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Proto-IE: *alk(')- / *alk('-)
Meaning: a k. of waterfowl, kingfisher
Old Greek: alküṓn (/ halküṓn), -ónos f. `Meereisvogel, Alcedo ispida'
Germanic: *álx-(i)ō f., *ilg=́
Latin: alcēdō, gen. -inis f. `Eisvogel'
Russ. meaning: птица (водяная), зимородок
References: WP I 155
Proto-IE: *alk'-/e-
Meaning: elk
Old Indian: ŕśya- m. `male of a sp. of antelope'
Other Iranian: {Pamir. rus 'wildes Bergschaf'}
Old Greek: ? álkǟ `Elk' (Paus.) < Germ.? (but cf. Lat alcē(s) < Greek)
Slavic: *lôsь
Germanic: *alg-í- m., *ílx-a- m., *ílx-an- m.
Russ. meaning: скот (лось)
References: WP I 154 f
Comments: Lat alcēs, alcē, acc. alcēn etc. < Greek ? (selon sa déclinaison)
Proto-IE: *Alm-
Meaning: liquid, pus
Tokharian: B ālme 'spring (of water)' (Adams 55-56)
Baltic: *al̃m-iā̃ f., *al̃-mō̃ (-men-)
Germanic: *ulm=
Russ. meaning: гной, гниль
References: WP I 152 f
Proto-IE: *(a)lōp-
Meaning: fox
Armenian: aɫuēs `Fuchs' (< *alōpēk'-)
Old Greek: alṓpēk-s, -ekos f. `Fuchs'; alōpeúei = anikhneúei Hsch.; alōpā́ (Alk., Hsch.), alōpó-s (Hdn.) `Fuchs'
Baltic: *lap-iā̃ f., *lap-s-ā̂ f.
Russ. meaning: зверек (лиса)
References: WP I 317
Proto-IE: *alp- <PIH *a->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: weak
Hittite: alpanta- (alpant-) 'ill, weak'
Old Indian: álpa-, alpaka- `small, minute, trifling'
Baltic: *al̃p- vb., *al̃p-na- adj., *al̃p-ā̂ f., *alp-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *alb-a- m., *alb-i- c.
Russ. meaning: слабый
References: WP I 92
Proto-IE: *alut-, -d-
Meaning: yeast, alum, beer
Old Greek: alǘdoi̯mo- `bemitleidenswert'; alǘd(o)imon = pikrón Sophron ap. Hsch.; inf. alüdmaínein = pikráinein ? Hsch.
Slavic: *olъ
Baltic: *al-u n.
Germanic: *alúɵ; *alw-a- m.~n.; *alú-ɵr-a- n.
Latin: alūmen, -inis n. `bitteres Tonerdesalz, Alaun', alūta f. `Alaunleder'
Russ. meaning: дрожжи, квасцы; пиво
References: WP I 91
Proto-IE: *(a)mal[a]- / -e-, *(a)mlā-
Meaning: to soften, to weaken; soft, weak, tender
Tokharian: B malya(k)ke 'youthful, puerile' (Adams 442)
Old Indian: mlāti, mlāyati `to fade, wither, decay, vanish', ptc. mlāna-, mlātá-; mr̥dú- `soft, tender, mild', fem. mrdvī́, comp. mradīyān; márdhati, mr̥dhati `to neglect, forsake, abandon' [rather to *mers-?]; mr̥ḍati, mr̥ḍáyati, mr̥ḍnāti `to be gracious, favourable', mr̥ḍīká- n. `favour'; marāla- 'soft, mild, tender'
Avestan: mrāta- `durch Gerben weich geworden'; vimradati `erweicht'; mǝrǝždā- `verzeihen'
Armenian: meɫm `weich, schlaff'; meɫk `weichlich, schlaf'
Old Greek: amaló- `schwach, zart', amblǘ- `stumpf, schwach'; bladǘ- 'flaccid'prob. in Hp. Aër.20; *bladǘ-: bladeîs= adǘnatos eks adünátōn Hsch., amaldǘnō `zerstören, schwächen, entstellen'; bladartó- = eklelüménos, khaûnos Hsch., adv. bladán = nōthrō̂s Hsch., bladós = adǘnatos Hsch.; dial. > ion.-att. blāk-s, gen. blākós `schlaff, stumpsinnig, dumm'; blǟkhró- `schwach'; malthakó-, aeol. mólthako- `weich, verweichlicht, zart, mild', málthōn m. `Weichling'; malakó- `weich, sanft, zart, weichlich, schlaff'
Slavic: *moldъ(jь), *moldь
Baltic: *mal-ā̂n-iā̃ f., *mal-d-ia- m., *mal-d-ais-i- adj.
Germanic: *mil-d-i-, *mal-d-a- adj.
Latin: mollis, -e `weich, locker, geschmeidig, biegsam; mild, sanft, nachgiebig; weichlich, schwach'
Celtic: *mlot-, *mlāti-, *mal- > OIr mlāith `sanft, glatt, weich'; meldach `weich, zart, angenehm'; malcaim `verfaule', MIr blāith `sanft, glatt, weich'; Cymr blydd `sanft, zart'
Russ. meaning: размягчать, ослаблять; мягкий, слабый, нежный
References: WP II 284 f
Comments: Derivates meaning 'sand, clay' belong rather to *mel- q.v.
Proto-IE: *(a)maur- / *(a)marw-
Meaning: weak, friable
Old Greek: amau̯ró-, `trübe, dunkel, schwach', mâu̯ro-/mau̯ró- `id.'
Slavic: *smūrъ, *xmūrъ; *mьrvā
Baltic: *marw-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *mirw-a-, *mirw-i- adj., *murw-(i)a-, *maur-ia-
Latin: morbus, -ī m. `Krankheit; Sucht, Leidenschaft'
Celtic: *merwi- > MIr meirb; Cymr merw `schlaff, schwach'
Russ. meaning: слабый, рыхлый
References: WP II 233, 276 f
Proto-IE: *ambhi
Meaning: prep./adv.: by, around
Old Indian: abhítaḥ 'near to, towards; on both sides'; abhi 'to, towards, into, over, upon'
Avestan: aiwito 'zu beiden Seiten, rings'; aibī, aiwi 'über, in betreff von'
Other Iranian: OPers abiy 'über, in betreff von'
Old Greek: amphí 'um'
Germanic: OHG, OSax umbi, OIsl umb, OE ymb, ymbe 'um'
Latin: amb-, am-, an- 'herum, um, ringsum', OLat praep. am 'circum'
Celtic: Gaul ambi- 'um', Cymr am-, em-, ym-, Corn, Bret am-, em-, OIr imb-, imm- 'um'
Russ. meaning: вокруг, у
References: WP I 54 f
Comments: Probably same root as in 'both', see *bhō, bhē; a(m)-bhō, a(m)-bhē.
Proto-IE: *ambhor-
Meaning: tub, bucket
Old Indian: ambhrṇá- m. `a vessel (used in preparing the Soma juice)'
Old Greek: amphoréu̯-s m. `zweihenkeliger konischen Krug, auch als Mass für Flüssigkeiten gebraucht', demin. amphorídio-n, amphório-n
Germanic: *ambr-ia- m., *aimbr-ia- m.
Russ. meaning: сосуд (ушат)
References: WP II 153 f
Comments: Cf. *amb-, *ab-. In Greek reanalyzed as *amphi-phoreus, and in Germ. partially as *aina-br- (i. e. in exactly opposite sense - depending on the number of handles in the vessel).
Proto-IE: *(a)meigʷ-
Meaning: to change
Old Greek: améi̯bō, -omai̯ `wechseln, (ver)tauschen, eintauschen', med. auch `antworten, vergelten'; amoi̯bó- `ablösend, zum Entgelt', amoi̯bǟ́ `Wechsel, Tausch(handel), Vergeltung, Dank, Antwort usw.'
Latin: migrāre `wandern, ziehen, übersiedeln; sich verändern', tr. `wegbringen, fortschaffen; übertreten, überschreiten'
Russ. meaning: менять
References: WP II 245
Proto-IE: *amel-
Meaning: a fruit tree, its fruit
Old Indian: āmra- m. `mango tree'
Old Greek: ? ámpelo-s f. `Weinstock, Weinrebe'
Germanic: *amil-ōn- f. ?
Celtic: Gaul amella `Gaisblatt'
Russ. meaning: растение (плод некий)
References: WP I 179
Proto-IE: *(a)melǝg'-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to milk
Tokharian: A malke, B malkwer 'milk', A mālk- 'to milk' (Adams 442)
Old Greek: amélgō `melken', amolgǟ́ 'milking'; amolgéu̯-s `Milcheimer', ámelksi-s f. `das Melken'
Slavic: *melztī, *mьlzǭ; *melzīvo; *molzъ; *molstь
Baltic: *mel̂ǯ-/*mil̂ǯ- (*melǯ-a-, -ja-) vb. tr., *mal̂ǯ-ī̂- vb.
Germanic: *miluk-, *milik- ; *milk-a- vb., *miluk-ia- vb., *milx-t-ō f., *milk-tr-ō(n-) f., *mulk=
Latin: mulgeō, -ēre, mulsī, mulctum (ēmulsus, mulsūra) `melken', mulctra f. `Melkkübel'
Celtic: *melg-, *mlg-, *mlgti- > OIr bligim `ich melke', pf. do-om-malg `mulxi', mlegun `dfas Melken', melg n- (es-St.) `Milch', gen. bō-milge `der Kuhmilch', mlicht, blicht `Milch'; Cymr blith `lactans, lacpraebens'
Russ. meaning: доить
References: WP II 298 f
Proto-IE: *(a)melk'-, -g'-
Meaning: cloudiness; cloudy, dark
Old Greek: amolgó-s m.: hom. (en) nüktòs amolgō̂i̯ usw.
Slavic: *molstь (~ -el-)
Baltic: *milč-, *milǯ- vb. intr. (Lith AC / Lett CIRC)
Germanic: *milx-m-an- m., *mulx-n=
Russ. meaning: облачность; облачный, темный
References: WP II 299
Proto-IE: *(a)mer-
Meaning: to rob
Old Indian: malímlu-, malimlú- m. `robber, thief'
Old Greek: améi̯rō `berauben' (Pind.), {3 sg. meíretai = stéretai, aor. ps. ptc. mertheîsa = sterētheîsa, amertheîsa' Hsch. - not found!}
Celtic: *merli= > OIr meirle `Diebstahl', meirlech `Dieb'
Russ. meaning: грабить
References: WP II 276 f
Proto-IE: *(a)merd-, *smerd-
Meaning: to damage, to destroy
Tokharian: A, B märtk- 'shave' (Adams 455)
Old Indian: mr̥dnā́ti, márdati, caus. mardayati, ptc. mr̥ditá- `to press, squeeze, crush, pound, smash'
Avestan: marǝd- `vernichten'
Armenian: mart `Kampf'
Old Greek: amérdō `berauben'
Baltic: *merd=ē̂- vb., *merd-el-ia- c., -iā, -ā̂ f. (AC/CIRC)
Germanic: *smirt-a- vb., *smart-ō- vb., *smartian- vb.
Latin: mordeō, -ēre, momordī (/ -morsī), morsum `beissen (auch von Hitze und Kälte); kauen, essen'; morsus, -ūs m. `Biss, Bisswunde', morsum n. `Bisschen'
Russ. meaning: повреждать, уничтожать
References: WP II 276 f (different in Pok.)
Comments: On the Baltic level seems to be a derivate from 'die', but this may be a secondary reanalysis.
Proto-IE: *(a)merg'-
Meaning: rot, sediment; rotten
Old Greek: amórgǟ f. `Ölhefe', amórgǟ-s, ámorgo-s, ámorgi-s m. `id.'
Slavic: *mьrzītī, *mьrzъkъ(jь)
Germanic: *murk-a- adj.
Celtic: *merg- > OIr meirc `Rost; Runzel', bol mergach `uter rugosus', Ir meirg `Rost; Runzel', meirgeall `Rauhheit'; Cymr merydd `faul, träge; debilitas', merddwfr `Brakwasser', OBret mergidhaam `hebesco'
Russ. meaning: гниль, осадок; гнилой
References: WP II 281 f (different in Pok.)
Proto-IE: *(a)merg-
Meaning: to peel, to scrape
Old Indian: vi-mārga- m. `wiping off; (L.) broom, brush'
Old Greek: amérgō `abpflücken, ernten', ? amorgoí = póleōs ólethroi Cratin.214
Latin: mergae pl. f. `Mähgabel, mit der das gemähte Getreide in Haufen zusammengestreift wird'
Russ. meaning: сдирать, сгребать
References: WP II 283 f
Proto-IE: *(A)mes-
Meaning: blackbird
Germanic: *amaz-á- m., *amaz-ṓn- f.; *áms-(a)l-ōn- f.
Latin: merula f. `Amsel', meruleus `schwarz wie eine Amsel'
Celtic: *mesalkā (~ *mi-) > Ir smōl, smōlach `Drossel'; Cymr mwyalch `merula, turdus', Corn moelh, Bret moualch `Amsel'
Russ. meaning: птица (черный дрозд)
References: WP I 53 f
Proto-IE: *(a)mewǝ-, *mwō-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to move, to drive
Tokharian: A mew-, B miw- (PT *miw-) 'shake, quake' (Adams 463); A, B mus- 'lift, move aside' (Adams 466)
Old Indian: mīvati `to press, push, open by pressure' (with ā-, ni-, pra-, prati-); kā́ma-mūta- `strongly affected or impelled by love', mūrá- `rushing, impetuous'; muṣṇā́ti, móṣati 'to steal, rob, plunder'
Avestan: ava-mīvāmahi `wir beseitigen, nehmen weg', a-muyamna- `unbeweglich, wovon nicht abzubringen'
Old Greek: aor. améü̯sasthai̯ `übertreffen, überschreiten; Handl treiben', gortyn. amewusasthai `améipsasthai'; amǖ́nō `abwehren', med. `sich verteidigen, sich rächen' || mō̂mai̯, 3 sg. mō̂tai̯, inf. mō̂sthai̯, ptc. mṓmeno-, aor. emṓsato = heûren, etekhnásato, ezḗtēsen Hsch. (`streben, trachten, begehren'); mō̂si-s f. `das Streben'; mai̯máō (maimā́ei̯, mai̯mṓōsi etc.) `heftig verlangen, toben, stürmen'
Slavic: *mājātī, *mājetь; *motātī, *mātātī, *māxātī
Baltic: *maû- (2) vb. tr., *pa=maũ-t-a- c.
Germanic: *mau-s-id-ō(n-) f.
Latin: moveō, -ēre, mōvī, mōtum `in Bewegung setzen, hin und her bewegen, rühren, schütteln; fortbewegen, entfernen'; mōbilis, -e `beweglich', mōmen, mōmentum `Bewegung'
Other Italic: Umbr abl. f. comohota `commōtā, oblātā'
Russ. meaning: двигать(ся), гнать
References: WP II 218 f, 252 f; See REFERNUM 1208
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