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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *dhergh-, *dhregh-
Meaning: to hold
Tokharian: A tränk-, B trenk- (PT *tränk-) 'adhere, cling, stick' (Adams 318)
Old Indian: -dhr̥k (only Nom. in comp.) `holding, bearing'; OInd dŕ̥ṁhati `to make firm, fix, strengthen'
Avestan: dražaitē, inf. drāǰaŋhe `halten, an sich halten, führen', upa-daržnvainti `sie setzen durch, bringen fertig'; drǝnǰaiti `festigt, kräftigt, bestärkt', ā-drǝnǰayeiti `setzt fest', ptc. draxta-
Slavic: *dьržḗtī, *dьržjǭ
Latin: fortis, -e (OLat forctus) `stramm, robust, kräftig, gesund; dauerhaft, fest, stark; ausdauernd, gediegen, mächtig; tapfer, mannhaft, unerschrocken'
Other Italic: Osk fortis `potius'
Celtic: *drng= > MIr dringid `er ersteigt', drēimm `Erklimmen'; Cymr dringo `steigen, klettern'
Russ. meaning: держать
References: WP I 856 f
Proto-IE: *dhers-
Meaning: to be adroit, daring
Old Indian: dhrṣnóti, dhárṣati `to be bold, courageous, dare', ptc. dhrṣṭá-, drṣita-; dhr̥ṣu- `clever', dhrṣṇú- `bold, courageous, violent', dharṣaṇa- `offending, hurting, assaulting', n. `assault, offence'
Avestan: daršam adv. `heftig, sehr', darši-, darsyu- `kühn, stark (vom Wind)', daršita- `kühn'
Other Iranian: OPers adaršnauš `er wagte'
Old Greek: thrasǘ- `dreist, kühn, verwegen', aeol. adv. throséōs; thársos, att. thárros n. `Zuversicht, Mut, Kühnheit, Frechheit', aeol. thérsos n. `id.'
Slavic: *dьrzъ(jь), *dьrzъkъ(jь), *dьrzī́tī
Baltic: *driñs- (*dreñs-a-) vb., *drañs-ā̂ f., *drañs-u- adj.; *dir[s]-a- adj.
Germanic: *dars=, *durs-a- vb., *durs-t-i-
Russ. meaning: быть ловким, дерзким
References: WP I 864 f
Proto-IE: *dheub-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: deep
Slavic: *dъbrь; *dъno
Baltic: *daub-ā̂ f., *daub-ur-ā̂ f., *dub- vb. intr., *dub-ur-a- c.; *dō̂b- vb. tr., *dōb-ā̂, *dōb-iā̃ f.,
Germanic: *diup-a- adj.
Celtic: Gaul dubno-, dumno- `Welt' (Dubno-rīx); OIr domain, fu-dumain `tief'; Cymr dwfn `tief', Corn down `tief', Bret doun `tief'
Russ. meaning: глубокий
References: WP I 847 f
Proto-IE: *dheudh-
Meaning: to shake
Old Indian: dódhati `to be angry, hurt, injure', dúdhi-, dudhrá- `violent, injurious'
Old Greek: thǘssomai = tinássomai Hsch.
Germanic: *dud-an- m., *dud-ir-ōn- vb., *dudd=, etc.
Russ. meaning: трясти, вертеть
References: WP I 835 f
Proto-IE: *dheug'h-
Meaning: to beat, to hit
Old Indian: dohati 'to pain' (D.)
Armenian: doyzn 'sehr klein, geringfügig, leicht(sinnig)' (< *dheug'hno-)
Slavic: *dūzātī (> Sloven dúzati 'stossen, drängen', dúzniti 'einen Stoss geben')
Baltic: *daũǯ- (-ja-) vb. tr., dauǯ-ī̂- (-aû- ?), *duǯ- vb. intr.
Russ. meaning: бить
References: Fraenkel 84
Proto-IE: *dheug(')h-
Meaning: to suck, to milk
Tokharian: A, B tsuk- 'drink' (Adams 740 with uncertain etymology)
Old Indian: dogdhi, pl. duhaté, ptc. dugdhá- `to milk', dugha- `milking', dúghā f. `milch-cow', dogdhár- m. `milker', dógha- m. `milker, milking'
Russ. meaning: сосать, доить
Proto-IE: *dheughe-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to be ready, sufficient
Old Greek: tüŋkhánō, ft. téu̯ksomai̯, aor. étükhon, ep. etǘkhēsa, ep. conj. tetǘkhēi̯si, ep. opt. tetǘkhoi̯mi, p. en-etéu̯khthēn, pf. tetǘkhēka, ptc. -ēkṓs, -ēṓs, jungatt. ecc. téteukha, m.-p. (spät.) epi-téteu̯gmai̯ `das Ziel, den Zweck erreichen, treffen, antreffen, zufällig begegnen', intr. `sich treffen, zufällig zuteil werden, sich zufällig ereignen'; tǘkhǟ f. `Zufall, Ereignis, Glückszufall', Schicksal, Los', têu̯ksi-s f. `Erreichung', apó-, én-, epí-teu̯gma; téu̯khō, aor. têu̯ksai̯, -asthai̯, hom. tetükẹ̄̂n, -ésthai̯, p. tükhthē̂nai̯, pf. hom. teteu̯khṓs, m.-p. tétüktai̯, hom. tetéu̯khatai̯, tétuktai̯; va. tüktó-, teu̯któ- verfertigen, fertigbringen, herstellen; bereiten; veranstalten, verursachen', titǘskomai̯ `mache zurecht, ziele'; têu̯khos n. `Rüstzeug, Waffen, Ausrüstung'; téu̯ktōr, -oros m. `Verfertiger, Schöpfer', teu̯ktḗr m. `id.'; titǘskomai̯ `zielen; zurecht machen, bereiten, anschirren'
Slavic: *nedūgъ; *dūžjь(jь)
Baltic: *daũg-a- adj., *daũg-ia- c.
Germanic: *daug=, *dux-t-i- c., etc.
Celtic: *dugnā, *duglo- > Ir dūan `Gedicht', dūal `passend'
Russ. meaning: быть достаточным, готовым
References: WP I 847
Proto-IE: *dh[e]us-
Meaning: polecat
Slavic: *dъxorь
Latin: fūrō m. `Frettchen, Wiesel'
Russ. meaning: зверек (хорек)
References: WH
Proto-IE: *dhew-
Meaning: to run, to flow
Old Indian: dhā́vati, -te `to run, flow, move', dhautí- f. `spring, well, rivulet', dhā́rā f. `stream, current'
Other Iranian: MPers davīdan `laufen, eilen'
Old Greek: théō, ep. théi̯ē, inf. théi̯ẹ̄n; ipf. hom. théeskon, aor. thêu̯sai̯, ft. théu̯somai̯ `laufen'; thêu̯si-s f. `das Laufen', thoó- `schnell'
Germanic: *daww-á- n., m., *daww-ṓ f., *daww-ia- vb.
Russ. meaning: бежать, течь
References: WP I 834 f
Proto-IE: *dhew-
Meaning: to shine, to be light
Old Indian: dhavala- `white, dazzling white', dhāvati `to cleanse, wash, purify'
Avestan: fra-δavata `rieb sich (reinigend) ab'
Old Greek: hom. pl. gen. theóntōn, Theok. f. dat. <th>eọ̄́sǟi̯, epigr. acc. theousan; {thoó- `bright' Hsch. - not found!}, aor. thoō̂sai = oksǖ̂nai, lamprǖ̂nai Hsch.
Russ. meaning: сиять, быть светлым
References: WP I 835 f
Proto-IE: *dhew-; *dhwey-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to die
Armenian: di, gen. diog `Leiche, Leichnam'
Germanic: *diw-a- vb., *dau-ja- vb.; *dáu-ɵ-u- c.; *dau-d-á- adj.; *daw-a- n.
Latin: fūnus, -eris n. `Leichenbegängnis, Bestattung; Leichnam; Tod, Untergang'
Celtic: *dunjo-, *dewenjo- 'Mensch' > OIr duine, pl. dōini; Cymr dyn, Corn, Bret den; *dwītu- > OIr dīth `detrimentum, Ende, Tod'
Russ. meaning: умирать
References: WP I 835
Proto-IE: *dheyǝ-, *dhyā-
Meaning: to see, to notice
Old Indian: dīdhīte, pf. pl. dīdhimaḥ, med. dīdhye `to perceive, think, reflect', ptc. dhīta-; dhyāti, dhyāyati, ptc. dhyāta- `to think of, imagine'; dhyā- f. `thinking, meditation', dhyātar- m. `thinker', dhyāna- n. `meditation, thought'; dhī́- f., acc. dhiya-m `thought, religious thought', dhītí- f. `thought, idea, intention', dhī́ra- `intelligent, wise'; dhiyasāna- `attentive, mindful'
Avestan: dā(y)- `sehen; pcc. paiti-dīta- `erblickt', -dīti- f. `das Erblicken', dāɵa- `einsichtig, klug', -dā(y)-, -dī- f. `Sehen, Blick; Einsicht; Absicht'; -dāman- `Absicht'; daēman- n. `Auge, Augapfel; Blick', dōiɵra- n. `Auge', daēnā `Religion; inneres Wesen geistiges Ich'
Other Iranian: NPers dīdan `sehen', dīm `Gesicht, Wange'
Old Greek: sǟ̂ma n. `Zeichen, Ab-, Kenn-, Vor-, Mal-, Schriftzeichen, Merkmal, Grabmal', á-sǟmo- `ohne Abzeichen, ungeprägt, unverständlich', epí-sǟmo- `mit einem Zeichen versehen'
Germanic: *dī́-s-īn- f.
Albanian: díturɛ, dítme `Weisheit, Gelehrsamkeit', dinak `listig'
Russ. meaning: видеть, замечать
References: WP I 831 f
Proto-IE: *dhē-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to put, to set
Hittite: dai-, tai- (II) 'setzen, legen, stellen', tija- (I) 'treten, hintreten, sich stellen', tittanu- (I) 'hinstellen, hinsetzen', zikk- (I) 'legen, fetsetzen' (Friedrich 202-203, 223-225, 260-261)
Tokharian: A tā-, tä-s-, B tättā-, tä-s-, tā-s- 'to place, set' (Adams 283 f)
Old Indian: dádhāti, aor. adhām, med. ádhita, ptc. hitá-, -dhitá-, inf. dhātum, pf. dadhā́u, dadhimá `to put, place, set'; dhā́tu- m. `layer, constituent part'; dhāka- m. `receptacle'; dhā- m., f., dha- m. `placer, holder' (in comp.), dhi- m. `receptacle' (in comp.); dhātár- m. `establisher, founder'; dhiti-, hiti- f. `putting, placing' (in comp.); dhā́na- n. `receptacle, case, seat', dhána- n. `prize of a contest, contest', (in comp.) `putting, placing'; dhā́man- n. `dwelling-place, abode, domain'
Avestan: daδaiti `ersetzt', ptc dāta-; vī-δātu- n. `Begründung, feste Fügung', pf. 3 sg. daδa; gaoδi- `Milchbehälter'; gao-δana- n. `Milchgefäss'; dāman-, dąman- n. `Stätte, Wohnstätte; Geschöpf'; ni-δāiti- f. `das Niederlegen, Ablegen, Verbergen'
Other Iranian: OPers ipf. sg. adadā, ptc dāta-
Armenian: dnem `ich setze', aor. ed `er setzte'
Old Greek: títhēmi, aor. éthēka, pl. éthemen, p. etéthēn, pf. téthēka, m.-p. téthemai̯, va. thetó-; thētón = bōmón Hsch.; aná-thēma n. `das Aufgestellte, Weihgeschenk' etc., théma n. `Satz, Einsatz, Thema usw.'; thēmṓn, -ō̂nos m. `Haufe', théma n. `intergelegtes Geld, aufgestellte Behauptung, Satz; Stammform (Gramm)'; thétǟ-s m. `Versetzer, Verpfänder'; thetḗr = tolmḗtēs, práktēs Hsch., dia-thetḗr `Anordner'; thesmó-s, dor. tethmó-s, lak., ark., lokr. thethmó-s m. `Satzung, Gesetz, Sitte', thési-s f. `das Satzen, Aufstellung, Stellung, Lage, Adoption, Satz etc.', pl. thémethla n. `Fundamente, Grund(lage)'; thḗkǟ f. `Behältnis, Kasten, Grab'; hom. thōǟ́, dial. thōi̯i̯ē, thōa f. `Strafe, Busse'; att. thā̂ko-s, ep., ion., dor., poet. thō̂ko-s m. `Sitzung, Sitz, Stuhl', *thawako-: thabakón = thākòn ḕ homorón (fort. thā̂kon ḕ thrónon) Hsch.; thōmó-s m. `Haufe, Schober'
Slavic: *dējā́tī, *dḕjǭ; *dḗtī, *dḗnǭ/*dedjǭ; *dēvā́tī; *na-, *o-dedjā; *sǭ̃dъ, *nādъ, ? *zādъ, ? *podъ, ? *ūdъ; *obьdo; *bolgo-dētь
Baltic: *dē̂- (2) vb., *ded-in̂- vb., *dēw-ē̂- vb., *dē̃-tl-iā̃ f., *dē̂-ti- c., *dē̂-m-iā̃, *de(d)-m-iā̃ f., *dā-m-iā̃ f., *dē̂-s-n-ia- c.
Latin: condō, -dere, -didī, -ditum; pf. -didī; conditor m. `Gründer, St ifter'; conditiō f. `Gründung', conditus, -ūs m. `Gründung', addō, -dere, -didī, -ditum `apotíthēmi'; sacerdōs `Priester', crēdō, -ere, -didī, -ditum `vertrauen auf jd., darleihen, Glauben schenken, meinen'
Other Italic: Osk prúftú `posita'; prúffed `posuit'
Celtic: Gaul dede `posuit'; *dhatlo- 'Versammlung' > OIr dāl, OCymr datl, Cymr dall, OBret dadl; Bret dael `contestation, querelle'
Russ. meaning: ставить, ложить
References: WP I 826 f
Proto-IE: *dhē-
Meaning: to do, to make
Old Indian: dhātár- m. `creator'
Avestan: dāmi- f. `Schöpfung', adj. `schaffend, Schöpfer'
Slavic: *dḗjātī/*dḗtī, *dḗjǭ/*dḗnǭ; *dētelь; *dḗlo
Baltic: *dē̂- (1)
Germanic: *dō- vb; *did-a- n., *dud-i- n.; *dēd-í- c.; *dē-l-i-
Latin: faciō, -ere, fēcī, factum `tun, machen, bewirken, verfertigen', factus, -a `gemacht'; factor, -ōris m. `Macher,steller', factus, -ūs m. `das Zurechtgemachte (Ölquantum); factiō, -ōnis f. `Machen, Tun; Stellung, Anhang, Partei'; facinus, -oris n. `Tat, Untat'; carni-, arti-, auri-, opi-, ponti-, melli-fex, etc.; bene-, damni-, dēlēni-, falsi-ficus, etc.; faciēs, -ēī `Gestalt, Kör perbau, Aussehen; Erscheinung'; facilis, -e `leicht (zu tun), günstig, beweglich'
Other Italic: Osk fakiiad `faciat', conj. pf. fefacid `fēcerit', ft. II fefacust `fecerit', facus `factus'; Umbr feitu, fētu `facitō'; feta `facta', aanfehtas `infectas', feia `faciat', ft. II facurent `fecerint', fac̨ia `faciat', fac̨iu, fac̨u `facere', fakust, fakurent `fēceri(n)t', fac̨efele `*facibilem, sacrificabilem'; Volsk fac̨ia `faciat'
Russ. meaning: делать
References: WP I 826 f
Comments: [Hardly different from *dhē- 'put']
Proto-IE: *d(h)ē-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to say
Hittite: te- (I) 'sagen' (Friedrich 219-220)
Slavic: *dētī, *dēmь `sagen'
Baltic: *dē̂-w-ē̂- (1) vb.
Russ. meaning: говорить
References: WP I 826 f
Proto-IE: *dhēdh-
Meaning: oncle, grandfather, grandmother
Old Greek: tḗthǟ (/tēthǟ́) f. `Grossmutter', tēthís, -ídos f. `Tante, Vaters- od. Mutterschwester'
Slavic: *dḗdъ
Baltic: *dēd-iā̃, *dēd-ia- m.
Russ. meaning: дядя, дед, бабка
References: WP I 826
Proto-IE: *dhēk-
Meaning: daw, starling, thrush
Baltic: *dāk-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *dēx-ō(n-) f., *dēx-al-ō(n-) f.
Latin: faccilāre `Naturlaut der Drossel'
Russ. meaning: птица (галка, скворец, дрозд)
References: WH
Proto-IE: *dhēs-
Meaning: god, deity
Old Indian: dhíṣṇya- `mindful, attentive, benevolent, liberal'
Armenian: pl. dikh `Götter'
Old Greek: theó-s m., f. `Gott, Göttin'
Latin: fēriae pl. (OLat fēsiae) `Fest-, Feiertage, a denen keine Geschäfte vorgenommen werden; Ruhetage'; fēstus, -a `festlich, feierlich, urspr. von den der religiösen Feier gewidmeten Tagen'; fānum, -ī n. `heiliger, der Gottheit geweihter Ort'
Other Italic: Osk fíísnú, acc. fíísnam `templum'; Umbr fesnaf-e, fesner-e `in templum, -o', Paelign fesn
Russ. meaning: бог, божество
References: WP I 867
Proto-IE: *dhēy-
Meaning: to suck (milk), to suckle
Old Indian: dháyati, inf. dhā́tave, fut. dhāsyati, aor. ádhāt, pf. 1 pl. dadhimá, 3 pl. dadhúḥ `to suck, drink', ptc. dhītá-; dhinoti `to nourish, satiate', ptc. dhita-; dhāyas- `nourishing, refreshing', n. `the act of nourishing', dhāyú- `voracious', dhārú- `sucking', su-dhā f. `nectar', dhātrī f. `nurse, mother', dhenú- f. `yielding or giving milk'; dhénā f. `milch cow'; dádhi n. (gen. dadhnás) `coagulated milk'
Avestan: daēnu- `Weibchen von 4füssigen Tieren'
Other Iranian: OPers dadan `sauere Milch'
Armenian: diem `sauge', stn-di `Säugling', da(i)l `Biestmilch', daycak `Amme'
Old Greek: inf. thē̂sthai̯, aor. thḗsato, ptc. thēsámeno- `saugen', act. aor. thē̂sai = thrépsai Hsch.; thēlǟ́ f. `Mutterbrust, Zitze', thē̂lü-s, -ei̯a, -ü `weiblich', tithḗnǟ, títthǟ f. `Amme'; thḗnion = gála Hsch.
Slavic: *dojь; *dojī́tī C; *dētę̄; *dḕtь, pl. *dḕtī
Baltic: *dē̂- (2) vb., *dei-n-iā̃, *dē̂-l-a- (2) m., *dē-l-iā̃, *dei-l-iā̃ f., -ia- c., *dī-l-iā̃, *dī-l-ī̂- vb.
Germanic: *dajj-á- vb.; *dīj-a- vb., *dēj-a- vb., *di-l=, *di-m=, etc.
Latin: fēlāre (/ fellāre) `saugen', fīlius, -ī m. `Sohn'; fēlīx, -īcis `f ruchbar, fruchttragend', fēcundus, -a `fruchtbar, ergiebig', fētus, -ūs `das Zeugen, Gebären, Werfen; Sprössling, Kind', fētus, -a `befruchtet, schwanger, trächtig; was geboren hat', fēnus, -oris/-eris `Zinsen, Wucher, Ertrag'
Other Italic: Umbr feliuf, filiu `lactantes'
Celtic: OIr dīnu `Lamm', dīth `suxit', denaid `er saugt', MIr del `Zitze', delech `Milchkuh'; Bret denaff `sauge'
Albanian: ? djaɵɛ `Käse', deĺe `Schaf'
Russ. meaning: сосать грудь, кормить грудью
References: WP I 829 f
Proto-IE: *dhisn-
Meaning: sand-hill, dune
Old Indian: dhíṣṇya- m. `a heap of earth covered with sand on which the fire is placed'
Old Greek: thī́s, gen. thīnós m./f. `Haufen; Sandhaufen (am Meere), Düne, Gestade'
Russ. meaning: куча (песка), дюна
References: WP I 835 f (differently in Pok.)
piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-slav,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-rusmean,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,
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