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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *al-
Meaning : cowrie
Tamil : alaku
Tamil meaning : number, calculation, cowries (as signs of number in reckoning)
Kodagu : alu
Kodagu meaning : (Mercara) cowrie
Notes : A strange Tamil-Kodagu isogloss; perhaps an external source should be located.
Number in DED : 0238
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : handful
Tamil : aḷ
Tamil meaning : handful, anything contained within the hollow of the hand
Tamil derivates : aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to take up in the hollow of the hand; n. handful of grain given on the threshing floor or in the bazaar as perquisite
Malayalam : aḷḷuka
Malayalam meaning : to take up with the hollow of the hand
Notes : In DEDR these forms are compared with PNDR *lā̆p- 'to measure with handful(s)'. That stem, however, fits in much better morphologically with PSDR *aḷa- 'to measure' (cf., in particular, such Tulu forms as aḷapuni, lappu, etc.). Yet it is not excluded that both stems are, in fact, the same, with Tamil aḷ simply preserving the original monosyllabic variant.
Number in DED : 0290
Proto-South Dravidian : *ăḷ-
Meaning : strength
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷ
Tamil meaning : strength, firmness
Kannada : aḷa, aḷavi, aḷavu, alavu
Kannada meaning : power, strength, force, ability, possibility, practicability
Number in DED : 0291
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : dense; narrow
Tamil : aḷ
Tamil meaning : closeness, thickness
Tamil derivates : aḷḷal crowdedness, closeness; aḷḷāṭu (aḷḷāṭi-) to be close; aḷḷu (aḷḷi-) to be dense, thickly interwoven; aḷam density, closeness
Malayalam : aḷ
Malayalam meaning : narrowness
Number in DED : 0292
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : sharp
Tamil : aḷ, aḷam
Tamil meaning : sharpness, keenness of edge
Malayalam : aḷ
Malayalam meaning : sharpness
Malayalam derivates : aḷḷay-āyi-pōka to become very thin and sharp
Number in DED : 0293
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : to shake (body), wag
Tamil : aḷḷai
Tamil meaning : side of the body
Kannada : aḷ, aḷḷu
Kannada meaning : shaking, rising, and falling with alternate motions, heaving of the aḷḷe's
Kannada derivates : aḷḷe that portion of the abdomen of man which is immediately below the costal margin, is regarded as a very tender spot, and heaves in quick breathing; the weak spot, tenderness, weakness; the flank of an animal; (Hav.) aḷañcu to agitate (liquid)
Tulu : aḷaṇṭuni
Tulu meaning : to shake, move
Tulu derivates : aḷḷè, allè the side, groin, hip
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḷ-
Number in DED : 0294
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : sea; salt water
Tamil : aḷam
Tamil meaning : saltpan, maritime tract, saline soil, sea
Tamil derivates : aḷakkar sea, ocean, saltpans; aḷatti woman of maritime tracts; aḷavar persons belonging to the caste of salt manufacturers; aḷar saltishness, brackishness; upp-aḷam saltpan, saline land; ump-aḷam saltpan
Malayalam : aḷam
Malayalam meaning : salt marsh, saltpan
Malayalam derivates : aḷakkar sea; upp-aḷam salt marsh; aḷavan a member of the caste of salt manufacturers
Number in DED : 0299
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : to fear
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷukku (aḷukki-)
Tamil meaning : to be perturbed, frightened
Malayalam : aḷukkuka
Malayalam meaning : to start, shrink, cramp of limbs
Malayalam derivates : aḷukkam awe, fear; aḷarkka to lament, cry; aḷarcca bellowing; aḷappu shriek
Kannada : aḷar_, aḷaku, aḷiku, aḷuku, aḷku, aḷkar_
Kannada meaning : to fear
Kannada derivates : aḷar_isu, aḷakisu, aḷikisu to frighten; aḷar_, aḷaku, aḷku, aḷarpu fear, anguish; aḷasu sound in coitu
Tulu : alkuni, aḷkuni
Tulu meaning : to be afraid, start, shudder
Tulu derivates : alkụ timidity; timid, frightened
Number in DED : 0306
Proto-South Dravidian : *ăḷ-
Meaning : hole
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷai
Tamil meaning : anthill, hole in the ground, hollow in tree, cave
Malayalam : aḷa
Malayalam meaning : hole in trees, in the ground
Malayalam derivates : aḷḷāppu hollow, hole
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḷ-
Miscellaneous : KUR (LSB) aḷe hole
Number in DED : 0308
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-a-
Meaning : to measure
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷa (-pp-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to measure, limit, define
Tamil derivates : aḷapu, aḷappam measurement; aḷappu id., bounds, limit; aḷavu measure, extent, size, number; aḷavi limit; aḷavai measure, bounds, limit; aḷavan_ one who measures the grain
Malayalam : aḷakka
Malayalam meaning : to measure
Malayalam derivates : aḷavu measure, capacity, measure of time; aḷattam measurement; aḷavan measurer
Kannada : aḷe (aḷad-, aḷed-)
Kannada meaning : to measure; n. measure
Kannada derivates : aḷate, aḷte measure, extent, measurement; aḷavu, aḷabu measure
Kodagu : aḷa- (aḷap-, aḷand-)
Kodagu meaning : to measure
Kodagu derivates : aḷate act of measuring
Tulu : aḷa
Tulu meaning : measure, capacity
Tulu derivates : aḷaka large basket for measuring rice; aḷakè, aḷatè measurement; aḷapuni to measure; lakkè measure, mark; lappu measuring, measurement; lappuni to measure; lappāvuni to cause to measure
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḷä-
Number in DED : 0295
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-a-
Meaning : to mix
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷa (-pp-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to mingle, blend, talk together, hold converse, gossip
Tamil derivates : aḷappu chatter; aḷapp-aḷa to chatter; aḷavu (aḷavi-) to blend, mingle, mix; aḷav-aḷāvu to hold intimate intercourse, live socially, converse freely; n. intimacy; aḷāvu (aḷāvi-) to mingle, converse, hold social intercourse; stir (tr.); aḷi (-v-, -nt-) to mix, mingle; aḷai (-v-, -nt-) to be mixed, mingled; to mix up (tr.), mingle
Malayalam : aḷayuka
Malayalam meaning : to mix up, mingle
Kannada : aḷa, aḷavu, aḷavi
Kannada meaning : joining, contact, contiguity, nearness
Tulu : aḷavuni
Tulu meaning : to mix
Tulu derivates : alamuni to mix with the hand; alavuni to mix, temper; alavu steel; allāvuni to mix; alejuni, alejjuni to mix, mingle, be united; alejāvuni to cause to mingle
Number in DED : 0296
Proto-South Dravidian : *ala- ~ *alai-
Meaning : to suffer
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ala (-pp-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to suffer, be in distress, suffer privation, be in want
Tamil derivates : alam distress, pain, misery; alappu confusion of mind; alantalai distress, vexation, confusion; alantai trouble; alantōn_ one who is in distress; alati-kulati disorder, confusion; alaŋku (alaŋki-) to be agitated in mind, troubled; alacu (alaci-) to suffer, be distressed, be exhausted, become weary; alamaru (alamari-) to be agitated, distressed; alamala (-pp-, -nt-) to be confused, dazed, be anxious; alampal vexation, trouble; alavu (alavi-) to be troubled in mind; n. confusion, perturbation; alavalai hasty action, confusion of mind, distress; alu (-pp-, -tt-) to be weary, tired by overwork or care; aluppu weariness, exhaustion; aluval business, affair; alai (-v-, -nt-) to be harassed, wander in weariness, (-pp-, -tt-) to harass, vex, afflict, annoy; n. oppression; alaicu (alaici-) to be lazy; alaiccal weariness, vexation; alaippu disturbance, distress, trouble; alaivu mental agitation, trouble, distress; allal affliction, distress; allā (-pp-, -nt-) to suffer, be in distress; n. distress; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to suffer
Malayalam : ala
Malayalam meaning : lamentation
Malayalam derivates : alaŋŋuka, alukka to be worn out, grow lean; aluppu weariness; alampal having enough of it, vexation; alayuka to be wearied; alaccal vexation, mourning; alasal, alaśal agitation, fatigue, disappointment; alasuka to be tired; alati troublesome; alappu confusion, stir, fright; alampu trouble; alampuka to be agitated, tired; aluval bustle, business; allal sorrow, grief; alla tumult, disturbance
Kannada : ala, alapu, alupu, alavu, alavike, alasike
Kannada meaning : fatigue, weariness, trouble
Kannada derivates : alapaṭe, lampaṭe, alasaṭe exhaustion, weariness, harassment; alasu to become weary, be tired, vexed, disgusted, loiter; n. weariness; ale to annoy, slight, disgrace; allari state of being troubled, disturbed, harassed
Kodagu : ala- (alap-, aland-)
Kodagu meaning : to crave
Kodagu derivates : alambalɨ hurry; ? alas- (alasi-) (curry, rice) becomes spoiled
Tulu : alasuni, alajuni
Tulu meaning : to be fatigued, vexed, suffer griping pain
Tulu derivates : alepuni, aleyuni, alevuni to be fatigued; alepāvuni to cause to tire, fatigue; alụmbe suffering; alubaŋga vexation, trouble; albe thin, weak, lean
Proto-Nilgiri : *al-ǝv-
Notes : In Tamil there exists evidence for at least three bisyllabic stems with similar semantics: ala-, alu-, alai-. The variant with -u- is the least well represented of the three and may be secondary (e. g., a back-formation from aluppu, which itself would be a reduced dialectal variant of *alappu). The other two, however, both find parallels outside of the Tamil-Malayalam area (cf. the Kan. opposition ala - ale), and the question is whether they go back to the same root or not. According to the general policy of DEDR, we would have to judge in favour of the former; in this particular case, however, even Burrow & Emeneau note that "these etyma and those s. v. Ta. alaŋku seem to have started from two roots with different basic meanings: suffer and move, shake". It seems, therefore, reasonable to trace *ala- back to a stem with the basic meaning 'suffer', and *alai- back to 'move, shake, dangle', with a whole bunch of derived forms (see *ala-ŋ-, *ala-ṭ-, etc.). For the same reason of numerous possible contaminations, however, that Burrow & Emeneau also complain about, we do not separate the forms in this database entry.
Number in DED : 0236
Proto-South Dravidian : *alag-
Meaning : blade
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : alaku
Tamil meaning : blade of a weapon, or instrument, head of an arrow, weaver's stay or staff to adjust a warp
Tamil derivates : alakku roof laths, a pole with an iron hook to pluck fruits or leaves
Malayalam : alaku
Malayalam meaning : lath, splint, palm or bamboo leaf, weaver's staff, blade of sword, knife, or spear
Kannada : alagu, alugu
Kannada meaning : blade of a knife, sword, etc.
Number in DED : 0237
Proto-South Dravidian : *alag-
Meaning : jaw
Tamil : alaku, (Tinn.) alavu
Tamil meaning : jaw, mandibles, bird's beak
Malayalam : alaku, alavu
Malayalam meaning : upper portion of the jawbone
Kannada : halaku
Kannada meaning : the lower part of the cheek
Notes : In Kannaḍa *alagu would be expected; the form is probably dialectal, and initial h- may be explained as the result of contamination with (?) halaku 'toothed harrow' < hal < *pal 'tooth' (although several cases of apparently secondary h- in roots with vocalic anlaut are also seen in var. Kan. dialects). In any case, the word has no etymology outside South Dravidian.
Number in DED : 0239
Proto-South Dravidian : *alag-
Meaning : grains of paddy
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : alaku
Tamil derivates : grains of paddy, ear of paddy or other grain
Notes : An isolated Tamil form with possible outside correspondences.
Number in DED : 0255
Proto-South Dravidian : *alai-
Meaning : to wash
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : alampu (alampi-)
Tamil meaning : to wash, rinse
Tamil derivates : alacu (alaci-) to rinse; alaicu (alaici-) to wash, rinse; (RS) alaittal to wash clothes by moving them about in water
Malayalam : alakkuka
Malayalam meaning : to wash clothes by beating
Malayalam derivates : alakku washing; alampuka to shake clothes in water
Kannada : alambu, alumbu, alabu, alubu
Kannada meaning : to rinse, wash
Kannada derivates : ale to wash; alasu to shake or agitate in water (as a cloth, vegetables, etc., for cleansing)
Tulu : alambuni
Tulu meaning : to wash
Tulu derivates : alumbuni, lumbuni to plunge, wash, rinse
Proto-Nilgiri : *al_-ǝp-
Notes : Auslaut *-ai- is clearly seen in such forms as Tam. alai-cu (alongside the less archaic ala-cu) and, of course, Kan. ale. In most cases, however, the original stem has been extended by means of the suffix *-mb-, with PSDR *-ai- neutralised in this position (*alai-mb- > *alamb-).
Number in DED : 0246
Proto-South Dravidian : *al-ai-
Meaning : to slap
Tamil : alai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to beat, slap
Number in DED : 2374
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-ai
Meaning : buttermilk
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aḷai
Tamil meaning : curds, curdled milk, buttermilk, butter
Tamil derivates : aḷḷi butter
Kannada : aḷe
Kannada meaning : buttermilk
Tulu : alè, aḷè
Tulu meaning : buttermilk
Number in DED : 2411
Proto-South Dravidian : *alai- ~ *alaŋ-
Meaning : to move, shake
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : alaŋku (alaŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to move, shake, swing, dangle, be in motion
Tamil derivates : alaŋkal wreath, waving ear of corn; alakku (alakki-) to cause to move, shake; alacu (alaci-) to shake, be agitated; alamaru to whirl; alampu (alampi-) to move, wabble (as water in a vessel not full), swerve from a proper line of conduct, fluctuate, wander; cause to wander on account of panic; aluŋku (aluŋki-) to shake (intr.) slightly; alukku (alukki-) to shake (tr.) slightly; strut, swagger; alai (-v-, -nt-) to wave, shake, move (as a reflection in water), go to and fro for an object, roam, wander, stagger, totter; (-pp-, -tt-) to move (tr.), shake, cause to wander back and forth; n. wave, billow, ripple; alaiccal, alaical wandering; alaicu (alaici-) to shake (tr.), agitate; alaippu moving, shaking; alaiyal wandering, waving; alaivu moving, shaking, waving; allāṭu (allāṭi-) to wander from place to place
Malayalam : ala
Malayalam meaning : wave
Malayalam derivates : alukka, alaŋŋuka to shake; alaŋŋal commotion; aluŋŋal stir; alukkuka to agitate; alayuka to fluctuate, be tossed, roam; alekkuka to beat against (as waves on a shore); anaŋŋuka to move, shake; anakkuka to shake, fan, excite; anakkam moving, shaking
Kannada : alaku, alagu, aluku, alugu, aluŋgu, aḷaku, aḷuku, aḷku
Kannada meaning : to move about, shake, be shaky, tremble
Kannada derivates : alacu, alasu, alagisu, alugisu to shake (tr.); ale to move about, move to and fro, shake, dangle, wander; shake (tr.); n. wave, billow; aleta act of wandering, etc.; allāḍu to be agitated, shake, move, swing
Tulu : alaŋkuni, alaŋguni
Tulu meaning : to shake (tr.), agitate, wave, move; be agitated
Tulu derivates : alaŋkāvuni to cause to shake, perturb, confuse; alambuni to shake, be agitated as water; alagụ, alagu tremulousness of the voice in singing; alaguni to shake (intr.); alacuni to move (intr.), shake; alasuni, alajuni to agitate (tr.), shake; alajāvuni to shake (tr.); aluguni to move; alejuni, alejjuni to be agitated, disturbed; alejāvuni to cause to shake; aleyuni, alevuni to wander; landuni to lead a vagabond's life; landele a vagabond, vagrant
Proto-Nilgiri : *alǝ-/*alä-
Miscellaneous : IRU lē- (lend-) to roam, wander
Notes : Burrow & Emeneau rightly state that the root must have undergone severe contamination with *ala- 'to suffer'. The different forms are even harder to disentangle because of the root's high productivity: derivate stems *ala-ŋ-, *ala-mb-, and *ala-s- all go back to at least PSDR and probably even further back.
Number in DED : 0240
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷak-
Meaning : water; a k. of fluid
Tamil : aḷakam
Tamil meaning : water
Kannada : aḷaka, aḷḷaka
Kannada meaning : neither thick nor thin, as applied to fluids
Number in DED : 0298
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