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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *asai- ~ *asar-
Meaning : faint, drowsy
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : acar (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to become faint, drowsy
Tamil derivates : acarttu (acartti-) to cause to be drowsy or sluggish; acati drowsiness; acappu inattentiveness, absence of mind; acāvu (acāvi-) to droop, languish, grow slack; acā languor, faintness; acai (-v-, -nt-) to be weary, exhausted, grow feeble, walk or ride slowly; acaivu weariness, exhaustion; añar (-v-, -nt-) to be lazy, slothful; n. mental distress, disease; ayar (-v-, -nt-) to lose consciousness (as in fainting, sleep, drunkenness), become weary, forget; (-pp-, -tt-) to forget; ayarcci, ayarti languor, faintness, forgetfulness; ayarppu, ayarvu forgetfulness; ayā languor, faintness; ayāvu (ayāvi-) to be distressed; añcal laziness, sloth
Malayalam : aśati
Malayalam meaning : drowsiness, forgetfulness
Malayalam derivates : aśattu pōka to forget oneself; ayarkka to swoon, feel estranged, disagree; ayarcca fatigue, distress, affliction, forgetfulness; ayarti, ayarppu swoon, forgetfulness, discord
Kannada : asur
Kannada meaning : to feel disgusted, have an aversion or a dislike, be impatient; n. fatigue, faintness
Kannada derivates : asurusuru exhaustion; ayil, aylu bewilderment, madness; āsar_ to be weary; n. weariness, fatigue, languor
Tulu : ajakè
Tulu meaning : idleness
Tulu derivates : ? āsarụ thirst, that which slakes thirst
Notes : As is often the case, there may be several roots confused in this DED entry; the most dubious forms are those in which Tamil has a palatal nasal (añar, añcal), because that would mean the original form is *anǯ-, although no other SDR languages show any forms with the nasal. The difference in semantics is also striking: "faint, drowsy, weary" vs. "lazy, slothful". The rest of the forms, however, are hard to separate from each other.
Number in DED : 0039
Proto-South Dravidian : *at-
Meaning : to unite, join
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : attu (atti-)
Tamil meaning : to unite (as two or more parts), make to fit in with one another, apply (as medicine); n. sewing
Kannada : atuku, atiku, aduku
Kannada meaning : to be joined, united, or soldered, cling together, agree with, be fit; to join, unite to, solder, cement
Notes : In Kannaḍa the stem is prolonged: atuku < *at-uk-.
Number in DED : 0145
Proto-South Dravidian : *at-
Meaning : bark of Cadamba used for cleansing
Tamil : attu
Tamil meaning : bark of common Cadamba, bark of sage-leaved Alangium, astringents, redness
Malayalam : attu
Malayalam meaning : Mimosa inga used in bathing
Number in DED : 0146
Proto-South Dravidian : *ata-
Meaning : father; elder relative
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : attan_
Tamil meaning : father, elder, person of rank or eminence
Tamil derivates : attai, attaicār father's sister, mother-in-law, woman of rank or eminence; attān_ elder sister's husband; father's sister's son, maternal uncle's son when elder, wife's brother when elder; attācci elder brother's wife, husband's sister; attimpēr elder sister's husband; father's sister's husband; atti elder sister; attō excl. of wonder; tattai elder sister
Malayalam : atta
Malayalam meaning : mother, mother's sister
Malayalam derivates : attan father
Kannada : atte, atti
Kannada meaning : mother-in-law
Kannada derivates : sōdar-atte, sōdar-atti father's sister, mother's brother's wife; attike elder sister; attige elder brother's wife
Tulu : attè
Tulu meaning : mother-in-law, aunt
Tulu derivates : attigè elder brother's wife
Notes : Two basic stems can be reconstructed for PSDR: *ata-n 'father' and *ata-i 'father's sister; mother-in-law'. However, the former is not really met outside of the Tamil-Malayalam area.
Number in DED : 0142
Proto-South Dravidian : *atāẓa-
Meaning : evening; supper
Tamil : attāḷam
Tamil meaning : supper
Tamil derivates : attāẓam evening
Malayalam : attāẓam
Malayalam meaning : supper
Notes : An obscure Tamil-Malayalam isogloss, paired with *mutāẓa- 'morning; breakfast'. There is no productive suffix like *-āẓ- in SDR; the words look like borrowings from some outside source.
Number in DED : 0143
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭ-
Meaning : to discharge, flow, urinate
Tamil : aṭṭu (aṭṭi-)
Tamil meaning : to be discharged as pus, flow as honey; to pour (tr.)
Malayalam : aṭiyuka
Malayalam meaning : (eye) suffers from excessive secretion
Malayalam derivates : aṭṭuka to pour, (Kauṭ.) discharge (urine)
Tulu : aṭṭuni
Tulu meaning : to urinate (with object pōsra)
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṭ-
Notes : A good common SDR root without any external parallels.
Number in DED : 0097
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭ- (?)
Meaning : ditch; cliff
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṭ
Notes : A dubious Nilgiri isogloss. If the comment about Toda oṭ < Badaga haṭṭu is true, both forms may reflect an older *paṭ-, but no such form seems to be present in Kannada either.
Number in DED : 0101
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭ- ~ *aḍu-
Meaning : to cook
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭu (aṭuv-, aṭṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to cook, roast, fry, boil, melt (tr.)
Tamil derivates : aṭukkaḷai kitchen; aṭicil, aṭucil boiled rice; aṭuppu oven, fireplace for cooking, fire in the oven; aṭṭil kitchen, place for performing sacrifical ceremonies; aṭṭu a cake of coarse sugar; aṭṭ-uppu salt produced by evaporation; āṭu cooking, boiling, distillation
Malayalam : aṭuka
Malayalam meaning : to cook
Malayalam derivates : aṭukkaḷa kitchen; aṭuppu fireplace, hearth, oven
Kannada : aḍu (aṭṭ-)
Kannada meaning : to cook, boil, dress, prepare a meal, mature (tr.); n. cooking
Kannada derivates : aḍi, aḍe cooking; aḍike, aẓke, aḍige, aḍuge cooking, boiling, etc.; aṭṭu to evaporate, dry up; n. the state of being free from moisture; aṭṭisu to cause to evaporate by boiling; aṭṭ-uppu salt produced by evaporation; aṇṭarisu to evaporate, as water by boiling; (Hav.) aṭṭumbaḷa kitchen
Kodagu : aḍigekārë
Kodagu meaning : cook
Kodagu derivates : fem. aḍigekarati
Tulu : aḍụpini
Tulu meaning : to cook
Tulu derivates : aḍi cooked, dressed, prepared; aḍiguḷu a cook; aḍigè cooking, distilling; aḍkala cooking shed, oven; aṭṭilụ cooking, meal
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍ-
Number in DED : 0076
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭa-
Meaning : loft, upper story
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭṭam
Tamil meaning : terraced roof, upper story
Malayalam : aṭṭam
Malayalam meaning : roof used as store-room, scaffold on four poles
Kannada : aṭṭa
Kannada meaning : upper loft in a house, apartment of roof, tower, buttress (one of the tatsamas)
Kodagu : aṭṭa
Kodagu meaning : loft
Tulu : aṭṭa
Tulu meaning : upper loft, garret, upper room, ceiling
Tulu derivates : aṭṭaḷu an upstairs room; aṭṭoḷigè loft supported on posts, temporary gallery; kutt-aṭṭa, kutt-aṭṭè upper loft for storing rice
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṭ-
Number in DED : 0093
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭai
Meaning : sole of shoe; cardboard
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭṭai
Tamil meaning : sole of shoe, cardboard
Kannada : aṭṭe
Kannada meaning : sole (of leather), sandal, skin, bark
Kodagu : aṭṭe
Kodagu meaning : bark of tree
Tulu : aṭṭè
Tulu meaning : sole of shoe
Number in DED : 0098
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭai
Meaning : leech
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭṭai
Tamil meaning : leech
Malayalam : aṭṭa
Malayalam meaning : leech
Kannada : aṭṭe, āḍe
Kannada meaning : leech
Kodagu : aṭṭe
Kodagu meaning : water leech
Notes : A SDR-only isogloss; Burrow & Emeneau suggest a connection with *anṭ- "to stick, join", but in that case Kan. *aṇṭe would be expected.
Number in DED : 0099
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṭai
Meaning : headless trunk
Tamil : aṭṭaiy-āṭal
Tamil meaning : hero's body continuing to manifest heroic deeds even after dismemberment
Kannada : aṭṭe
Kannada meaning : a headless trunk, esp. one retaining vitality
Notes : The only external parallel is in Telugu. Unclear.
Number in DED : 0100
Proto-South Dravidian : *av-
Meaning : to pound (rice)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aval
Tamil meaning : rice obtained from fried paddy by pestling it
Tamil derivates : avai (-pp-, -tt-) to pound in a mortar, crush, cuff, prod; avaiyal well-husked rice
Malayalam : avil
Malayalam meaning : rice bruised and dried
Malayalam derivates : avekka to beat rice; aval flattened rice obtained from paddy by pestling it
Kannada : aval
Kannada meaning : pound, beat; n. pounding, beating in a mortar; (also aval-akki) rice bruised and crushed
Kodagu : avl-akki
Kodagu meaning : rice fried and each grain pounded flat
Tulu : abepuni, abeyuni, abeccuni
Tulu meaning : to beat or pound rice
Proto-Nilgiri : *avä-
Number in DED : 2391
Proto-South Dravidian : *avaḍ-
Meaning : ankle of animal
Kannada : avḍu
Kannada meaning : (Gowda) ankle of an animal (avaḍu is given as 'standard Kannada')
Tulu : abaḍụ, avaḍụ
Tulu meaning : hoof
Notes : A Kan.-Tulu isogloss of unclear origin.
Number in DED : 0262
Proto-South Dravidian : *avai
Meaning : mother
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avvai
Tamil meaning : mother, old woman, woman ascetic
Tamil derivates : tavvai mother, elder sister, goddess of misfortune as the older sister of Lakṣmī; evvai our younger sister
Kannada : avve, avva
Kannada meaning : mother (used as a title of respect and love), grandmother, any elderly woman
Kannada derivates : abbe mother
Kodagu : avvë
Kodagu meaning : mother, mother's sister or female parallel cousin
Tulu : abbè
Tulu meaning : an elderly woman, matron
Proto-Nilgiri : *avä
Number in DED : 0273
Proto-South Dravidian : *aval-
Meaning : jungle-cork tree
Tamil : avali
Tamil meaning : jungle-cork tree (DCV); [Ta. Lex. cowhage]
Malayalam : aval
Malayalam meaning : jungle cork tree (DCV)
Notes : A local (and poorly attested, only through DCV) Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0266
Proto-South Dravidian : *aval-[i]
Meaning : suffering
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avalam
Tamil meaning : suffering, pain, distress, poverty, want, sorrowing, care, anxiety, fault, sickness, disease
Tamil derivates : avali (-pp-, -tt-) to suffer, be distressed, lament, weep, be flurried; avalai pain; āvali (-pp-, -tt-) to weep, cry, lament, grieve; āvalāti complaint, grievance
Malayalam : āval
Malayalam meaning : sorrow, pain
Malayalam derivates : āvalāti vexation, grumbling, complaint
Kannada : hāvaḷi
Kannada meaning : trouble, annoyance
Tulu : hāvaḷi
Tulu meaning : trouble, difficulty, evil
Notes : The variations in vowel length are due to the "gemination resistance" of the inlaut -v-, occasionally seen in other stems of the same type, i. e. the lengthening *āval < *avval is compensatory in nature. More troublesome is the initial h- in Kannaḍa and Tulu, as well as the origins of several different vocalic stems. The most common stem seems to be the nominal form *avali (the verb avali, āvali in Tamil is clearly secondary), but Tamil also has avala-m, whereas Malayalam has a simple āval < *avval. External parallels (Telugu) show that *aval-i is the most obvious candidate for PDR status.
Number in DED : 0265
Proto-South Dravidian : *avaṇ- ~ *ambaṇ-
Meaning : a weight or measure
Tamil : avaṇam, amaṇam
Tamil meaning : a measure = 20,000 areca-nuts
Tamil derivates : ampaṇam a grain measure
Malayalam : avaṇam
Malayalam meaning : a weight or measure, a mason's rule or level
Notes : If the IA parallels given by Burrow & Emeneau (Pali ambaṇa-, ammaṇa- 'measure of capacity' < (?) Skt. armaṇa- 'a measure of one droṇa) belong here, the Tamil-Malayalam isogloss is obviously of IA origin.
Number in DED : 0263
Proto-South Dravidian : *avarai
Meaning : field bean (Dolichus lablab)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : avarai
Tamil meaning : field-bean, Dolichus lablab
Malayalam : avara, avarakka, amara, amarakka
Malayalam meaning : country bean
Kannada : avare, avari, āvare, amare
Kannada meaning : pulse called D. lablab
Tulu : abarè, avarè
Tulu meaning : a common country bean, Lablab vulgaris
Tulu derivates : abaḍè, avaḍè, āvaḍè a kind of bean
Proto-Nilgiri : *avĭrä
Number in DED : 0264
Proto-South Dravidian : *avas-
Meaning : neatness
Tamil : avucu
Tamil meaning : neatness, trimness
Kannada : avusu
Kannada meaning : properness, neatness
Notes : A Tamil-Kannaḍa isogloss of unclear origin. The auslaut vowel is provisionally written as -a-, because a form like *avas-u would have naturally yielded an assimilated reflex *avus-u, but it cannot be excluded that -u- is primary either. The stem formally looks like a derivative from a verbal root *av[a]-, but no such root is attested. Burrow & Emeneau propose a relation with Tam. camai 'get ready, prepare, etc.', but this would be based on the traditional assumption of unconditioned "free variation" between initial affricates and zero in SDR, which has to be rejected.
Number in DED : 0271
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