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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *adiral-
Meaning : wild jasmine
Tamil : atiral
Tamil meaning : wild jasmine, kāṭṭumallikai (= Jasminum angustifolium)
Tulu : edroḷi
Tulu meaning : the creeper J. angustifolium
Notes : A Tamil-Tulu isogloss displaying typical "botanic correspondences" (i. e. strange dialectal irregularities). Tulu e- obviously has to do with -i- in the second syllable, but the very development *-i- > -0- in a three (if not four)-syllable-long word is quite exceptional.
Number in DED : 0138
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍu-
Meaning : to be fit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭu (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to be fit, becoming, deserving
Tamil derivates : aṭaivu fitness, propriety, order, manner, course; (?) aṇṭu (aṇṭi-) to fit, be appropriate to
Malayalam : aṭukka
Malayalam meaning : to beseem, become [i. e. be becoming to], be proportionate to
Malayalam derivates : aṭavu regular custom, dexterity, perfection; aṭavi dexterity, cleverness
Kannada : aḍagu
Kannada meaning : the state of being fit, agreeableness, beauty
Kannada derivates : aḍavu suitableness, properness, proper way, the state of being sufficient; aṭṭu fitting, being becoming or proper; ? (Hav.) eḍi to be able to do
Notes : The origin of forms like Tam. aṭai-vu is unclear (a different verbal stem *aḍai-, not preserved by itself?). Tamil aṇṭu hardly belongs here; no other Dravidian language has a nasal in this root, so it may have been a secondary contamination with *aṇai- "to approach, come near".
Number in DED : 0078
Proto-South Dravidian : *adu-
Meaning : to be perplexed
Kannada : aduhu
Kannada meaning : to be perplexed, suffer doubt, become suspicious
Notes : The only known outside parallels are found in Kui-Kuwi (PKK *ada-).
Number in DED : 0139
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍu- ~ *aḍi- ~ *aḍar-
Meaning : to pound, beat; to kill
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭu (aṭuv-, aṭṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to pound (as rice), kill, destroy, conquer
Tamil derivates : āṭu killing, ruining, victory; aṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to beat, strike, dash against, strike, defeat, overcome, slay, punish; n. blow, stroke; aṭar (-v-, -nt-) to beat, strike, mould by beating; (-pp-, -tt-) to attack, kill, destroy; n. troubling, oppressing; thin flat plate of metal, esp. gold; aṭal killing, murdering; aṭalai battle, trouble, distress; (PR) aṭarppu attack
Malayalam : aṭi
Malayalam meaning : blow, stroke
Malayalam derivates : aṭikka to beat, strike; aṭippu printing, stamping, coining; aṭiccal beating; aṭal a fight; aṭalār enemies; aṭar war; aṭanta a mode of beating time in music
Kannada : aḍacu
Kannada meaning : to rap, cuff
Kannada derivates : aḍar to pounce upon, rush at (as dogs, etc., do); aḍaru an attack; aḍi beating, a blow; aḍe to strike or throw with finger; aṇe to strike, push, drive; to strike or propel with the fingers
Kodagu : aḍi- (aḍip-, aḍic-)
Kodagu meaning : (lightning) strikes (song word)
Tulu : aḍikai
Tulu meaning : defeated, vanquished
Tulu derivates : aṇepuni to push, strike against; darpuni to thrash, beat, strike, break; dartele, darpele a striker, breaker; dartelụ breakage, what is broken
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍ-ĭ-
Number in DED : 0077
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍu- ~ *aḍai-
Meaning : to approach; to reach
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭu (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to be next, near, approach, come in contact with, seek protection; to join (tr.), join together; to happen, occur
Tamil derivates : aṭai (-v-, -nt-) to reach, arrive at, take refuge in, go to roost, sit on eggs as a hen, obtain, get, enjoy; (-pp-, -tt-) to lease, entrust, bestow; n. joining, delivering, conveying, resort, refuge, deposit, incubation; aṭaippu lease; aṭaivu pledge, help, aid, refuge, perching place for birds; aṭaikkalam refuge, shelter, deposit; aṭaku, aṭaimān_am pledge, property mortgaged; aṭaiyal reaching; aṭaiccu (aṭaicci-) to put, place, insert (as flowers in the hair); aṭaicu (aṭaici-) to be joined, placed; aṭṭu (aṭṭi-) to put, place, put on
Malayalam : aṭuka (aṭṭu)
Malayalam meaning : to come into contact, come to be close upon
Malayalam derivates : aṭukka to come nigh, approach, close; aṭuppikka to bring near; aṭuppam, aṭuppu nearness; aṭakkaḷam shelter; aṭayuka to get into, come into possession, obtain; aṭekka to take in, receive, collect, pay in; aṭakkam possession, enjoyment; aṭa incubation; bail, pledge; shelter, refuge; aṭavu money that has come to hand; aṭamānam a pawn, mortgage
Kannada : aḍar
Kannada meaning : to be united or joined with, arise, come, appear
Kannada derivates : aḍarcu to bring together, set in readiness, prepare; aḍasu to join, be joined with, unite with, be near to, associate oneself to; aḍe to obtain, get; n. trust; aḍavu, aḍapu pawn, pledge, deposit, mortgage; aṭṭu to be within reach, keep close to, follow, run after, pursue; to put; n. closeness, pursuing, putting, placing
Kodagu : aḍɨ- (aḍɨp-, aḍɨt-)
Kodagu meaning : to approach
Tulu : aḍavu, aḍāvu
Tulu meaning : mortgage, pledge
Tulu derivates : aḍepuni, aḍevuni to roost, perch; aṭṭuni to put
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍ-
Number in DED : 0079
Proto-South Dravidian : *adum-
Meaning : to grind; to press, squeeze
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : atakku (atakki-)
Tamil meaning : to grind, rub in the hand, press softly as fruit, cram in the mouth as betel, subdue, subject, control
Tamil derivates : atavu to kill, attack; atuŋku (atuŋki-) to be forced out or in by pressure, be stuffed in, compressed; atukku (atukki-) to press with fingers (as a ripe fruit or boil), squeeze, pinch (as the stomach in grief), bite (as one's lips), chew, stuff into the mouth; n. state of being pressed in (as of parts of a vessel); atukkam reduced condition (as of a boil)
Malayalam : atakkuka
Malayalam meaning : to cram down, turn betel in the mouth
Malayalam derivates : atukkuka to squeeze
Kannada : adaku, adapu, adamu, adimu, adugu, adupu, adubu, adumu
Kannada meaning : to press, compress, squeeze, cram; to be depressed, bruised (as a metal vessel)
Kannada derivates : adakisu, adugisu, adumisu to cause to press, etc.; adaku a bruise in a metal vessel; adugu to be mollified by being pressed with the fingers; adugisu to mollify by pressing
Notes : The presence of an inlaut *-m- in this root is well confirmed by external data. We have, therefore, to regard Kannaḍa forms like adamu, adimu, adumu as the most archaic, despite the confusing mixture of dialectal forms. In Tamil a form like *atumu would be impossible since -umu can only be found after resonants (cf. ur_umu, kuẓumu etc.); it is possible that Kan. adumu = Tam. atavu, with secondary loss of nasalisation in Tamil (although the 2nd syllable vowel is still irregular). However, the original *atum- may have yielded atuŋ- when combined with the intransitive suffix: *atum- + *-ŋ- > atuŋku, and atukk- when combined with the corresponding transitive suffix. The form atakku is then either dialectal or due to contamination with aṭakku 'control, repress, conceal' (cf. the spectrum of meanings).
Number in DED : 0133
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍu[-ŋ-/-k]
Meaning : to pile up
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭukku (aṭukki-)
Tamil meaning : to pile up one on top of another, heap up in order; n. pile, series, row, tier
Tamil derivates : aṭukkam pile, tier, range of mountains, mountain slope; aṭukkal series, mountain
Malayalam : aṭukku
Malayalam meaning : row, pile, layer
Malayalam derivates : aṭukkuka to pile up; aṭukkam a plain, field
Kannada : aḍaku, aḍuku
Kannada meaning : to pack, pile as pots, heap up
Kannada derivates : aḍakil, aḍikil piling up, a pile
Kodagu : aḍaŋg- (aḍaŋgi-)
Kodagu meaning : to be piled in order, filling space
Kodagu derivates : aḍak- (aḍaki-) to heap in order, filling space, to arrange formally
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍǝ-
Number in DED : 0080
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍV-
Meaning : flesh, meat
Kannada : aḍagu, aḍabala
Kannada meaning : flesh, meat
Notes : Phonetically = Tam. aṭaku "greens", but semantically the connection is somewhat dubious. Cf. also Mlt. aṛage.
Number in DED : 0060
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍV
Meaning : exclamation, interjection
Tamil : aṭā
Tamil meaning : excl. addressed familiarly to an inferior or a child and in contempt to an enemy
Tamil derivates : aṭi excl. used in addressing women in a familiar manner; aṭē excl. of calling
Malayalam : aṭanna, fem. aṭī, hon. aṭō
Malayalam meaning : interj. calling persons of lower rank
Kannada : aḍa aḍā
Kannada meaning : = Tamil aṭā, aṭē
Number in DED : 0070
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍVnd- (?)
Meaning : a k. of tree
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍǝd-
Notes : A Nilgiri isogloss.
Number in DED : 0092
Proto-South Dravidian : *aga-
Meaning : to press, afflict
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : agacu, agucu, agusu
Kannada meaning : to press firmly, confine, hold firmly
Kannada derivates : agacāṭ(a)lu, agacāṭ(a)le, agacāṭu affliction, trouble
Number in DED : 0002
Proto-South Dravidian : *aga-
Meaning : inside
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akam
Tamil meaning : inside, house, place, agricultural tract, breast, mind
Tamil derivates : akattān_ one who is in, householder; ōr-akatti, ōr-akattāḷ husband's brother's wife [i. e. she who is in one and the same house with oneself]; akakkāẓ, akaŋkāẓ heart of a tree; akaŋkai, aŋkai palm of the hand; aka-ppaṭu to be included, be obtained; akaṭu interior, belly, middle, impartiality; akaṇi inside, interior, agricultural tract; akappu depth; akampu inside; akal inner part of town or village; akavai inside, age within a certain limit; a locative ending; akalam breast; ākam body, breast, mind, heart
Malayalam : akam
Malayalam meaning : inside, abode, house, room
Malayalam derivates : akattu within, in the house; akattān master of the house; akattāḷ mistress of the house; akattōn indoor servant; fem. akattōḷ; akaŋkai palm of hand; akaŋkāl sole of foot; akā, akāyi inside of house, room; akaṭu, akiṭu udder; aka-ppeṭuka, āppeṭuka to get into, be caught, befall; aka-ppeṭukka to catch
Kannada : aŋ-gāl
Kannada meaning : sole of the foot
Kannada derivates : ōragitti, vāragitti husband's brother's wife; aŋ-gey palm of the hand; āge, āga in, into
Kodagu : aŋgay
Kodagu meaning : palm of hand
Kodagu derivates : aŋgālɨ sole of foot
Tulu : aŋgai
Tulu meaning : palm of the hand
Tulu derivates : aŋgārụ sole of the foot
Proto-Nilgiri : *ak-
Number in DED : 0007
Proto-South Dravidian : *aga-
Meaning : to sound (as a peacock)
Tamil : akavu (akavi-)
Tamil meaning : to utter a sound as a peacock, sing, dance as a peacock, call, summon
Tamil derivates : akavar bards who arouse the king in the morning; akaval calling, addressing, screech of a peacock, high tone, n. of a metre; akavalan_ bard of the Pāṇar caste; akavunar dancers, singers
Malayalam : akaval
Malayalam meaning : screech of a peacock, name of a metre in Tamil
Malayalam derivates : akar_uka, akir_uka to roar, bellow, children to cry; akar_al, akir_al, akir_cca roaring, bellowing
Notes : An onomatopoeic Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0010
Proto-South Dravidian : *agaḍ-u
Meaning : wicked, mean
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akaṭu
Tamil meaning : wickedness
Kannada : agaḍu
Kannada meaning : viciousness, savageness, meanness
Number in DED : 0004
Proto-South Dravidian : *agai-
Meaning : to break
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to be broken, crumpled, suffer
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to break, cut in pieces, beat, trouble, oppress
Number in DED : 0016
Proto-South Dravidian : *agai- / *aggai
Meaning : to sprout, flourish
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to flourish, sprout
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to sprout, rise; to raise; akaippu rising, elevation
Malayalam : aka
Malayalam meaning : germ, bud, shoot
Malayalam derivates : akekka to bud; ava bud, esp. the fruit-like sprout of Artocarpus; avekka to sprout
Kannada : age
Kannada meaning : seedling, shoot from the root of a plant or tree, sprout
Kodagu : age
Kodagu meaning : paddy seedling
Tulu : agge
Tulu meaning : the shoot of a branch
Number in DED : 0015
Proto-South Dravidian : *agal-
Meaning : to spread
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akal (akalv-, akan_r_-)
Tamil meaning : to spread, widen, extend, depart, go away
Tamil derivates : akalam, (Tinn.) avalam width, extent, expanse, greatness, earth, sky; akali (-pp-, -tt-) to broaden out, enlarge (intr.); akaluḷ width, expanse, greatness, earth, town, village, country; akalvu extent, expanse; akar_ci breadth, separation, ascetic life; akar_r_u (akar_r_i-) to widen (tr.), broaden, extend, remove, expel, banish; akar_al extension; akavu (akavi-) to become long, lengthen out; ālam breadth; ār_r_u (ār_r_i-) to remove, put away; ān_r_a wide; ān_r_al extension, width
Malayalam : akaluka
Malayalam meaning : to become extended, distant, part, retire
Malayalam derivates : akalca separation, distance; akar_r_uka to extend (tr.), open, remove, put away; akattuka to distend; akalam breadth, distance; ālam breadth; akala, akalē far off, aside
Kannada : agal (agald-)
Kannada meaning : to be spacious, extensive, separate from, go away
Kannada derivates : agala space, width, extension; agalike separation from; agalcu to spread out, remove; agundale extensiveness, greatness; (PBh.) agunti greatness, vastness
Tulu : agapuni
Tulu meaning : to depart; to separate (tr.), to extend
Tulu derivates : agapāvuni to send away, cause to depart; agela breadth; (B-K.) agelụ to go apart, widen
Proto-Nilgiri : *ag-
Notes : The auslaut -al - on SDR grounds at least - forms part of the root (Tamil ālam < dial. *agalam; Toda ox in ox ɨn-, etc. may be a contraction from earlier *oxl- < *agal-).
Number in DED : 0008
Proto-South Dravidian : *agal
Meaning : small earthen pot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akal
Tamil meaning : small earthen pot having a wide mouth, hollow earthen lamp, a measure of capacity
Tamil derivates : akaḷam jar, large earthen pot, bucket, body of the lute as shaped like a bowl; āl earthen vessel
Malayalam : akal
Malayalam meaning : small earthen lamp or pot having a wide mouth
Kannada : agal
Kannada meaning : a metal plate used for eating
Kannada derivates : (Hav.) aguḷi a kind of flat vessel
Tulu : agoli, agoḷi
Tulu meaning : a large vessel
Number in DED : 0009
Proto-South Dravidian : *agapai
Meaning : ladle
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akappai, āppai
Tamil meaning : ladle, large spoon with long handle, usually of coco-nut shell
Malayalam : akappa, akappān, āppa
Malayalam meaning : ladle
Kannada : agape, āpe, hāpe
Kannada meaning : scoop or ladle, made of a coco-nut shell or of wood
Notes : Kannada āpe is re-borrowed from Tamil (Kannada does not normally tolerate loss of inlaut *-g-).
Number in DED : 0006
Proto-South Dravidian : *agasai
Meaning : common flax
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : agase
Kannada meaning : common flax, Linum usitatissimum Lin.
Tulu : agase-nārụ
Tulu meaning : common flax
Number in DED : 0003
Total of 4692 records 235 pages

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