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Indo-European etymology :

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\data\ie\piet
Proto-IE: *apo, *ap-, *pā
Meaning: prep./adv.: from, off; back
Old Indian: ápa 'away, off, back; down'
Avestan: apa 'von-weg'; pa-zdayeitē 'lässt wegrücken, scheucht'
Other Iranian: OPers apa 'von-weg'
Old Greek: apó, dial. apǘ; áps 'zurück, wieder'
Slavic: *po, *pā
Baltic: *pā, *pa
Germanic: *áfa; *fana-, *funa-
Latin: ab 'von', abs; po-situs, pōnō; po-liō, po-lubrum, pōrcet
Other Italic: Umbr ap-ehtre 'ab extra, extrinsecus'
Celtic: OCymr, NCymr o 'ex, ab, de', OCorn, MCorn, OBret, NBret a 'dass.'
Albanian: prapɛ 'wieder, zurück'; pa 'ohne', pa- 'un'
Russ. meaning: от; обратно, снова
References: WP I 47 f
Proto-IE: *apr- (-ph-) <PIH *H->
Meaning: warm, light, sky
Hittite: happarnuwasha- c. 'Sonnenstrahl', happin(a)- 'offene Flamme' (Tischler 162, 165)
Armenian: arph, arphk 'Sterne', arphi 'Aether, Himmel'
Latin: aprīcāre '(о солнце) греть, согревать', aprīcus, -a, -um 'находящийся на солнце, согреваемыфй солнцем, солнечный; солнечный, ясный; светолюбивый; теплый, горячий'
Russ. meaning: тепло, свет
References: Tischler 162, 165.
Proto-IE: *ap[u]s-
Meaning: asp
Old Greek: áspris f. (Thphr.) 'Turkey oak, Quercus cerris'
Slavic: *osā́, *osī́ka, *osī́na `осина'; *osokorь/*āsokorь `черный тополь; ясень'
Baltic: *apuš-iā̃ f., -ia- c., *ap[s]-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *asp-ō(n-) f., *asp-i- c.
Russ. meaning: дерево (осина)
References: WP I 50
Proto-IE: *ar-
Meaning: reed, rush
Old Greek: áro-n `Arum, Natterwurz, Art Schildrohr', arís, -ídos f. `Pflanzenname, "drakontía mikrá"', arísaro-n n. `Pflanzenname, Arisarum vulgare'
Latin: harundō, -inis f. `Rohr'
Russ. meaning: растение (тростник)
References: WP I 79
Proto-IE: *ar-
Meaning: to join
Tokharian: ? A ārwar, B ārwer (PT *ārwer) 'ready' (Adams 53)
Old Indian: arpayati `to fix into or upon, fasten'; r̥tá- `proper, fit', r̥tá- n. `fixed or settled order, sacred rule'
Avestan: arɔ̄nte `sich setzen sich fest, bleiben stecken'; arǝta-, ǝrǝta- n. 'Gesetz, Recht'
Other Iranian: OPers arta- (in Zs.) `Gesetz, Recht, heiliges Recht'
Armenian: arrnem `mache', y-ar `consentaneo, congiunto, contiguo, appresso', y-arem `aggiungere, congiungere', čh-ar `schlecht'; ard, gen. -u `struttura, costruzione, ornamento', z-ard `apparatus, ornatus'; ard `soeben, jetzt'
Old Greek: ararískō, aor. arārẹ̄̂n, ársai̯, pf. (intr.) árǟra `zusammenfügen, verfertigen, ausrüsten', árthro-n `Glied, Gelenk', arthmó-s `Verbindung, Bund, Freundschaft'; artí-pọ̄s `mit gesunden Füssen', artí-phrōn `mit fest(gefügt)em Verstande'; artǘ-s <artǘn> `любовь, соглашение, суд' (Hsch.); artǘ-s `устройство (`sǘntaksis', Hsch.); artǘō `zurüsten, bereiten', ármǟ f. `Vereinigung, Beischlaf'; árti `eben, gerade', apartí `genau, gerade'
Slavic: *ārьmъ, *ārьmo; *kojārītī
Baltic: *ar̃-t-u- adj.
Germanic: *ar-d-[u]- c.
Latin: artus, -a `eng in Raum und Zeit; straff, knapp; drangvoll'; ars, gen. -tis f. `handwerks- oder kunstmasiige Geschicklichkeit, Handwerk, Kunst, Eigenschaft als Bestrebung, Grundsatz, Kunstgriff , Betrug'; pl. arma, -ōrum `Rüstung, Rüstzeug, Gerät, Waffen, spez. Schutzwaffen', armentum `Grossvieh'; artus, -ūs m. `Gelenk, Glied'
Russ. meaning: сочленять, соединять
References: WP I 69 f
Proto-IE: *ar- <PIH *a->
Meaning: to gain / to distribute
Hittite: arnuzi `hin-, herbringen'
Avestan: ar- `gewähren, zuteil werden lassen', mit us- und frā- `(als Anteil) aussetzen und zuweisen', frǝ̄rǝta- n. `Zuweisung (von Opfern etc.), Darbringung'
Armenian: arrnum, aor. arri `ich nehme'
Old Greek: árnümai `erlangen, erwerben, gewinnen', áros n. `Nutzen'; ártos (m.?) = bólos tis, kaì ho Athēnaíōn ksénos' Hsch.
Germanic: *ar-n-ē-, *ar-n-ō- vb.
Russ. meaning: приобретать/раздавать
References: WP I 76 f
Proto-IE: *ar- <PIH *a->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to pray
Hittite: arija- (I) 'durch Orakel feststellen' (Tischler 56); aruwai-, arwai- (I) 'anbeten, hüldigen' (Tischler 73-74)
Old Indian: ā́ryati `to praise'
Old Greek: arǟ́ f. `Gebet, Fluch', ep-, kataráomai̯ `bete, fluche'; ark. katarwo-s `verwünscht'
Slavic: *orātī, *orǭ; *orītī
Latin: ōrāre `eine Ritualformel sagen; reden, sprechen; bitten, beten'
Russ. meaning: молиться
References: WP I 182
Proto-IE: *ar- <PIH *H->
Meaning: valley, hollow
Hittite: hari- c. 'Tal' (Tischler 172-173)
Armenian: ayr 'Spelunke, Grotte'
Baltic: *ar-mō̃ (-men-) c.
Russ. meaning: долина, углубление
References: Tischler 172-173.
Proto-IE: *ara / *erǝ
Meaning: part./conj.
Old Greek: ára, ár, encl. rha `natürlich, eben, dann; so'; ā̂ra interrog. particle, implying anxiety or impatience
Baltic: *ar, *ir
References: WP I 77
Proto-IE: *araKsn-
Meaning: spider
Old Greek: arákhnǟ f. `Spinne, Spinnegewebe', arákhnǟ-s m., árakhno-s m. `id.'
Latin: arāneus, -ī m. `Spinne', arānea f., arāneum `Spinngewebe'
Russ. meaning: насекомое (паук)
References: WP I 76
Proto-IE: *(A)raud-
Meaning: ore
Old Indian: lohá- m. n. `red metal, copper' (a contamination with lohá- `red, reddish')
Slavic: *rūdā́
Germanic: *arut-a- m., *arut-ja- n., *arutja-taugō
Latin: raudus, rōdus, rūdus `ein formloses Erzstück als Münze'
Albanian: arɛ́nts Stahl (from Arretium ?)
Russ. meaning: руда
References: WP II 358 f
Comments: Seems to be different from *(e)reudh- 'red'; a probable loan from Sum. urudu 'copper'.
Proto-IE: *arbh- ?
Meaning: a k. of tree
Germanic: *arb-ō(n-) f.
Latin: arbor / arbōs, -oris f. `Baum'; arbutus, -ī f. `Hagapfelbaum, Erdbeerbaum, Arbutus unedo L.' (земляничное дерево)
Russ. meaning: дерево (типа хвойного)
References: WP I 148 f (different in Pok.)
Proto-IE: *ard- <PIH *a->
Meaning: to flow; to wet
Old Indian: árdati, r̥dantu `to move, be moved, be scattered (as dust); to dissolve', ārdrá- `wet, moist, damp', r̥dū- (in comp.) `soft, sweet'
Avestan: arǝdvī- f. Name eines mythischen Fluses, meist als weiblische Gottheit gedacht
Old Greek: árda f. `Schmutz', árdalo-s `id.'; ion., att. árdō (/ ā́rdō) `bewässern', ardmó-s m. `Tränkplatz'
Russ. meaning: течь/мочить
References: WP I 148; Tischler 66
Proto-IE: *ardh-
Meaning: pole
Armenian: ardn `Lanze, Speer'
Baltic: *ar̃d-a- c., *ar̃d-am-a- c., *ar̃d-iā̃ f.
Latin: ? asser, -eris m. `dicke Stange, Latte, Balken, Tragstange an der Sänfte', assis, -is m. `Diele, Brett, Bohle', dem. assula f. `Splitter, Span'
Russ. meaning: шест
References: WP I 84
Proto-IE: *ardhw-
Meaning: tall; to grow
Old Indian: r̥dhṇoti, r̥ṇaddhi, r̥dhati `to grow, increase, prosper, succeed', árdhuka- `prospering'
Avestan: ǝrǝdwa- `hoch'
Armenian: ? ordi `Sohn', urǯu `Stiefsohn'
Slavic: *orstǭ, *orstī; *orstъ
Germanic: *ar[d]-ug-a- adj.
Latin: arduus, -a `hoch, steil, schwierig'
Celtic: Gaul Arduenna silva; OIr ard `hoch, gross'
Russ. meaning: высокий; расти
References: WP I 148 f
Proto-IE: *ard-i-
Meaning: sharp end, sting
Old Greek: árdi-s, -ios f. ` Pfeilspitze'
Germanic: *art-ia- vb.
Celtic: *ardi-: OIr aird `Punkt, Endpunkt'
Russ. meaning: острый конец, жало
References: WP I 83 f
Proto-IE: *ar(e)- <PIH *a->
Meaning: to correspond to, to like
Hittite: ara- n. 'Wohl, Recht, Angemessenheit', c. 'Freund' (Tischler 50)
Old Indian: adv. áram `readily, fitably, suitably'; ártha- n./m. `aim, purpose, cause'
Avestan: arǝm `passend, entsprechend', arɵa- n. `Sache, Angelegenheit, Obliegenheit, Rechtsstreit'
Old Greek: aréskō `befriedigen, gefallen', aretǟ́ f. `Tüchtigkeit, Stärke usw.'
Russ. meaning: соответствовать, нравиться
References: WP I 69 f
Comments: [Is it different from *ar- `join' ?]
Proto-IE: *ares- <PIH *a->
Meaning: to be angry, to lose one's temper
Hittite: arsanai-/-ija- (II) 'beneiden, sich ärgern' (Tischler 67-68) (but cf. also harsallant- 'zornig', Tischler 182-184 without etymology)
Tokharian: A rse, B rser, räser 'Haß' (Adams 542)
Old Indian: irasyáti `to show enmity, be angry or envious', irasyā́ f. `enmity, malevolence'; īrṣyā́ f. `envy, spite, malice'
Avestan: araska- `Neid'; ǝrǝsi- `Neid'
Other Iranian: MPers, Npers arašk `Neid, Eifer'
Armenian: erram `siede, walle; bin in unruhiger Bewegung; wimmle, kribble; entzünde mich; bin leidenschaftlich erregt; bin oder werde eifrig, zornig'; herr `Zorn, Neid, Hader'
Old Greek: arǟ́ f. `Schaden, Unheil, Verderben', ap-arés = hügiés Hsch., áros = akoúsion blábos (Hsch.), arei̯ǟ́ f. `Verwünschung, Drohung' (Hom.), epḗrei̯a `übermütige Beandlung, Kränkung, Drohung', ep-ēreázdō 'to threaten abusively, to deal despitifully with, etc.'
Baltic: *ir̃š- (vb. intr.)
Germanic: *irz-ia- adj., *írs-ia- vb.
Latin: errāre `(umher)irren, sich verirren'
Russ. meaning: гневаться, терять соображение
References: WP I 149 f
Proto-IE: *(a)rew-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: sun, moon
Hittite: arma- c. 'Mond, Monat', Lyk. arma-, erme-, erm̃me-, Lyd. armTa- 'des Arm(a)ś' (Tischler 62 without etymology)
Old Indian: ravi- m. `sun'
Armenian: arev `Sonne'
Russ. meaning: солнце
References: WP II 358 f
Proto-IE: *(a)reyis-, *(a)rewus-
Meaning: nut; hazel-, walnut
Old Greek: pl. árüa `walnuts' Hsch.
Slavic: *orēxъ, *orьxъ
Baltic: *reîš-a-, *reîš-t-a- (1), *reîš-ut-a-, -ia- c.
Albanian: árrë, pl. -a f. `walnut'
Russ. meaning: дерево (орех)
References: WP I 77
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-arm,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-arm,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-arm,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,
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