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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *sal-, *salw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: dirt, dirty
Tokharian: B sal 'dirty' (Adams 678)
Old Indian: sāla-, sāra- 'grey'
Slavic: *solvъ(jь)
Germanic: *salw-a- adj.
Latin: salīva f. `Speichel'
Celtic: Cymr salw `vilis' (sal `vilis' < Fr); OCorn halou `stercora', OBret gl. haloc `lugubri', Cymr halog `befleckt'; OIr sal f. `sordes', Gael sal nasser `Schmutz, Ohrenschmalz, OIr salach `schmutzig', NBret saotr `Schmutz', saotra `beschmutzen'
Russ. meaning: грязь, грязный
References: WP II 453 f
Proto-IE: *salw-/-o-, *slōw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: safe, healthy
Tokharian: A salu `ganz', B solme
Old Indian: sárva- `whole, entire, all'; sárvata- `all-sided', sarváthā `in every way'
Avestan: haurva- `unversehrt, ganz'; haurvatāt- `Ganzheit, Vollkommenheit, Wohlfahrt'
Other Iranian: OPers haruva- `unversehrt, ganz'
Armenian: olǯ `gesund, ganz, vollständig', lav `besser'
Old Greek: att. hólo-, ep., ion. ọ̄̂lo- `vollständig, ganz'; lōíōn, att. lṓi̯ōn `vorzüglich(er), zuträglich(er), erwünscht, besser'
Slavic: comp. *sūlējь `besser' [differ. in Vasmer]
Latin: salvus, -a `wohlbehalten, heil, gesund, gerettet', salūs, -ūtis f. `Unverletztheit, Gesundheit'; solidus, -a `gediegen, echt, fest, unerschütterlich, ganz', solōx, -ōcis `dicht, filzig', sollus, -a `tōtus', sollemnis `alljährlich wiederkehrend'; sollers, -tis `ganz kunstbegabt, geschickt erfinderisch, verschlagen'
Other Italic: Osk salavs `salvus ~ Salvus'; Paelign Salavatur `Salvātor'; Umbr saluvom, salvom `salvum'
Celtic: *holio- > OIr (h)uile `ganz, all', Cymr (h)oll `ganz, all', Corn oll `ganz, all', Bret (h)oll `ganz, all'; OIr slān `heil, gesund, ganz, voll'
Albanian: i gjallë `im Leben, lebendig'
Russ. meaning: целый, здоровый (2 корня ?)
References: WP II 510 f
Proto-IE: *sam-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: summer, year
Tokharian: A ṣme 'summer', B ṣmāye 'pertaining to summer' (PT *ṣmiye or *ṣamo) (Adams 668)
Old Indian: sámā f. `a half-year, season, weather, year'
Avestan: ham- 'Sommer'
Armenian: am `Jahr', amarrn `Sommer'
Germanic: *sum-ar-a- n., m.
Celtic: OIr sam (st. samo-), samrad; Cymr, Corn haf, Bret hañv `Sommer'
Russ. meaning: лето, год
References: WP II 492 f
Proto-IE: *sAmadh-
Meaning: sand
Armenian: ? awaz `Sand'
Old Greek: ámatho-s f. `Sand'
Germanic: *samd-a- m., n.
Russ. meaning: песок
Proto-IE: *samǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to draw
Armenian: amal `ausleeren, entladen'
Old Greek: ámǟ (> lat. hama) `Wassereimer', hamís f. `Nachtgeschirr'; ? ántlo-s m. `Schiffsbodenwasser, Kielwasser'
Baltic: *sem̂- vb. tr., *sam̂-ti- c.
Latin: sentīna f. `Schiffsbodenwasser; Kielwasser, Schiffsjauche'
Celtic: *to-eks-sem-, *semtiō(n)-, *to-air-uks-semtiō, *to-uks-semtiō > OIr doesmet `sie giessten aus', imp. tessim `giess ausL!'; inf. teistiu `das Ausgiessen', tairsitiu `innundatio', tuistiu `Zeugung, Schöpfung'
Russ. meaning: вычерпывать
References: WP II 487 f
Proto-IE: *san-/-e-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: apart, without
Tokharian: A sne, B snai (PT *s(ä)nai) 'without' (Adams 712)
Old Indian: sanutár `aside, away, off, far from', sanitúr `besides, without', sánutara-, sánutya `furtive, clandestine'
Avestan: hanarǝ `ferne von, ohne'
Old Greek: prp. áter `fern von, ohne'
Germanic: *sun-dr=
Latin: sine `ohne'
Celtic: *san- > OIr sain adj. `verschieden, besonders'; OCymr han `alium', Cymr hanred `Abtrenung'
Russ. meaning: отдельно, особо, без
References: WP II 494 f
Comments: A comparison exists with Hitt sanezzi-, sanizzi- 'wohlschmekkend, süß; erstklässig, fein' (Friedrich 181-182)
Proto-IE: *sap-
Meaning: juice, pitch
Avestan: vī-šāpa `dessen Säfte Gift sind'
Armenian: ham `Saft, Geschmack'
Germanic: *sa[f]-an- m.; *sap-a- n.
Latin: sapa f.; sapō m. `Mostsaft'; sap-pīnus, -ī f. `Fichte'
Celtic: Cymr syb-wydd (gwydd `Bäume') `Föhre', Corn sib-uit `abies'
Russ. meaning: сок, смола
References: WP II 450 f
Proto-IE: *sap-, -e-
Meaning: to try, to research
Germanic: *sib-a- vb.; *saf-ja- vb., *sib-ōn- f.
Latin: sapiō, -ere, sapīvī/sapuī `schmecken, Geschmack haben; riechen; weise sein, einsichtig sein', sapor, -ōris m. `Geschmack, Leckerei, feiner Ton', nesapius `unwissend'
Other Italic: Osk sipus `sciens', Volsk sepu `sciente ?'
Celtic: OIr sāer `artifex'
Russ. meaning: пробовать, изучать внутреннее устройство
References: WP II 450 f
Proto-IE: *sar-
Meaning: hoe, sickle
Old Indian: sr̥ṇi- m.f. `elephant-goad; f. sickle', sŕ̥ṇya- `furnished with a sickle or formed like a sickle'
Latin: sariō, -īre, -īvī (/-uī), -ītum (/sartum) `die Saat behacken, jäten', sarculum, -ī n. `Jäthacke'
Russ. meaning: мотыга, серп
References: WP II 500 f
Proto-IE: *sAr(ǝ)t-
Meaning: red, reddish
Avestan: harǝtō 'Fieberkrankheit, mit einer bestimmter Krankheit behaftet'
Baltic: *sar̃t-a-, *sar̂t-a- (1) adj.
Russ. meaning: светло-красный, рыжий
References: Fraenkel 764
Proto-IE: *sarp- / -e-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: sickle, to cut (with a sickle)
Old Greek: hárpǟ f. `Sichel'
Slavic: *sьrpъ
Baltic: *sir̃p-a-, -ia- c., -ā̂, -iā̃ f.
Latin: sarpiō/sarpō, sarpsī, sarptum, sarpere `beschneiteln die Weinstöcke'
Celtic: MIr serr `Sichel'; Cymr ser `ds.'
Russ. meaning: серп; жать серпом
References: WP II 500 f
Proto-IE: *sas-
Meaning: cereals
Old Indian: sasyá- `corn, grain, fruit', sasá- `herb, grass, corn'
Avestan: hahya- 'Getreide'
Celtic: Gaul acc. (s)asiam Roggen ("secale Taurini sub Alpibus asiam vocant" Plin. H.N.); Cymr haidd `hordeum', Bret heiz `orge'
Russ. meaning: растение (злаки)
References: WP II 454
Proto-IE: *sat-/-e-
Meaning: companion, fellow, guest
Old Greek: hétaro-s, hetâi̯ro-s, hétai̯ro-s `Gefährte, Genosse, Freund', hetái̯rǟ `Gefährtin, Freundin, Hetäre'
Slavic: *sētъ `Gast', *sētī́tī
Latin: satelles, -ites m. `Leibwächter, Trabant, Gefolge'
Russ. meaning: спутник, приятель, гость
References: WH
Proto-IE: *sAuk-
Meaning: juice; to squeeze the juice, to strain
Baltic: *suñk- (-ja-) vb. tr., *sunk-ā̂ f.
Latin: sūcus, -ī m. `Saft'
Russ. meaning: выжимать сок
References: Fraenkel 941
Comments: Cf. *sAw- 'juice; to squeeze the juice' (and *swokʷ-).
Proto-IE: *sAuk-, -g-
Meaning: to shout
Baltic: *saũk-/saũg- vb. tr., *sō̃k-/*sō̂k- vb. tr., *sōk-ā̂ f., *sug- vb .tr., *sū̂g-ē̂- (*sū̂g-a-) (1) vb.
Germanic: *sukk-a- n., *sukk-ō- vb., *sauk-ia- vb.
Russ. meaning: кричать, издавать звуки
References: WP I 215
Proto-IE: *saus-, *saus-k-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: dry; to dry (tr., intr.)
Old Indian: śúṣyati `to dry, become dry, fade', śoṣa- m. `drying up, desiccation', śúṣka- `dried, dry'; sūkṣma- `minute, small, fine, thin'
Avestan: haoš- 'exarescere'; huška- 'trocken'
Other Iranian: OPers uška- 'trocken'
Old Greek: âu̯o-, att. hâu̯o- `dürr, trocken'; áu̯ō = ksēráinō Hdn., apháu̯ei̯ (Ar. Eq. 394); au̯khmó-s m. `Trockenheit, Dürre, Schmutz', au̯khmǟ́ f. `id.'
Slavic: *sū̀xъ, *sъxnǭtī, *sūšī́tī
Baltic: *saũs-a- adj., *saũs-ē̂-, *saũs- vb. intr., *sus-a- adj., *sus- vb. intr.
Germanic: *sauz-á-, *sauz-í- adj.
Russ. meaning: сухой; сушить/сохнуть
References: WP II 447 f; Fraenkel 946
Comments: ? Lith sùski-s 'Aussatz, Krätze; heruntergekommener, verkommener Mensch', Lett sušk̨is 'jmd., der sich unreinlich hält' [together with śúṣka- can be regarded as a reduplication of *seuk- `squeeze the juice' - but it is extremely dubious!]
Proto-IE: *saw- ~ -o-
Meaning: juice; to squeeze the juice
Hittite: {sunnai 'füllt, presst, drängt aus' - source?}
Tokharian: B ṣwīye 'broth, porridge' (Adams 669); B sum- 'to drop, trickle', sumo 'libation', B smaññe 'broth' (696, 697)
Old Indian: sunóti `to press out, extract', ptc. sutá-; sávana- n., savá- m. `pressing out the juice of the Soma plant', sóma- m. `juice, extract, juice of the Soma plant'
Avestan: hunaoiti `presst aus, keltert', hauma- m. `Soma'
Germanic: *saww=, *saww-ia-
Celtic: *sut- > Ir suth suth `Saft; Milch'
Russ. meaning: сок; выжимать сок
References: WP II 471 f
Comments: See *s[e]uk- 'to squeeze the juice'
Proto-IE: *sayǝw-
Meaning: hard, rough, painful
Tokharian: B saiwe n. 'itch, itching' (Adams 701)
Old Greek: hai̯mōdéō `stumpfe Zähne haben, wie es durch Saures bewirkt wird', hai̯mōdíǟ f. `Stumpfheit der Zähne'
Baltic: *seiw-a-, *sī̂w-a- adj. (1); *sī̂w-a- c., -iā̃ (1) f.
Germanic: *sai-r-a- adj., *sai-r-a- n.
Latin: saevus, -a `wütend, tobend, hart, grausam, grimmig'
Celtic: *saitu-s, *saituro-m > OIr saēth `Leid, Krankheit', sāethar `Leid, Mühe, Arbeit
Russ. meaning: грубый, шершавый, болезненный
References: WP II 445
Proto-IE: *sā-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: satisfied, to satiate
Tokharian: A si-n-, B soy- 'to satisfy' (Adams 703)
Old Indian: a-sinvá-, á-sinvant- `insatiable'
Old Greek: áetai̯ Hsd. (cod. áatai), hom.: ā́menai̯, aor. ā̂sai̯, conj. héōmen (< *hḗomen), ft. ásẹ̄n, va. á-ato- `(sich) sättigen', hádǟn `bis zur Sättigung, genug', hadǟ-phágo- `gefrässig', lakon., Аристофан в глосах áada `недостаток, нехватка' (Hsch.), inf. aadeîn = aporeîsthai, asiteîn Hsch.; hádos n. (~ hádo-s m.) `Sättigung', ? ásǟ f. `Ekel, Unbehagen, Verdruss'
Slavic: *sɨ̄́tъ(jь)
Baltic: *sā̂-ti- c., *sā̂-t-u- adj. (1), *sā̂-t-in̂- vb.
Germanic: *sō-ɵ=, *sa-d-á- adj., *sa-d-ja- vb., *sa-d-í- c., *sa-d-jṓ f., *sa-d-ō- vb., *sa-d-ē- vb.
Latin: satis, sat `genug'; satur, -a `satt'
Celtic: OIr sāith `Sattheit', sāithech `satt'
Russ. meaning: сытый, насыщать(ся)
References: WP II 444 f
Proto-IE: *sāg(')-
Meaning: to track
Hittite: sak(k)-, sek(k)- (II) 'wissen, kennen, erfahren', sagai- c. 'Vorzeichen, Omen', sakkant- c. 'bekannt', sakija- (I) 'kundtun, offenbaren' (Friedrich 176)
Old Greek: hǟgéomai̯ `vorangehen, führen; glauben, meinen'; hǟgemṓn, -ónos m. `Führer'
Germanic: *sōk-ia- vb., *sōkn=, *sak-ō f., *sak-jō(n-) f., *sak-a- vb., *sak-ō- vb., *sak-i- adj., *sax-t-a- adj.
Latin: sāgīre `spüren, wittern', sāgus, -a `wahresagend', sāga f. `Wahrsagerin; Kupplerin'; sagāx, -ācis `scharf witternd; scharfsinnig'
Celtic: *sag- > OIr saigim `gehe einer Sache nach, suche'; Cymr cy-r-haedd `erreichen'
Russ. meaning: идти по следу
References: WP II 449
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