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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *avi-
Meaning : to repress; to perish
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avi (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to become repressed, subdued, cease, desist from action, become extinguished, fail, diminish, perish
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to suppress, repress, subdue, extinguish, destroy; avivu extinction, annihilation; navi (-pp-, -tt-), naviẓ (-pp-, -tt-) to extinguish
Malayalam : avikka, amikka
Malayalam meaning : to destroy
Kannada : avi
Kannada meaning : to go out, be extinguished, perish
Proto-Nilgiri : *avĭ-
Notes : Tamil navi and naviẓ are a rather obvious result of contamination between this stem and PSDR *navai- ~ *namai- 'to trouble, etc.'.
Number in DED : 0267
Proto-South Dravidian : *avi-
Meaning : to boil
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avi (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to be boiled, cooked by boiling or steaming, swelter
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to boil in a liquid, cook by boiling or by steaming; n. boiled rice, food; aviyal boiling, cooking, food, swelter, sultriness; avai (-pp-, -tt-) to cook, boil; aviẓ boiled rice; (Tinn.) aviyalu a kind of vegetable curry
Malayalam : aviyuka
Malayalam meaning : to boil on fire, be digested
Malayalam derivates : avikka, amikka to boil, digest; aviyal a kind of vegetable curry; boiling, cooking
Number in DED : 0268
Proto-South Dravidian : *av-i-
Meaning : to rot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avi (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to ferment (as decayed fruit, vegetable matter, manure heaps)
Tamil derivates : avical that which is decayed
Malayalam : aviyuka
Malayalam meaning : to rot, spoil (as fruits laid on a heap)
Malayalam derivates : avikka, amikka to produce rotting (as of fruits for distillation)
Kannada : avi
Kannada meaning : to rot, be spoiled, damaged
Number in DED : 2341
Proto-South Dravidian : *aviri
Meaning : indigo plant
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aviri, avuri
Tamil meaning : indigo plant, Indigofera tinctoria
Malayalam : amari, avari
Malayalam meaning : indigo plant, Indigofera tinctoria
Notes : The variant aviri is considered primary only because it is also found in the same form in Telugu.
Number in DED : 0269
Proto-South Dravidian : *aviẓ-
Meaning : grain of boiled rice
Tamil : aviẓ
Tamil meaning : single grain of boiled rice
Kannada : avuḍu
Kannada meaning : a grain of anything
Kannada derivates : agaḷu, aguḷu a grain of boiled rice, a small lump of rice kneaded into a ball
Miscellaneous : KOR (O) avrɨ cooked rice
Notes : Kan. aguḷu is a regular (but apparently dialectal) development from *avuẓu < *aviẓ-u. The form itself is a rather apparent derivative from *avi- 'to boil'; the reason for the separation in DEDR is not quite clear (especially considering that Tam. aviẓ 'boiled rice' obviously the same word! - is found under *avi- as well.)
Number in DED : 0270
Proto-South Dravidian : *avuḷi-
Meaning : pomfret
Tamil : avuḷiyā
Tamil meaning : pomfret, Stromatens
Malayalam : āvōli, āvēli, ākōli
Malayalam meaning : Stromatens
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with the usual "botanical irregularities".
Number in DED : 0272
Proto-South Dravidian : *avuẓ-
Meaning : loose
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aviẓ (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to become loose, untied
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to loosen, untie, unpack
Kannada : agal
Kannada meaning : to become loose
Kannada derivates : agulu to become loose as a peg
Notes : In Kannaḍa we have the regular neutralisation *-m-, *-v- > -g- before -uẓ- (cf. also PSDR *amuẓ-).
Number in DED : 0014
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓ- ~ *aẓai-
Meaning : to cry
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aẓu (-v-, -t-)
Tamil meaning : to cry, weep, lament
Tamil derivates : aẓai (-pp-, -tt-) to call, cry out, summon; n. crying, weeping; aẓukuṇi tearful person, one who is always crying; aẓukai pathetic sentiment; aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-) to weep; aẓuŋkal loud noise, uproar
Malayalam : aẓuka
Malayalam meaning : to weep, cry
Malayalam derivates : aẓaykkuka to shout, cry out
Kannada : aẓ, aẓu (aẓt-, att-)
Kannada meaning : to weep, cry
Kannada derivates : aẓ, aẓu, aẓa, aẓke, arke, akke weeping, lamenting; aẓasu, aẓisu to make to cry; aẓuvike crying; aẓukuḷi an easily crying or fretful person
Tulu : arpini
Tulu meaning : to weep, cry
Tulu derivates : arpāṭa lamentation; arpele one easily moved to tears, a fretful person; leppuni to call, invite; leppu, lāvu a cry
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṛ-
Notes : Two stems - one monosyllabic, one ending in *-ai- - are clearly seen throughout SDR, as far as Tulu, where the latter is syncopated (*aẓai-puni > leppuni).
Number in DED : 0282
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓag-
Meaning : beauty
Tamil : aẓaku
Tamil meaning : beauty, happiness, excellence
Tamil derivates : aẓakan_, aẓakiyan_, aẓakiyān_ handsome man; fem. aẓaki; aṇaŋku beauty, form (or with DEDR 116)
Malayalam : aẓaku
Malayalam meaning : beauty
Malayalam derivates : aẓakan handsome man; fem. aẓaki; aẓakiya fair
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss. Several roots with close semantics and phonetics exist in SDR, but it is unclear how to derive these particular forms from any of them.
Number in DED : 0274
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓal-
Meaning : to burn, shine
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aẓal (aẓalv-, aẓan_r-)
Tamil meaning : to burn, glow, shine, be acrid, become angry, envy; n. fire, flame, heat, pungency, rage
Tamil derivates : (Koll.) aṇal warmth; aẓalavan_, aẓalōn_ Agni, sun; aẓali fire; aẓalikkai burning smart; aẓar_ci burning sensation, pungency, rage, envy, inflammation in cattle; aẓar_r_u (aẓar_r_i-) to burn (tr.), heat, cause smarting (as a burn, caustic, poison), irritate; aẓar_r_i that which causes burning; aẓan_am heat, fire; aẓukku envy; aẓukkar_u (aẓakkar_i-) to be envious; aẓukkār_u envy; aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-) to suffer, be in distress, anguish, grieve, sorrow, regret; aẓuŋkal affliction, compassion, pity; aẓukkam care, anxiety, concern; aṭalai trouble, distress (prob. < Te.)
Malayalam : aẓal
Malayalam meaning : heat, fire, heat of pepper, brightness, inflammation, grief
Malayalam derivates : aẓaluka to burn (as a wound, the eye from pepper), be chafed, burn from grief, envy, or lust; aẓalca excessive heat, inflammation; aẓar_r_uka to burn as with pepper, afflict
Kannada : aẓal (aẓald-), aḍalu (< Te.)
Kannada meaning : to grieve, be afflicted; n. grief
Kannada derivates : aẓaṭu to be in anguish (as the sick in a violent fever); aẓalike state of being afflicted; aẓalcu to make sorrowful, harass; aẓkaja, akkaja envy, jealousy; (PBh.) aẓv- to burn
Tulu : arluni
Tulu meaning : to burn, blaze, smart
Tulu derivates : aratè, aradè heat, burning, impetuosity; (B-K.) areggālo hot season, summer
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṛǝl-
Notes : This DEDR entry obviously contains two different stems. One has to be reconstructed as PSDR *aẓal-, present ubiquitously with the original meaning 'to burn' (but always with the secondary semantics of 'smart' as well). The other is *aẓ[u]-k-, found almost exclusively in Tamil (possibly also in such Kannaḍa forms as aẓkaja, akkaja, but these may actually belong elsewhere, see Mal. aẓivu, etc.).
Number in DED : 0276
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓi-
Meaning : to perish, die
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aẓi (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to perish, be ruined, decay, be mutilated, fail, be defeated, suffer, be used up
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to destroy, spend, ruin, damage, efface, bring to a close; n. ruin, destruction; aẓipu, aẓippu destruction; aẓimpu evil deed; aẓimpan_ one who does evil; aẓivatu harm; aẓivu destruction, loss, immoral action, expenditure, defeat, distress; aẓan_, aẓan_am corpse (or with DEDR 284)
Malayalam : aẓiyuka
Malayalam meaning : to be destroyed, spent, sold, become loose, untied
Malayalam derivates : aẓikka to loose, waste, spend; aẓi, aẓivu, aẓiccal expense; aẓayuka to slacken (intr.); aẓekka to loosen, slacken
Kannada : aẓi
Kannada meaning : to be ruined, be destroyed, perish, decay, disappear, die; to ruin, destroy, etc.; n. ruin, waste, damage, loss
Kannada derivates : aẓipu, aẓavu, aẓivu, aẓusu, aẓiyisu, aẓisu, aẓicu, aẓupu to destroy; aẓipu, aẓivu, aẓihu, aẓupu, aẓuvu, aẓuhu, aẓvu ruin, destruction, death; aẓika destroyer; aẓikisu to efface, erase; (PBh.) aẓkāḍu to be consumed, finished; aḷar_u to be destroyed
Tulu : arpuni
Tulu meaning : to efface, waste, obliterate
Tulu derivates : aḷipuni, aḷiyuni, alipuni to perish, die, be destroyed, be ruined; aliyuni to perish, die, become extinct; alivu, aḷikaṭṭu, aḷiyantara extinction, ruin; areḍuni to spoil, corrupt, mar, destroy, ruin
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṛĭ-
Number in DED : 0277
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓi
Meaning : inlet or rivermouth
Tamil : aẓi
Tamil meaning : place where the lagoon joins the sea
Tamil derivates : aẓi-vāy sandbank at the mouth of a river or harbour; aẓivi inlet to a backwater, mouth of a river; aẓivu mouth of a river
Malayalam : aẓi
Malayalam meaning : bar, rivermouth
Kannada : aẓave
Kannada meaning : mouth of a river in which the tide ebbs and flows, bar
Tulu : aḷuve
Tulu meaning : mouth of a river, harbour
Tulu derivates : (B-K.) āṇa the entrance to a harbour
Miscellaneous : KOR (M) aḷūbāgalu the mouth of a river
Notes : More often met as a compound: *aẓi-vāj (where *vāj = 'mouth'), whence Kan. aẓave, Tulu aḷu-ve, etc., with vowel reduction in the 2nd syllable. In Koraga the compound is different: *aẓi-vāyil (see *vāɣil 'doorway, entrance'). No etymology outside of SDR.
Number in DED : 0278
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓi
Meaning : lattice
Tamil : aẓi, aḷi
Tamil meaning : lattice
Malayalam : aẓi, aḷi
Malayalam meaning : bars of bamboo, lattice, trellis
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0279
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓi-, *aẓi-kar_ai
Meaning : love, desire
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malayalam : aẓivu
Malayalam meaning : tenderness, love
Kannada : aẓipu
Kannada meaning : (K2) desire, affection
Kannada derivates : (Kitt.) aẓugu, aẓkar_ to love; aẓti, arti love, desire, a pleasant object; aẓkar_, akkar_e, akkar_a, akkar_u, akkasa love, affection
Tulu : arkame
Tulu meaning : strong desire, eagerness
Tulu derivates : (B-K.) akkare affection, fondness; (Männer) arti amusement, fun, curiosity, fondness (or with DEDR 381)
Proto-Nilgiri : *ark- (?)
Notes : This seems to be a rather variegated mix of forms, some of which may not belong here at all and some are almost certainly the result of interborrowings (most notably the Nilgiri forms like Toda arkyn, which clearly display the presence of dental -r- and could only have appeared under the influence of Kannaḍa dialects). The original form must have been the bisyllabic root *aẓi-; in Kannaḍa it served as the basis for the complex form *aẓi-kar_ai (second component unclear) > *aẓkar_e, which was later appropriated by neighbouring dialects.
Number in DED : 0281
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓincil-
Meaning : Alangium lamarckii
Tamil : aẓiñcil, aẓiñcu, aṇiñcil
Tamil meaning : sage-leaved alangium, Alangium lamarckii
Malayalam : aẓiññil
Malayalam meaning : Alangium decapetalum
Malayalam derivates : araññil the buttress tree (? = aẓiññil)
Notes : If Skt. aŋkola- 'Alangium hexapetalum' is indeed an old borrowing from Dravidian, the SDR form may represent an old palatalisation: *aẓiŋkil- > *aẓiñcil-. Unfortunately, the word is not attested outside Tamil-Malayalam.
Number in DED : 0280
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓu-
Meaning : fortress, wall
Tamil : aẓuvam
Tamil meaning : fortress
Malayalam : aẓu, aẓuku
Malayalam meaning : high wall of irregular stones around an orchard, mud wall
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss of obscure origin. Same as aẓuvam 'greatness'?
Number in DED : 0286
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓu-
Meaning : greatness
Tamil : aẓuvam
Tamil meaning : greatness, abundance, excellence, expanse
Kannada : aḷumba
Kannada meaning : excess, greatness, excellence, further, etc.
Number in DED : 0287
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓ[u]-k-
Meaning : dirt, filth
Tamil : aẓukku
Tamil meaning : dirt, stain, excrement, impurity of mind or soul, discharges after confinement
Malayalam : aẓukku, aẓuŋŋu, aẓukkal
Malayalam meaning : dirt, filth
Tulu : aḍaka, aḍka, aḍụkajāgụ
Tulu meaning : an unclean place, a burying place
Notes : Most probably a nominal derivative of *aẓ[u]-ŋ- 'to be spoiled, rot' q.v.
Number in DED : 0283
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓ[u]nd-
Meaning : to be pressed or immersed (as cloth)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aẓuttu (aẓutti-)
Tamil meaning : to press down, press hard, make firm, compact, insist on, plunge, immerse; n. pressure, imprint
Tamil derivates : aẓuttam hardness (as of wood), closeness of texture as of cloth, durability, emphasis, profoundness in one's mental application; aẓuntu (aẓunti-) to become pressed, be impressed, become firm, compact, persist, be immersed
Malayalam : aẓuttu
Malayalam meaning : strong texture, pregnant speech, full of dregs
Malayalam derivates : aẓuttuka to fix, set; aẓuntuka to be immersed, plunge, sink
Kannada : aẓdu, addu, ajju, eddu
Kannada meaning : to immerse, dip, dye; sink in a fluid
Kannada derivates : addayisu to immerse, put into; addike, adduge immersion
Tulu : arduni
Tulu meaning : to wash or bleach clothes
Proto-Nilgiri : *aǯ- (?)
Notes : Kota aj- is a good match semantically, but unclear phonetically (a unique case of the development *-ẓ[u]t- > -j- in this language). The stem formally looks like a complex one, with the suffix *-nd-, but the simple root is not attested.
Number in DED : 0285
Proto-South Dravidian : *aẓ[u]-ŋ-
Meaning : to be spoiled, to rot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aẓuŋku (aẓuŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to be spoiled, injured, disfigured
Tamil derivates : aẓuŋkal ruin; aẓuku (aẓuki-) to rot, decompose, putrefy; aẓukal rotten fruit, putrefied matter, uncleanness; aẓan_, aẓan_am corpse (or with DEDR 277)
Malayalam : aẓukuka
Malayalam meaning : to rot, decay
Malayalam derivates : aẓukkuka to putrefy
Kannada : aẓugu
Kannada meaning : to decay, rot, spoil by being overboiled
Kannada derivates : aẓkame state of being decayed, dissolved, digested; aẓku to be worn out, decayed, digested; aẓkisu, akkisu to digest; aẓgu to be dissolved, decay
Number in DED : 0284
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