Meaning:1 weak, frail 2 insipid, tasteless 3 less fertile, meager (land) 4 to be weakened, waste away
Bizkaian:aul 1, 2, 3
Gipuzkoan:aul, abol 1, 3
High Navarrese:aul 1, 3
Low Navarrese:ahul 1, 3
Lapurdian:ahul 1, 3
Zuberoan:áhül 1, 2, 3
Comments:Trask, following Mitxelena, derives this word from Old Cast. ávol ‘low, bad’ or Old Occit. avol, aul ‘schlecht, elend’, but REW (3960) finds any derivation of these from Lat. habilis ‘handy’, etc., or advolus (‘prostrate’?) doubtful. Occ.-Provençal devol ‘weak’ does come from Lat. debilis (REW 2491), but obviously cannot account for Bsq *ahul.
Comments:A northeastern word, instead of which southwestern Bsq uses *aur̄e 'front' (q.v.). This is one of the Bsq words in which the change of the cluster *lc > /nc/ was only partially carried through (cf. Bsq *ulce 'nail').
Meaning:1 brother (general) 2 brother (of a male) 3 brother (of a female)
Bizkaian:anai, anaie, anae 2, ne-ba 3
High Navarrese:anaie 1
Low Navarrese:anaie 1
Comments:The distinction between 'brother (of a male)' and 'brother (of a female)' is only Bizkaian: elsewhere *aṅai- serves for both meanings. The Bsq root *aṅai- ‘brother’ closely matches PNC *ʔānV(jV) ‘mother’ (phonetically). The explanation could be that this word was originally a descriptive attached to the original word for ‘brother’ (now lost), i.e. ‘brother (from the same mother)’, as opposed to a half-brother (brother with the same father but different mother). Cf. Greek ἀδεʎφός ‘brother’ / ἀδεʎφή ‘sister’, orig. ‘of the same womb’ = Old Indic sa-garbhya-. Typologically cf. also Lahndā matreā ‘half-brother’, matriā ‘half-brother or -sister’, Panjabi matreā, mateā ‘half-brother’ < OI *mātrēya ‘maternal’ (T 10024). The element *an- also seems to be present in Bsq *an-his-ba 'sister (of female)', q.v.
Gipuzkoan:antz 1, antzeko 2, antze 4, antzera-tu 5
High Navarrese:antze 4, (Lezaka) antz 4
Lapurdian:antz 4, antze 4
Comments:This word exhibits a common change of PSC *l (in clusters such as *lʒ́, *lǯ, *lč̣, *lc̣, *lč, etc.) > Bsq /n/: cf. PEC *hilčwĒ 'to run' ~ Bsq *e=henśi 'to flee', etc. In some words the change was not completed in all Bsq dialects, e.g. Bsq *ulce '(metal) nail' (BZK ultze ~ untze, etc.) ~ PEC *jä̆lc̣wV (Bezhta hũc̣u 'wedge', etc.).
Meaning:1 lady (señora) 2 young lady (señorita) 3 concubine 4 doll 5 woman (in general)
Bizkaian:andra, anra 1, 5, (arc) andera 1
Gipuzkoan:andre 1, anddere 4
High Navarrese:andre, anre 1, anddere 4
Low Navarrese:andre 1, andere 2, 4
Zuberoan:andre 1, 3, andére 2, 3, 4
Comments:Also for the Virgin Mary: Andra Maria, Andre Maria. This is apparently an old word, found in Aquitanian names.
Comments:Cf. PNC*bü̆ɫV 'horned animal'. The variant abel- appears in compounds such as abel-buru 'head of cattle'. Michelena (1961) derives this word from Lat. habere, though the semantic derivation is tortuous ('to have' > 'possession' > 'animal'), and internal reconstruction brings us to *a(=)bele, phonetically and semantically a straightforward match with PSC *bVɫV.
Comments:Cf. *ei=har̄ and *i=dor̄: Bsq has several words for 'dry' with different nuances. In BZK legor and idor apply to vegetation, igar to animals and bones (Azkue 1905); in ZBR agor pertains to sources and streams of water, ütsal to aliments and terrain, eihar to the human body, fauna and flora, and idor to dryness in general (Larrasquet 1939). Possibly these distinctions go back to old (extinct) noun classes.
Comments:Trask (1995) mentions the possibility of derivation from Lat. avule 'grandfather', though, as Trask admits, it should have given Bsq *abure. (The change of *g > b is sporadic in Bsq dialects [see *śagu 'mouse'], but not *b> g). Bouda (1948) compared Bsq + Andi =oχor 'old (of a person)', etc.