (Tawgi): ŋaŋod́a 'Ente'
Selkup: uu (Ta. Ke.), uu, ú (N) 'Schneehuhn'
Kamass: uŋa 'Rebhuhn'
Addenda: Koib. angat 'Anas rutila'; Karag. onhò 'Tetrao lagopus'
References: FUV; SKES; DEWO 134
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