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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *duwo
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: num.: two
Hittite: da-n 'zweiter', da-mai 'anderer, zweiter', da-juga- 'zweijährig' (Friedrich 203 ff); ?? dujanalli 'der vierte' (Friedrich 227)
Tokharian: A wät, B wate (PT *wäte) 'second' (Adams 576); A wu (m.), we (f.), B wi (598)
Old Indian: m. dvā́, dvāú, ved. duvāú, duvā́, f., n. dvé, ved. duvé; dvayá- 'double'; dvi-, dvíḥ 'twice'
Avestan: m. dva, f., n. baē; bi-, biš 'zweimal'
Armenian: erku '2', erko-tasan '12', erki 'zwei-'
Old Greek: dü̆́ō (Ep., Eleg.), dǘo, düṓ-deka, dṓ-deka; doi̯ói̯ 'doppelt, zwei'; di-, dís(*dwi-, *dwis)
Slavic: *dъvā, *dъvē, *dъvo-; *d(ъ)voji; *dvogubъ(jь) 'dopelt'
Baltic: *dwō, *dwai, *dwī f., *dwej-, *dwi-,
Germanic: *twai, *twōz, *twa, *tū; {*twi-, *twiz}
Latin: duō, duae; du-, bī-, bis (OLat duis)
Other Italic: Umbr m. dur 'duo', acc. desen-duf m. '12', duir 'duobus', acc. n. tuva
Celtic: OIr m. dāu, dō, procl. dā, f. dī, n. dā n-, Cymr, Bret m. dou, f. Cymr dwy usw.
Albanian:
Russ. meaning: два
References: WP I 818 f
Comments: For other derivates see WP.
Proto-IE: *dū-
Meaning: to torment, to pain
Old Indian: dunoti `to afflict, distress', ptc. dūná-, duta-; dū- f. `pain, distress'; doman- n. `pain, inconvenience'
Old Greek: dǘǟ `Wehe, Unglück, Drangsal', dǘi̯o- `unglücklich, schmerzhaft', düeró- `id.'
Latin: bellum, -ī, OLat duellum `Krieg'
Albanian: δunɛ `Leid, Schmerz, Gewalt, üble schädliche Tat; Scgmch, Beleidigung'
Russ. meaning: мучить, причинять боль
References: WP I 767 f
Proto-IE: *dū-
Meaning: to go down (ab. sun, etc.)
Old Indian: doṣā́ f., doṣa- m. `evening, darkness, night'
Avestan: davšatara-, davšastara- `gegen Abend gelegen, westlich'
Other Iranian: NPers dōš `die letzgegangene Nacht'
Old Greek: dǘsi-s f. `Untergang der Sonne und Sterne, Westen', dǘtǟ-s m. `Taucher', pl. düsmái̯ f. `Untergang der Sonne und Sterne, Westen'
Russ. meaning: заходить (о светилах)
References: WP I 777 f
Comments: Originally "to sink" ?? - cf. Gr. tr. dǘō, intr. dǘomai̯, intr. dǖ́nō, aor. intr. édǖn, tr. dǖ̂sai̯, inf. dǖ́sasthai̯, dǖ̂nai̯, pass. düthē̂nai̯, intr. pf. dédǖka, tr. `eintauschen', intr. `sich eintauschen, eindringen, einschlüpfen' (not having its own secure etymology).
Proto-IE: *dū-
Meaning: to respect, etc.
Old Indian: dū- (nom. acc. pl. dúvas), dúvas- n. `worship, honour, respect', á-dū- `respectless', duvasyáti `to honour, worship', duvasyú-, duvoyú- `worshipping, reverent'
Latin: bonus, -a (OLat duonus, dvenos) `gut, taglich, vornehm, begütert, tapfer, trefflich', adv. bene `gut, wohl', bellus, -a `hübsch, niedlich, fein, köstlich; Lat beō, -āre `glücklich machen, erfreuen, bereichern', beātus, -a `mit Glücksgütern gesegnet, beglückt, glücklich'
Celtic: OIr den `tüchtig, stark'; `Festigkeit, Schutz'
Russ. meaning: уважать etc.
References: WP I 778
Proto-IE: *dū- ??
Meaning: to dress, to take off
Old Indian: {upā-du- `endǘesthai, anziehen' }
Old Greek: en-dǘō `одевать', apo-dǘō `снимать, совлекать', peri-dǘō, aor. -édǖsa `снимать (одежду)', dǘsgō = apodǘō, éndǖma `Gewand', hüpódǖma; endütḗr `zum Anziehen'
Russ. meaning: надевать/снимать одежду
References: WP I 777 f
Proto-IE: *dūs-
Meaning: bush
Germanic: *dū́s-ō(n-) f.
Latin: dūmus, -ī m. `Gestrüpp, dicht verwachsener hoher Strauch', OLat dusmus adj.: dusmō in locō = en lókhmē(i) pükinē̂(i) Hom.
Celtic: OIr doss `Busch'
Russ. meaning: куст (пышный)
References: WP I 767 f
Proto-IE: *dweye-
Meaning: to be afraid, to hate, etc.
Tokharian: A, B wi- (Adams 599)
Old Indian: dvéṣti, dviṣati `to hate, be hostile', ptc. dviṣṭa-; dvéṣa- m., dvéṣas- n. `hatred, dislike'
Avestan: dvaēɵā `Bedrohung'; dvaēš-, t_baēš- `anfeinden, kränken'
Other Iranian: MPers bēš `Leid, Unheil'
Armenian: erknčhim `fürchte', erkiuɫ `Furcht'
Old Greek: dẹ̄́dō `(sich) furchten' (Hom., < *dédwoa), pl. dẹ̄́dimen Hom., att. dédia, dédimen, aor. díe, díon (Hom.), hom. dêisa, éddei̯se (Hom.); prs. díemai̯ intr. `eilen', tr. `(ver)jagen, vervolgen, vertreiben' (Hom.), aor. díon `ich floh' (Hom.), endíesan `sie jagten, setzen nach' (Hom.); déos n. `Furcht', dêi̯ma n. `Furcht, Schreck', dei̯mó-s `id.', dei̯nó- `furchtbar', dei̯ló- `furchtsam, elend'
Latin: dīrus, -a `unheilvoll; grausig, grauenerregend', pl. dīrae f. `unheilvolle Wahrzeichen; Verwünschungen'
Russ. meaning: бояться, ненавидеть etc.
References: WH
Proto-IE: *derǝt-, *tered-
Meaning: a k. of wild cereal
Old Greek: tórdǖlo-n n. 'hartwort, Tordylium officinale' Ruf. ap. Orib., Gal; tordylon Plin.
Baltic: *dir̂s-ā̂ f., -iā̃ f.
Germanic: *dúrɵ-u- c., *ɵurt-u- c.
Russ. meaning: растение (дикорастущий злак)
References: Fraenkel 96
Proto-IE: *e-
Meaning: pron. dem., part.
Hittite: a-, e- (Tischler 1, 118) pron., 3 prs.
Old Indian: a-sā́u 'that', a-dáḥ 'that; there', a-dyā́, a-dyá 'today', á-ha 'yes, certainly'
Armenian: e-the 'dass, wenn'
Old Greek: e-kêi̯, e-kêi̯no-
Slavic: *je-se, *je-; *jeterъ
Germanic: Got i-bai, i-ba Fragepartikel, OHG ibu, oba, OSax, OIsl ef 'ob; wenn'
Latin: cēterus
Other Italic: Osk e-tanto, e-co 'hic', exo- (*ekeso) 'hic'; Umbr etro- 'anderer', e-tantu 'tanta'
Albanian: játerɛ 'anderer'
References: WP I 96 f
Proto-IE: *e
Meaning: part.: augment
Old Indian: a-, ā- (ā-vr̥ṇak)
Avestan: a-
Armenian: e- (elikh = élipe)
Old Greek: e-, ē- (hom. ēwéi̯de)
References: WP I 96 f
Proto-IE: *ed
Meaning: part.
Avestan: at_ zur Hervorhebung des vorgehenden Wortes
Slavic: *jed-īnъ, ChSl jede kyjь 'quidam'
Latin: ecce, mēd
References: WP I 96 f
Proto-IE: *ed- <PIH *e->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to eat
Hittite: ad-/ed- (I) 'essen' (Tischler 91-92, 117), etri- n. 'Speise, Gericht' (119)
Tokharian: B yesti 'meal' (Adams 507)
Old Indian: átti, caus. ādáyati `to eat'
Armenian: utem `esse'
Old Greek: édō, inf. édmenai̯, fut. édomai̯, pf. ptc. edēdṓs, med. edḗdotai̯, aor. pass. ēdésthēn, pf. med. att. edḗde(s)mai̯; ésthō, esthíō `essen, fressen'; *edwr: hom. ẹ̄̂dar, -atos n. `Nahrung', édar = brō̂ma Hsch.; edōdǟ́ f. `Speise, Nahrung, Mahlzeit', hom. edētǘ-s f. `Speise', att. édesma n. `Speise'
Slavic: *jēsti, *jēmь; *j[ē]sto > MBlg jasto `Portion Speise', *jēdъ, *jēdjā, *jēdā, *obēdъ
Baltic: *ē̂d- (*ē̂d-meî) (2) vb. tr., *ēd-ia- c., *ē̂d-ā̂ (2), *ē̂d-jā̂ f.
Germanic: *it-a- vb., *ēt-a- m., n., *ēt-an-, *ēt-ian- m., *ēt-ō f.; *ēs-s-a- n.; *at-ja- vb.
Latin: edō (ēs, ēst), ēdī, ēsum, ēsse `essen', ēsca f. `Speise; Lockspeise, Köder'
Other Italic: Osk edum `edere'
Celtic: *edtjo-> OIr esse `gegessen', Ir (Corm.) ess `food'
Russ. meaning: есть
References: WP I 118 f
Proto-IE: *edhl-
Meaning: a k. of tree
Slavic: *jedlь, *jedlā 'пихта, ель'
Baltic: *adl-iā̃ f.
Latin: ebulus, gen. -ī f.; ebulum, gen. -ī n. `Niederholunder (Sambucus ebulus), Attich'
Russ. meaning: дерево (ель/бузина)
References: WP I 50 f
Proto-IE: *edhr-
Meaning: pale, paling
Slavic: *odrъ
Germanic: *idr=, *adr=
Russ. meaning: штакетина, частокол
References: WP I 121
Proto-IE: *(e)dont-
Meaning: tooth
Old Indian: dán, acc. dántam, gen. dat-áḥ, dánta- m. `tooth'
Avestan: dantan- m. 'Zahn'
Armenian: atamn, gen. atman `Zahn'
Old Greek: ion. odṓn, att. odọ̄́s, gen. odóntos `Zahn', aeol. pl. édontes `Zähne'
Slavic: *dę̄sno, *dę̄snā, *dę̄slo
Baltic: *dañt-i- c.
Germanic: *tánɵ-u- m., *tánɵ- m., *túnɵ-u- m.
Latin: dēns, gen. dentis m. `Zahn; Zinke'
Celtic: *dnt-: OIr dēt n. `Zahn', Cymr dant `Zahn', Corn dans `Zahn', Bret dant `Zahn'
Russ. meaning: зуб
References: WP I 120 f
Proto-IE: *eg(')-
Meaning: to be absent, not to be enough
Tokharian: A, B yäk- 'neglect, be careless about' (Adams 494)
Germanic: *ik=; *ik-l-ōn- f.
Latin: egeō, -ēre, -uī `darben, leiden Mangel; bedürfen, nötig haben', egēnus, -a `(be)dürftig, arm an', egestās, -tis f. `Dürftigkeit, Mangel'
Russ. meaning: отсутствовать, не хватать
References: WH
Proto-IE: *(e)ger-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to wake up, to be awake
Old Indian: {járate `erwacht', jagárti `wacht', pf. jagāra }, gārayate `to know; to make known, teach'
Avestan: ǰaɣārayantǝm `den wachenden', pf. ǰagāra
Other Iranian: MPers vīgrās `erwachte'
Old Greek: egéi̯romai̯, aor. égreto, pf. egrḗgora (`ich wache'), med. egḗgermai̯ `erwachen'; egéirō, aor. egẹ̄̂rai̯ `wecken, erwecken'; égersi-s `das Erwachen, die Erweckung', eks-egértǟ-s `Anreger, Anstifter', an-egérmōn `wachsam', adv. egertí `wachsam, eifrig'
Germanic: *karsk-a- adj., *karsk-i- adj., *karsk-iōn- f.
Latin: expergīscōr, -īscī, -perrēctus/pergitus `aufwachen, erwachen'; expertus < experctus;p expergēfaciō `aufwecken, ermuntern'; expergō, -ere/exporgō, -ō `aufwecken'
Albanian: ngrē `ich hebe auf, wecke auf'
Russ. meaning: просыпаться, бодрствовать
References: WP I 598 f
Proto-IE: *eg'h-
Meaning: hedgehog
Other Iranian: Osset wyzyn, uzun 'Igel'
Armenian: ozni
Old Greek: ekhī̂no-s m. `Igel; Seeigel'
Slavic: *ježь
Baltic: *aǯ-ia- c.
Germanic: *ig-il-a- m., *īg-Vl-a- m.
Russ. meaning: зверек (еж)
References: WP I 115
Proto-IE: *egh-
Meaning: worm, snake
Armenian: iž `snake' (<*ēghi-)
Old Greek: ékhi-s m.(/f). `Viper; Otter', ékhidna f. `id.'
Germanic: *ig-al-ō(n-) f.
Celtic: *egi- > Cymr euod `lumbrici lati in hepate ovium', euon `Pferdewürmer'
Russ. meaning: жаба (червь, змея)
References: WP I 63 f
Proto-IE: *eg'h-
Meaning: border
Armenian: ezr 'Rand, Grenze'
Slavic: *(j)āzъ 'Fischzaun' usw.
Baltic: *eǯ-jā̂, -iā̃ f.
Russ. meaning: граница
References: Fraenkel 125
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-alb,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-avest,piet-slav,piet-lat,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,
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