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Basque etymology :

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\data\sinocauc\basqet
Proto-Basque: *aci-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to take, catch, seize 2 theft, stealing 3 to steal, rob 4 to extort
Gipuzkoan: atzi-tu 1,
High Navarrese: atzi-tu 1,
Low Navarrese: atzi-pe 2, atsi-pa-tu 3
Lapurdian: (Ainhoa) atzi-pa-tu 4
Comments: Forms of the type (h)atzaman, (h)atzeman 'to catch, find, find out, guess' are derived rather from *hace 'back part, track' + *e=ma-n 'to give', but blending is not ruled out.
Proto-Basque: *aco
Meaning: yesterday
Bizkaian: atzo
Gipuzkoan: atzo
High Navarrese: atzo
Low Navarrese: atzo
Lapurdian: atzo
Zuberoan: átzo
Roncalese: atzo
Comments: Cf. PWC *ća in Abkhaz *ja-ćǝ 'yesterday', *źʷa-ćǝ 'day before yesterday', Circ. *t:ǝɣʷa-sa 'yesterday', etc. (Chirikba 1996: 230). Comparison by Bouda (1948).
Proto-Basque: *adar̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 branch 2 knot (of tree) 3 leg (of chair, bed)
Bizkaian: adar 1, 3
Gipuzkoan: adar 1, 2, 3
High Navarrese: adar 1, 3
Low Navarrese: adar 1
Lapurdian: adar 1
Zuberoan: ádar 1, 2
Roncalese: adar 1
Comments: This word has merged phonetically with *a=dar̄ 'horn' (q.v.), of distinct origin.
Proto-Basque: *ahanci
Meaning: to forget
Bizkaian: aaz-tu, az-tu, (Arratia) antzi-tu, (arc) anz-tu
Gipuzkoan: az-tu
High Navarrese: (Esteribar, Larraun) az-tu
Low Navarrese: ahatzi
Salazarese: atze
Lapurdian: ahantzi, (arc) ahanze, ahanzi
Baztanese: antzi, anzi
Zuberoan: ãhã́tze
Roncalese: ãtze, átze
Comments: Cf. PY *ʔen-sä- 'to forget', Arin anči-gɨtpuju, etc.
Proto-Basque: *ahul
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 weak, frail 2 insipid, tasteless 3 less fertile, meager (land) 4 to be weakened, waste away
Bizkaian: aul 1, 2, 3
Gipuzkoan: aul, abol 1, 3
High Navarrese: aul 1, 3
Low Navarrese: ahul 1, 3
Lapurdian: ahul 1, 3
Zuberoan: áhül 1, 2, 3
Roncalese: aul-tu 4
Comments: Trask, following Mitxelena, derives this word from Old Cast. ávol ‘low, bad’ or Old Occit. avol, aul ‘schlecht, elend’, but REW (3960) finds any derivation of these from Lat. habilis ‘handy’, etc., or advolus (‘prostrate’?) doubtful. Occ.-Provençal devol ‘weak’ does come from Lat. debilis (REW 2491), but obviously cannot account for Bsq *ahul.
Proto-Basque: *aihen
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 woody stem, vinestock 2 place where several roof beams cross each other 3 rustic sledge made of two branches in a V-shape
Bizkaian: aien 1
Gipuzkoan: aien 1
High Navarrese: aien 1
Low Navarrese: aihen 1, (Heleta) aihen 2
Lapurdian: aihen 1
Zuberoan: aihen 1
Roncalese: axen 3
Proto-Basque: *ailcin
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 front, space in front 2 before, in front
High Navarrese: alzin, aitzin 1, (Ulzama) ailziñen 2, (Elkano) al(t)zinean 2
Low Navarrese: ainzin, aintzin, aitzin 1, aintzinean 2
Salazarese: altzina 1, al(t)zinean 2
Lapurdian: aintzin, aitzin 1
Aezkoan: ailtzinean 2
Zuberoan: aitzĩ́nẽ 1
Roncalese: antzin, aintzina 1
Comments: A northeastern word, instead of which southwestern Bsq uses *aur̄e 'front' (q.v.). This is one of the Bsq words in which the change of the cluster *lc > /nc/ was only partially carried through (cf. Bsq *ulce 'nail').
Proto-Basque: *ain̄egu
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: rye
Salazarese: añagu
Aezkoan: añegu
Roncalese: añai
Comments: A Pyrenean isogloss, preserved against the innovation < Lat. sēcale ‘rye’; western Bsq *sikirio (q.v., of unclear origin).
Proto-Basque: *aker̄
Meaning: male goat
Bizkaian: akar, aker
Gipuzkoan: aker
High Navarrese: aker
Low Navarrese: akher
Lapurdian: akher
Zuberoan: ákher
Comments: Cf. Bur. (N) karéelo 'ram'.
Proto-Basque: *aṅai- / *ne-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 brother (general) 2 brother (of a male) 3 brother (of a female)
Bizkaian: anai, anaie, anae 2, ne-ba 3
Gipuzkoan: anai 1
High Navarrese: anaie 1
Low Navarrese: anaie 1
Salazarese: anaxe 1
Lapurdian: anaie 1
Zuberoan: anáie 1
Roncalese: anaxe 1
Comments: The distinction between 'brother (of a male)' and 'brother (of a female)' is only Bizkaian: elsewhere *aṅai- serves for both meanings. The Bsq root *aṅai- ‘brother’ closely matches PNC *ʔānV(jV) ‘mother’ (phonetically). The explanation could be that this word was originally a descriptive attached to the original word for ‘brother’ (now lost), i.e. ‘brother (from the same mother)’, as opposed to a half-brother (brother with the same father but different mother). Cf. Greek ἀδεʎφός ‘brother’ / ἀδεʎφή ‘sister’, orig. ‘of the same womb’ = Old Indic sa-garbhya-. Typologically cf. also Lahndā matreā ‘half-brother’, matriā ‘half-brother or -sister’, Panjabi matreā, mateā ‘half-brother’ < OI *mātrēya ‘maternal’ (T 10024). The element *an- also seems to be present in Bsq *an-his-ba 'sister (of female)', q.v.
Proto-Basque: *anc(i) / *anco
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 likeness, resemblance, appearance 2 alike, resembling 3 proportion, manner, measure 4 skill, dexterity, craft 5 to imitate
Bizkaian: antz 1, antzeko 2, antzera-tu 5, (Mundaka, Oñate, Otxandiano) antzi 1, 4
Gipuzkoan: antz 1, antzeko 2, antze 4, antzera-tu 5
High Navarrese: antze 4, (Lezaka) antz 4
Lapurdian: antz 4, antze 4
Zuberoan: antzo 3
Comments: This word exhibits a common change of PSC *l (in clusters such as *lʒ́, *lǯ, *lč̣, *lc̣, *lč, etc.) > Bsq /n/: cf. PEC *hilčwĒ 'to run' ~ Bsq *e=henśi 'to flee', etc. In some words the change was not completed in all Bsq dialects, e.g. Bsq *ulce '(metal) nail' (BZK ultze ~ untze, etc.) ~ PEC *jä̆lc̣wV (Bezhta hũc̣u 'wedge', etc.).
Proto-Basque: *andere
Meaning: 1 lady (señora) 2 young lady (señorita) 3 concubine 4 doll 5 woman (in general)
Araban: andra 1
Bizkaian: andra, anra 1, 5, (arc) andera 1
Gipuzkoan: andre 1, anddere 4
High Navarrese: andre, anre 1, anddere 4
Low Navarrese: andre 1, andere 2, 4
Lapurdian: andre 1
Zuberoan: andre 1, 3, andére 2, 3, 4
Roncalese: andere 1
Comments: Also for the Virgin Mary: Andra Maria, Andre Maria. This is apparently an old word, found in Aquitanian names.
Proto-Basque: *angio
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: pasture, meadow
Bizkaian: angio, angia, angi
Low Navarrese: xangio
Comments: Wider distribution is indicated by the GIP place name Angio-zar 'old pasture'. The BNV form contains an expressive prefix *č- (= PEC *č- ~ *č̣-).
Proto-Basque: *an-his-ba
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sister (of a woman)
Bizkaian: aizta
Gipuzkoan: aizpa
High Navarrese: (Esteribar) aizpa, (Ondarrabia) aispa
Low Navarrese: ahizpa
Salazarese: ainzpa
Lapurdian: aizpa
Baztanese: aizpa
Aezkoan: aizpa
Zuberoan: ãhĩ́zpa
Roncalese: aĩzpa
Comments: For the segment *an- see *aṅai- / *ne-ba 'brother'; for the element *-ba see the separate record *-ba.
Proto-Basque: *a=bele
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 large (domestic) animal, cattle 2 bovine animal 3 equine animal
Araban: abere 1
Bizkaian: abere 1
Gipuzkoan: abere 3
High Navarrese: abere, abre 2
Low Navarrese: abere 1
Salazarese: abre 1
Lapurdian: abere 1, (arc) abre 1
Baztanese: abere 1
Aezkoan: abere 1
Zuberoan: abére, abée 1
Roncalese: abre 1
Comments: Cf. PNC*bü̆ɫV 'horned animal'. The variant abel- appears in compounds such as abel-buru 'head of cattle'. Michelena (1961) derives this word from Lat. habere, though the semantic derivation is tortuous ('to have' > 'possession' > 'animal'), and internal reconstruction brings us to *a(=)bele, phonetically and semantically a straightforward match with PSC *bVɫV.
Proto-Basque: *a=ćo
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 old woman 2 grandmother 3 barren woman
Bizkaian: atso 1
Gipuzkoan: atso 1, (Andoain) atxo 3
High Navarrese: atso 1
Low Navarrese: atso 1
Salazarese: atso 1, 2
Lapurdian: atso 1
Baztanese: atso 1
Aezkoan: atso 1
Zuberoan: atso 1
Roncalese: atso 1
Comments: In at least some dialects: atxo /ačo/ 'little old lady, viejecita'.
Proto-Basque: *a=dar̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: horn
Bizkaian: adar
Gipuzkoan: adar
High Navarrese: adar
Low Navarrese: adar
Salazarese: adar
Lapurdian: adar
Baztanese: adar
Aezkoan: adar
Zuberoan: ádar
Roncalese: adar
Comments: Cf. the homonym *adar̄ 'branch', of distinct origin.
Proto-Basque: *a=gor̄, *e=gar̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 dry, barren, unproductive 2 thirst
Bizkaian: agor 1, egarri 2
Gipuzkoan: agor 1, egarri 2
High Navarrese: agor 1, egarri 2
Low Navarrese: agor 1, egarri 2
Lapurdian: agor 1, egarri 2
Zuberoan: agor 1, egárri 2
Roncalese: agor 1, egarri 2
Comments: Cf. *ei=har̄ and *i=dor̄: Bsq has several words for 'dry' with different nuances. In BZK legor and idor apply to vegetation, igar to animals and bones (Azkue 1905); in ZBR agor pertains to sources and streams of water, ütsal to aliments and terrain, eihar to the human body, fauna and flora, and idor to dryness in general (Larrasquet 1939). Possibly these distinctions go back to old (extinct) noun classes.
Proto-Basque: *a=gure
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 old man 2 childless married man
Bizkaian: agure, agura 1
Gipuzkoan: agure 1, agura 2
High Navarrese: agure 1, (Larraun) agura 2
Lapurdian: (Donibane) agure 1
Comments: Trask (1995) mentions the possibility of derivation from Lat. avule 'grandfather', though, as Trask admits, it should have given Bsq *abure. (The change of *g > b is sporadic in Bsq dialects [see *śagu 'mouse'], but not *b > g). Bouda (1948) compared Bsq + Andi =oχor 'old (of a person)', etc.
Proto-Basque: *a=hali
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 ram 2 sheep (general) 3 shepherd (of rams)
Bizkaian: ari 1, (Markina) aari 1
Gipuzkoan: ari 1
Low Navarrese: ahari 1, 2
Salazarese: ari 1
Lapurdian: ahari 1, 2
Baztanese: aal-zain, al-zai, al-tzai 3
Zuberoan: ahári [ãhã́j] 1, 2
Roncalese: ári 1
Comments: Cf. PEC *χ_[ǝ]lV 'ewe, ram'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-comments,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-sal,basqet-azk,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-comments,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-bnv,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-lab,basqet-comments,basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,
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