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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *skal- (skh-)
Meaning: to swing, to make mistakes
Old Indian: skhalati `to stumble, totter, waver, fluctuate; stammer; make mistakes, blunder', ptc. skhalita-
Armenian: sxalem, sxalim `strauchle, wanke, gehe fehl, irre, sündige, fehle, verfehle; werde verfehlt, werde vermisst, werde hinfältig, tue eine fehlgeburt', sxal `Fehler, Irrtum, Mangel; mangelhaft, fehlerhaft, mangelnd, zu wenig', sxalak `taumelnd (im Rausch)'
Russ. meaning: колебаться, ошибаться
References: WP II 599
Proto-IE: *(s)kale-, *klā-/*klē-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to shout, to call
Old Indian: krándati `to neigh, roar, sound, cry'; kalakala- m. 'any confused noise'
Old Greek: kaléō, aeol. kálēmi, kiklḗskō, aor. kalé(s)sai̯, pass. klēthē̂nai̯, pf. med. kéklēmai̯, act. pf. kéklēka, va. klētó-; klē̂si-s `Ruf, Einladung, Vorladung', homo-klǟ́ f. `Zuruf', klētḗr `Herold, Zeuge', klḗtōr, -oros `Zeuge', klḗdǟn `bei Namen, namentlich'; kélōr `звук, голос (`phōnḗ', Hsch.); kélado-s m. `Getöse, Lärm, scharfer Laut', kelarǘzdō `rauschen, rieseln'
Slavic: *kolkolъ; *skolītī; *kolbosъ (> Czech klābos 'Geklapper, Geplausche', klābositi 'plaudern, schwatzen')
Baltic: *kal̃-b-ā̂ f., *kal̃-b-ē̂- vb., *kal̃-b- vb. intr., *kal̃-b-u- sdj., *kal̃-b-es-ia- c.; *kal-jō̂- vb., *kal̂-b-in-ā̂- vb., *kel-s=; *kañkal-a- c.; *skal-ik-a- m., *skal-en-ik-a- m., *skal-ja- adj.
Germanic: *xill-a- vb., *xil-a- n., *xil-d-a- m., *xal=; *xlōw-a- vb.; *xlu-n-ja- vb.; *skill-a- vb., *skill=, *skal-a- n., *skil-a- n., *skal-ja- m., etc.; *xl-am-ō- vb., *xl-imm-a- vb., *xl-amm-i- adj., *xl-um-ja- m., *xl-um-ja- vb.
Latin: calāre `ausrufen, zusammenrufen, t. t. der Sakralsprache', cūria calābra `die zum Ausrufen der Kalendardaten bestimmte Kurie', concilium `Versammlung, spez. Senats- oder Volksversammlung, Landtag'; clārus, -a `laut, schallend; hell, leuchtend; klar, deutlich'; nōmen-clātor, -ōris m. `Namennenner'; clāmāre `laut rufen, schreien, ausrufen'
Other Italic: Umbr pl. nom. anglar, acc. anglaf `oscines', kařitu, kařetu, carsitu `calato, appellato';
Celtic: OIr cailech, ogam. gen. caliaci, Cymr ceiliog, Corn chelioc 'Hahn'
Russ. meaning: кричать, звать
References: WP I 443 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kalǝ- / *(s)kelǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to split, to cut
Hittite: iskalla- (I/II) 'zerreißen, aufschlitzen, abreißen' (Tischler 397 ff)
Old Indian: kalā́ f. `small part, single part, portion'
Armenian: čelkhem `spalte, zerschlage'
Old Greek: keleḯs = aksínē Hsch.; skállō `scharren, hacken', skalís, -ídos f. `Hacke', skalmó-s m. `id.'
Slavic: *kólti, *kõljǫ (раскалывать), *koltъ; *skālā (щепка); *ščelь, *ščāljā
Baltic: *skel̂- vb. tr. (2), skil̂- vb. intr. (1), *skal-ā̂ f., *skal-a- c.; *skil-ia- c.
Germanic: *skil-a- vb., *skil-ō- vb., *skil-ja- vb.; *skil-i- n.
Latin: culter, -trī `Messer (Schlacht-, Küchen-, Winzermesser, Bartschere, Pflugschar)'
Celtic: *skal- > OIr erscailiud, MIr scāilim `lasse los, zerstreue, nehme auseinander', scailt `Spalte', Ir scoiltim `ich spalte'; Cymr chwalu `zerstreuen', Corn scullye, sculye `zerstreuen', Bret skul'a `zerstreuen'
Russ. meaning: раскалывать, рассекать
References: WP II 590 f
Comments: Cf. *kola- which seems to be a different root meaning rather 'to beat, break'.
Proto-IE: *skalp-, -b- / -e-
Meaning: to scratch, to scrape
Baltic: *sklem̃b- (-ja-) vb. tr., *sklim̃b-a- c.; *sklem̃p- (-ja-) vb/ tr.
Latin: scalpō, -ere, -sī, -tum `kratzen, ritzen, scharren, mit spitzem Werkzeug schneiden, meisseln'; sculpō `durch Graben, Stechen, Schneiden etwas bilden; schnitzen, meisseln'
Russ. meaning: царапать, скоблить
References: WP II 590 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kAm-
Meaning: short, small
Avestan: kamna- 'wenig, gering'
Other Iranian: OPers kamna- 'wenig, gering'
Germanic: *xam-al-a-, *skamm-a- adj.
Russ. meaning: короткий, маленький
References: WP I 601 (differently in Pok.)
Proto-IE: *(s)k(')amb-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: crooked
Old Greek: skambó- `krumm, krummbeinig'
Germanic: *skump-ō- vb.; ? *skimp-a- m., *skimp-ia- vb.
Celtic: OIr camm `krumm'; Cymr, Corn cam, Bret kamm `ds.'; Gaul in Cambio-dūnum, etc.
Russ. meaning: кривой
References: WP I 601
Proto-IE: *skambh-
Meaning: to prop up
Old Indian: skabhnā́ti, skabhnóti `to prop, support, fix', pf. caskámbha; skambhá- m., skambhaná- n. `prop, pillar'
Avestan: upa-skambǝn `unter Festmachen', fra-skǝmba-, fra-sčimbana- `Stützbalken, Tragbalken, Pfeiler'
Latin: scamnum, -ī n. `Bank, Schemel', scabillum, scabellum n. `Schemel, Haspel, Winde'
Russ. meaning: ставить подпорки
References: WP II 539
Proto-IE: *(s)kan- / -e-
Meaning: puppy, cub
Armenian: skund `junger Hund, Wolf'
Slavic: *ščenъ, *ščenę̄, *ščenъkъ
Latin: canis/OLat canēs, gen. -is, abl. -e, pl. gen. -um m., f. `Hund, Hündin'
Celtic: MIr cano, cana `Wolfsjunges', Cymr kenaw `junger Hund od. Wolf'
Russ. meaning: зверек (щенок)
References: WP I 465 f
Comments: The Celtic form suggests that Lat. canis is not the same root as standard PIE *k'uwen- (*k'un-); differently in Pok. 563-564.
Proto-IE: *skand-
Meaning: to run, to spring
Old Indian: skándati `to leap, jump, hop, spring', ā-skandati `to invade, attack'
Old Greek: skandálēthro-n n. `das krumme Stellholz in der Falle', skándalo-n n. `Fall'
Latin: scandō, -ere, scandī, scānsum `steigen, besteigen', pl. scālae f. `Stiege, Treppe, Leiter'
Celtic: *skand- > MIr pf. sescaind `er sprang', prs. scennim `ich springe', sceinm `Sprung'; Cymr cy-chwynnu `auffahren, aufbrechen'
Russ. meaning: бежать, прыгать
References: WP II 540 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kAng'- (kh-)
Meaning: to lame
Old Indian: khañjati `to limp', khañja- `limping'
Old Greek: skázdō `hinken', skasmó-s m. `das Hinken'
Germanic: *skank-a- adj., *skank-ia- vb., *skink=; *xink-[ē]-, *xank-[ē]- vb.
Celtic: MIr scingim `springe'
Russ. meaning: хромать
References: WP II 564 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kape- (-ph-)
Meaning: to dig, to mattock
Other Iranian: NPers kāfaδ, kāvaδ `gräbt'
Old Greek: skapánǟ f. `Grabscheit, Spaten', (s)kápeto-s `Grab, Grube'
Slavic: *kopā́tī, *kõpjǭ
Baltic: *kāp=
Russ. meaning: копать, мотыжить
References: WP II 559 f
Proto-IE: *(s)k(')ar-
Meaning: to divide
Germanic: *skar-ō f., *skar-ja- vb.
Other Italic: Umbr karu `Teil', karnus `partibus', Osk carneis `partis'
Celtic: *skar- > OIr scaraim `ich trenne'
Russ. meaning: делить
References: WP II 573 f
Proto-IE: *(s)k(')ar- / -e-
Meaning: hinge
Germanic: *xir-ōn- f., *xirr-an- m., *skir-ɵ-ōn- f.
Latin: cardō, -inis m. (/f.) `Türangel; Wendepunkt'
Russ. meaning: дверная петля
References: WP II 566 f
Proto-IE: *skArb-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: emaciated, sad
Slavic: *skъrbētī, *skъrbь
Baltic: *skur̃b-/*skur̂b- vb. intr. (1), *skur̃b-[a]- adj.
Germanic: *skarp-a- adj., *skurp=
Russ. meaning: изможденный, печальный
References: Fraenkel 822
Proto-IE: *(s)karbh-, *(s)krab-, etc.
Meaning: to dry and cower
Old Greek: kárphō, aor. kárpsai̯ `einschrumpfen lassen, zusammenziehen, dörren'; kárphos n. `dürres Reisig, dürrer Halm, Heu, Spreu', kárphǟ f. `Heu', karphaléo- `trocken, durr, spröde'; krámbo- `eingeschrumpft, dürr, trocken', krámbo-s m. `Schrumpfkrankheit der Trauben', krá́mbǟ f. `Kohl', krambaléo- `trocken, geröstet', krombóō `braten, rösten'
Slavic: *skъrblъ(jь), *kórbītī; *krǭpъ(jь), *krǭpētī
Baltic: *skreb- vb. intr.; *krum̂p-ā̂ f. (1), *krum̂p-ē̂- vb. (1)
Germanic: *xarp=, xurp=, *skurp=; *xrimp-a- vb., *xramp-a- m., -an- m., *xrump=; *skirp-a-
Russ. meaning: скорчиваться (о высыхающем дереве) etc.
References: WP II 573 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kArk-, -g-, etc.
Meaning: to shout
Old Indian: kark- `to laugh' (L.); kharjati `to creak'
Old Greek: hom. aor. kríke `kreischen, knirschen'; krīgǟ́ `das Schwirren; Knirschen (der Zähne)'; krízdō, aor. krī̂ksai̯, kríksai̯, hüpo-krigẹ̄̂n, ptc. kekrīgṓtes `kreischen, knurren'; krigǟ́ f., krī̆gmó-s `das Kreischen, Knirschen'
Slavic: 1) *krekati, *skrekātī, *krokātī; 2) *krę̄kātī; 3) *krīčā́tī; *skrьžьtъ, *skrьgātī
Baltic: *krē̃k- vb., *krek-ē̂- vb., *krak-a- c., *krēg-ē̂- vb.; *kreñk-, *krañk- vb.; *krī̃k- vb.; *kar̃k- vb., *kwer̃k- vb., *kwar̃k- vb., *kir̃k- vb.
Germanic: *xring-a- vb., *xring-ia- vb. *xring=, *xrang-a- n.; *xark-ia- m., *xark-a- n., *skark-ia- n., *skark-a- n.; *skrēk-ia- m., *skrēk-ia- vb.; *xrīk-a- vb., *skrīk-ō- vb., *skrīk-a- vb., *skrūk-ia- vb.
Russ. meaning: кричать
References: WP I 413 f
Proto-IE: *(s)karp- / *(s)kerp-
Meaning: hornbeam, elm
Hittite: karpina- c. 'ein Obstbaum' (Tischler 517)
Baltic: *skerp-t-u- m., *skir̃p-s-ta- c., *skir̂p-s-t-u- c., *skir̂p-s-t-ā̂, *skirp-s-t-iā̃ f.
Latin: carpinus, -ī f. `Hagebuche, Hainbuche, Carpinus betulus L.'
Russ. meaning: дерево (граб, вяз)
References: WP I 606 f
Proto-IE: *(s)karp-, -b- / -e-
Meaning: to cut
Old Indian: kr̥pāṇa- m. `sword', kr̥pāṇī f. `scissors, dagger, knife'
Old Greek: krṓpio-n 'scythe, bill-hook' Pherecyd., krṓbion Hsch. (cod. krob-)
Slavic: *ščьrbъ(jь), *ščьrbā, *ščьrbь
Baltic: *kir̃p- (*ker̃p-a-) vb. tr., *kar̃p-ī̂- vb., *kir̂p-ā̂ f. (1); *sker̃p-ē̂- vb., *skar̃p-ī̂- vb.; *skir̃b- vb. intr., *skir̃b- (-ja-) vb. tr., *skir̂b-ā̂ f. (1), *skerb-a- adj.
Germanic: *skir[f]-a- vb., *skar[f]-ō- vb., *skar[f]-ia- vb.; *xar[f]-a- m., *xar[f]-ō f., *xar[f]-ia- n.; *skirp-a- vb., *skarp-a- adj., *skurp-ia- vb.
Latin: carpō, -ere, carpsī, -ptum `rupfen, zerteilen; eine Strecke zurücklegen, etwas nzch und nach geniessen, allmählich schwächen, einen durchhecheln'
Celtic: *kerb- > MIr cerb `scharf, schneidend'
Russ. meaning: резать
References: WP II 573 f
Proto-IE: *(s)kars-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to scrape, to scratch
Old Indian: kaṣati `to rub, scratch, scrape', kaṣāya- `astringent'
Slavic: *kórstā
Baltic: *kar̃š- vb. tr.
Germanic: *xars-k-a- adj., *xars-t-i- adj.; *skirz-á- vb., *skarz-ṓ- vb., *skurz-ṓ- vb., *skurs-t-ī(n-) f.
Latin: carrō (Gl. carriō), -ere `(Wolle) krämpeln', carmen `eiserner Wollkamm'; ? carduus, -ī m. `Distel; wilde Artischoke'
Russ. meaning: скрести, чесать(ся)
References: WP I 355 f
Proto-IE: *skat-
Meaning: to jump, to splash out
Old Greek: eskatámizden = eskárizden Hsch. ('hüpfen')
Baltic: *skat- vb. intr., *skat-ī̂- vb.
Latin: scateō, -ēre, OLat scatō `hervorquellen', scatebra f. `Sprudel', scatūrriāre `hervorsprudeln'
Russ. meaning: прыгать; выплескиваться
References: WP II 538 f
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-germ,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,
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