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Indo-European etymology :

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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *(a)rēg(')-
Meaning: to care, to help
Old Greek: arḗgō `helfe, beistehen (gegen etw.)'; árēksi-s `Hilfe, Beistand', arēgṓn, -ónos m., f. `Helfer(in)'; arōgó- `helfend', arōgó-s f. `Helfer', arōgǟ́ f. `Hilfe'
Germanic: *rōk-i- adj., *rōk-ia- vb.
Russ. meaning: заботиться, помогать
References: WP II 362 f
Proto-IE: *(a)rēy-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to regulate, to count
Old Greek: arithmó-s m. `Zahl, Anzahl, Zählung', nǟ́rito- `zahllos', arkad. pl. Ep-áritoi̯ Ben. der Soldaten des arkadischen Bundes, eig. "die Auserlesenen"
Germanic: *ra-ɵ-ja- vb., *ra-ɵ-jō f., -ra-d-a- n., *ga-rai-d-a- adj., *rī-m-a- n.
Latin: reor, ratus, rērī `ordne (im Geiste), schätze, meine', rītus, gen. -ūs m. `religiöser Gebrauch, Ritus, Zeremonie; Gebrauch, Sitte, Gewohnheit, Art'; ratiō, -ōnis f. `Rechnung, Rechenschaft; Geschaftssache, Verkehr; Gattung, Gebiet; Vorteil; Berücksichtigung, Sorge; Denken, Vernunft, Überlegung; Grund, Begründung; Gesetzmässigkeit, Regel; Einrichtung, Verhältnis; Wissenschaft, Lehee, Grundsatz'
Celtic: OIr rīm `Zahl', *adrīmā > āram `id.', dorīmu `zähle'; Cymr rhif `Zahl'
Russ. meaning: упорядочивать, считать
References: WP I 69 f
Proto-IE: *arǝm-
Meaning: arm
Old Indian: īrmá- m. `arm, fore-quarter of an animal'
Avestan: arǝma- `Arm'; Osset ärm `hohle Arm'
Armenian: armukn `Ellenbogen'
Slavic: *órmę̄, *órmen-, *órmo
Baltic: *irm-ā̂ f., *ir̂m=ēd-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *arm-i- c,, *arm-a- m.
Latin: armus, -ī m. `der oberste Teil des Oberarms, Schulterblatt, (bei Tieren) der Vorderbug'
Russ. meaning: рука (arm)
References: WP I 72 f
Proto-IE: *arg'-
Meaning: silver
Old Indian: rajatá- n. `silver'
Avestan: ǝrǝzata- 'Silber'
Armenian: arcath `Silber'
Old Greek: árgüro-s m. `Silber'
Latin: argentum, -ī n. `Silber, Silbergerät, Silbergeld'
Other Italic: Osk aragetud `argento'; Falisc arcentelom `argentulum'
Celtic: Gaul Argento-ratum, -magus; OIr argat `Silber', MIr airget `Silber'; Cymr arian(t) `Silber', Corn argant `Silber', Bret argant `Silber', NBret arc'hant `Silber'
Russ. meaning: металл (серебро)
References: WP I 82 f
Comments: [OInd. rajata- instead of *arjata- or *r̥jata- probably on analogy with raj- 'to dye' and derivates]
Proto-IE: *arg'ip-
Meaning: hawk
Old Indian: r̥jipyá- (an epithet of śyená- `falcon')
Avestan: ǝrǝzifya- m. `Adler, Name eines Berges od. Gebirges'; ár[ks]iphos = aetòs parà Pérsois Hsch.
Other Iranian: NPers āluh `Adler' (< OPers *ardufya-)
Armenian: arcvi `Adler'
Old Greek: ai̯güpió-s m. `Geier'
Latin: accipiter, -tris m. (/ f.) `Habicht, Falke'
Russ. meaning: птица (ястреб)
References: WP I 172
Proto-IE: *arg'-/*e- <PIH *H->
Meaning: white, brilliant
Hittite: harki- `weiss, hell' (Tischler 177)
Tokharian: A ārki, B arkwi weiss (PT *ārkw(ä)i) (Adams 49-50)
Old Indian: árjuna- `white, clear'
Avestan: arǝzah- n. `Nachmitteg und Abend' (Bed. fraglich)
Old Greek: argó- `weissglänzend'; argi- in compounds; árgemo-n n., á́rgemo-s m. `weisser Fleck im Auge, albugo'
Germanic: *irk-n-a- adj.
Latin: arguō, -uī, -ūtum, -ere `mache klar, weise nach, überführe', argūtus, -a `helltönend'
Russ. meaning: белый, блестящий
References: WP I 82 f
Proto-IE: *(a)rik- (-kh-), -g-
Meaning: to walk on all fours
Old Indian: riṅgati, riṅkhati `to go, move, crawl, creep'
Old Greek: anarikháomai̯ `mit Händen und Füssen emporklettern', arrikháomai̯ `id.'
Russ. meaning: идти на четвереньках
References: WP II 702
Proto-IE: *arke- <PIH *H->
Meaning: to store, to lock, to defend
Hittite: har(k)- (I) `halten, haben' (Tischler 173ff)
Tokharian: B ārk- 'be obliged to' (Adams 49)
Armenian: argel `Hindernis', argelum `wehre, halte ab, halte zurück'
Old Greek: arkéō, aor. arkés(s)ai̯ `abwehren, helfen; hinreichen, genügen'; árkos n. `Abwehr'
Baltic: ? *rak-t-a- c.
Latin: arceo, -ēre `verschliessen, einhegen; durch Abschluss fernhalten, abwehren, verhindern'; arca `Kasten, Kiste, Lade, Geldschrank; Sarg'; arx, gen. arcis f. `feste Höhe, Burg', arcera `bedeckter Wagen'
Other Italic: Osk trííbarakavúm (< *trēb-arkā-) `aedificare'
Russ. meaning: хранить, запирать, защищать
References: WP I 80 f
Proto-IE: *ark-, *arkeut-
Meaning: a k. of thorny bush/tree
Old Indian: arká- m. `the plant Calotropis gigantea (the larger leaves are used for sacrificial ceremonies)'
Old Greek: árkeu̯tho-s f. `Wacholder, Juniperus', arkeu̯thís, -ídos f. `Wacholderbeere'
Slavic: *orkɨ̄tъ, *orkɨ̄tā `ракита', *orkosъ/*orgozъ: Czekh rákos, rokos `тростник' etc.
Baltic: *erk-š-ēt-ia- c., *erk-š-ia- c., *erk-ia- c.
Russ. meaning: дерево (колючее)
References: WP I 81
Proto-IE: *arkʷ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: bow and arrows
Germanic: *árxw-ō/*ar(g)w-ṓn- f.; *árxw-az-n-ō f.
Latin: arcus, gen. -ūs m. `Bogen, Regen-, Schwibbogen, Bogenwölbung, Kreisbogen', *arquus, gen. arquī `Bogen', arques, -itis m. `sagittarius'
Other Italic: Umbr arc̨lataf `arculatas, runde Kuchen'
Russ. meaning: лук и стрелы
References: WP I 81
Proto-IE: *ar-/e-
Meaning: lamb, kid
Armenian: oroǯ `agnus, -a', erinǯ `vitula, juvenca, bos'
Old Greek: éripho-s m., f. `junger Bock, junge Ziege'
Slavic: *ā́rъka, *ā́rę̄, *ā́rьcь
Baltic: *ē̂r-a- (1) c., *ēr-ist-ia- n.
Latin: ariēs, gen. -etis m. `Widder, Schafbock; Seewidder'
Other Italic: Umbr erietu `arietem'
Celtic: OIr heirp `dama, capra', MIr earb, fearb `Damtier'
Russ. meaning: скот (ягненок, козленок)
References: WP I 135 f
Proto-IE: *arnk(')-
Meaning: a leguminous plant
Old Greek: árako-s m., árak-s m. `eine Hülsenfrucht, Lathyrus annuus'
Latin: arinca f. `Art Spelt, olyra (Galliarum propria)'
Russ. meaning: растение (нечто зерно-бобовое)
References: WP I 84
Comments: Cf. *ʔĕrVgʷ[h]- `a k. of leguminous plant'
Proto-IE: *aro- <PIH *H->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to plough
Hittite: hars- (I) 'aufreissen, beackern' (Tischler 182-183, with doubts) ?
Tokharian: A, B āre `aratrum' (A < B) (Adams 49)
Armenian: *aratro-m > araur `Pflug'; *arāmōn > haravunkh `Ackerland'; varem `den Boden bebauen, besamen, ackern; führen, treiben'
Old Greek: aróō, aor. arósai̯, ft. herakl. arásanti `pflügen, ackern, pflanzen, bauen', arótǟ-s, arotḗr `Pflüger', árotro-n, kret. áratro-n `Pflug', ároto-s m. `das Pflügen, (gepflügtes) Land, Saatland, Saat(zeit), árōma `bebautes Land, Saatfeld', árosi-s `das Pflügen usw.'
Slavic: *òrjǭ, *orā́tī; *órdlo; *ortājь
Baltic: *ar̂- (2) vb. tr., *ar̂-tl-a- c.
Germanic: *ar-a-/*ar-ja- vb., *ar-ɵ-ō f., *ár-ɵl=, etc.
Latin: arō, -āvī, -āre `pflügen, ackern'
Celtic: MIr airim `pflüge'; Cymr arddu `pflügen', arddwr `Pflüger'; MIr arathar; Cymr aradr, Corn aradar, MBret aeazr, Bret arar `Pflug';
Russ. meaning: пахать
References: WP I 78 f
Proto-IE: *arw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: stomach, guts
Armenian: orovain `Bauch, Wanst, Mutterleib'
Old Greek: orǘǟ f. `Darm'
Latin: arvīna f. `Schmer, Speck, bes. um die Eingeweide'
Russ. meaning: живот, кишки
References: WP I 182
Proto-IE: *arw-/*e-
Meaning: field
Old Indian: urvárā f. `fertile soil, field yielding crop'
Avestan: urvarā `Pflanze'
Armenian: erkir `Erde'
Old Greek: ár[ọ̄]ra f. `Ackerland, Land'
Slavic: *orvьnъ(jь)
Baltic: *arw-a- adj.
Germanic: *irw-an- m., -ōn- f.
Latin: arvus, -a, -um `zum Pflügen bestimmt, Acker-, Saat-'; arva f.; arvum, -ī n. `Saatgefilde, Ackerland, Flur'
Other Italic: Umbr arvame-en `in arvam', ar(u)via `frumenta'
Celtic: MIr arbor, dat. arbaim, gen. (schon OIr) arbe, pl. n. a. arbanna (rr/n-St) `Getreide'; Cymr erw f., pl. erwi, erwydd `Feld', Corn erw, ereu `id.', OBret, MBret eru, Bret ero `Furche'
Russ. meaning: долина ровная
References: WP I 78 f
Proto-IE: *ar(y)- <PIH *a->
Meaning: master
Hittite: arawa- 'frei', Lyk. arawã 'abgabenfrei' (Tischler 53-55 is doubtful)
Old Indian: árya-, aryá- m. `master, lord', ā́rya- `Arian'
Avestan: airyō 'arisch'
Other Iranian: OPers ariya- 'arisch'
Celtic: Gaul Ario-manus; Ir aire, gen. airech gl. `primas'
Russ. meaning: господин; "ариец"
References: WP I 80
Proto-IE: *as-
Meaning: donkey
Old Greek: ? óno-s m., f. 'Esel'
Slavic: *osьlъ
Baltic: *as-il-a- m.
Germanic: *as-il-u- m.
Latin: asinus, -ī m. 'Esel'
Russ. meaning: осел
Comments: Definitely a Wanderwort.
Proto-IE: *as- <PIH *H->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to burn, to dry; hearth; ashes
Hittite: hassa- c. 'Herd, Feuerstelle', Luw. hassaniti 'hearth' (Tischler 196-197)
Tokharian: A, B ās- 'dry out, dry up' (PT *ās-) (Adams 57-58)
Old Indian: ā́sa- m. `ashes, dust'
Armenian: azazaem `dörren', ačiun `Asche'
Old Greek: ázdō `dörren, trocknen', ázda f. `Trockenheit, Hitze', azdaléo- `dürr', lakon. acc. áddau̯o-n `ksērón' (Hsch.), azdau̯tós `palai ótēs kài kónis' (Hsch.)
Slavic: *ozdītī (Czech, OPol ozd `Malzdarre', Czech, Slovak ozditi `Malz dörren')
Germanic: *as-k-ō(n-) f., *ask-ian- n.
Latin: āreo, -ēre, -uī `trocken, dürr, ausgedörrt, verschmachtet sein', āridus, -a `trocken, dürr', ardeō, -ēre, arsī `brennen, glühen, entbrannt sein'; āra f. (OLat āsa) f. `Aufbau zum Opfern, Altar'
Other Italic: Osk aasaí `in ara', Umbr ase `arae'
Russ. meaning: жечь, гореть, сушить/сохнуть (на огне); очаг; зола
References: WH
Proto-IE: *as- <PIH *H->
Meaning: straw
Hittite: has(s)- n., hassa- c. 'Span, oder anderer holziger Teil des Seifenstrauchs' (Tischler 194-195)
Old Greek: [ḗ]ia pl. n. (-i-, but Od.2.289,410, Il.13.103 -ī-), contr. [ē̂]i̯a pl. n. (Hom.+) 'provisions for a journey'
Baltic: *as-ia- c., *as-k-a- c.
Latin: arista f. 'ость колоса; колос; рыбья кость; вставшие дыбом волосы'
Russ. meaning: солома
References: Tischler 194-195.
Proto-IE: *As[e]g-
Meaning: a k. of river fish
Slavic: *j[ē]žǯь ЭССЯ 6:60 (Pol jażdż, Czech ježdík `ерш')
Baltic: *aǯg-iā̃ f., *aǯg-ia- c., *aǯeg-[a]- m.
Germanic: *ask-ō f.
Celtic: Gaul > Lat esox, gen. -ocis (PM) `Fisch, wahrsch. Hecht' (+ Bask izokin `saumon'); Ir ēo, ē, gen. iach `Lachs'; Cymr ehawc, eog `Lachs', Corn ehoc `Lachs', gl. `isicius', l. `salmo', Bret eok `Lachs'
Russ. meaning: рыба (речная, вид)
References: WP I 102
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