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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : to cut; to break off
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_u (ar_uv-, ar_r_-/(mod.) ar_unt-)
Tamil meaning : to be severed, break as a rope, cease, become extinct, perish, be decided, settled
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to break off, cut, part asunder, sever, cleave, exterminate, determine, resolve; ar_al becoming detached by cutting; ar_uti end, close, termination, limit, destruction; ar_uppu harvest, reaping the crop, piece, section sawn; ar_umpu dearth, famine; ar_umai instability, transience; ar_ainan_ one who reaps; ar_uvaṭai harvest; ar_r_am destruction, ruin, destitution
Malayalam : ar_uka
Malayalam meaning : to be severed, cut off, break, cease
Malayalam derivates : ar_ukka to sever, cut off, decide; ar_u severing, cutting; ar_uti end, limit; ar_uppu severing, sawing, harvest; ar_umpu dearth; ar_r_am extremity, end
Kannada : ar_u
Kannada meaning : to be severed or disjoined, be cut asunder, cease, end
Kannada derivates : ar_aka state of being broken or injured as a tile, ball, etc.; ar_ake fragment, piece
Kodagu : ara- (arap-, arat-)
Kodagu meaning : to cut
Tulu : arpuni
Tulu meaning : to efface, obliterate
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar_ǝ-
Number in DED : 0315
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : to digest
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_u (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to digest
Kannada : aragu
Kannada meaning : to decay, be digested
Kannada derivates : ar_ave state of being worn out, decayed, or digested, digestion; ar_ambe, ar_abe, ar_ame digestion
Tulu : reñjuni
Tulu meaning : to dissolve, decay
Tulu derivates : (B-K.) aragụ to agree with the stomach or system; akku to digest
Number in DED : 0316
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : indigestion
Kannada : ar_ave, ar_ive
Kannada meaning : indigestion attended with purging
Kannada derivates : aẓkame indigestion
Tulu : arkame
Tulu meaning : indigestion, flatulency
Number in DED : 0316
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : to abide, dwell
Tamil : ar_u (ar_uv-, ar_r_-/ar_unt-)
Tamil meaning : to abide, dwell
Tamil derivates : ar_ai place of encampment, camp; (Annamalai, p. 85) ar_uppu fort; ? alku, ar_ku to abide, dwell
Number in DED : 0317
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : to loathe
Tamil : aruvaru (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to loathe, abhor, feel disgusted with
Tamil derivates : aruvaruppu disgust, loathing, abhorrence
Malayalam : ar_ekka
Malayalam meaning : to loathe, dislike
Malayalam derivates : ar_eppu qualm, aversion; ar_eppikka to make to loathe
Tulu : argiliyuni, argilyuni
Tulu meaning : to loathe, be disgusted
Tulu derivates : argule loathsomeness, disgust, aversion
Number in DED : 0323
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-
Meaning : early dewy season
Tamil : ar_ciram, ar_cirai, acciram
Tamil meaning : early dewy season, first half of the dewy season
Kannada : aykil
Kannada meaning : cold, cold dew, frost, snow, cold season
Number in DED : 0324
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_- (?)
Meaning : good life (having to do with a good meal)
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar_b
Notes : A Nilgiri isogloss. Burrow & Emeneau imply a dental -r-, but an alveolar -r_- is equally possible due to a peculiar development in this kind of cluster (cf., for instance, *ir_umbu 'ant' > Kota irb, Toda ɨrb). If so, the word is clearly comparable with Kan. ar_ambe 'digestion' and may simply represent a figurative extension of that meaning, especially considering that the element of satiation is important for the Nilgiri semantics; see PSDR *ar_-.
Number in DED : 0232
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-ai
Meaning : to sound
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_ai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to speak, sound; n. sound, word, reply
Kannada : ar_acu, ar_icu, ar_ucu, arcu
Kannada meaning : to cry out aloud, clamour, scream
Kannada derivates : racce crying aloud, noisy and abusive clamour
Tulu : areduni
Tulu meaning : to low
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) ajike speech
Number in DED : 0319
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-ai-
Meaning : to slap, beat
Tamil : ar_ai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to slap, beat (as a drum), hammer, cut in pieces, hack, beat upon (as wind, waves); n. slap, blow, dashing as of waves, wave, cutting, chopping
Tamil derivates : (Koll.) areccal a blow
Malayalam : ar_a
Malayalam meaning : a blow
Malayalam derivates : ar_ayuka to beat hard, (rain) pelts, beat drums
Kannada : ar_e
Kannada meaning : to strike, slap, beat; n. a slap, stroke
Number in DED : 0320
Proto-South Dravidian : *ăr_-ai
Meaning : rock
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_ai
Tamil meaning : rock, ledge, grinding stone
Kannada : ar_e
Kannada meaning : stone, rock, slab
Kannada derivates : rāyi stone (< Te.)
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar_[ä]
Number in DED : 0321
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-ai
Meaning : room, apartment
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_ai
Tamil meaning : room, apartment, chamber, cell, drawer, compartment, square on a chessboard
Malayalam : ar_a
Malayalam meaning : partition, room, magazine, treasury
Tulu : adè
Tulu meaning : inner room, small room
Number in DED : 0322
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_al-
Meaning : black sand
Tamil : ar_al
Tamil meaning : black sand found on the seashore, water
Malayalam : ar_al
Malayalam meaning : black sand
Kannada : ar_il, ar_al, ar_ulu, arla, arlu
Kannada meaning : mud, clay
Number in DED : 0312
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_-i-
Meaning : to know
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ar_i (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to know, understand, perceive, ascertain; n. knowledge
Tamil derivates : ar_ikkai notice; ar_ivi (-pp-, -tt-) to make known, announce; ar_ivu knowledge, intelligence, perception; ar_ivan_ wise man; ar_ivai wisdom; aruku (aruki-) to know
Malayalam : ar_iyuka
Malayalam meaning : to know, understand; be known
Malayalam derivates : ar_ivu knowledge, understanding; ar_iyikka, ar_ivikka to make known; ar_iyippu notice; ar_ivippikka to inform
Kannada : ar_i (ar_id-, ar_it-)
Kannada meaning : to know
Kannada derivates : ar_ike knowledge, information; ar_ita, ar_ivu, ar_avu, ar_uvu knowledge, perception; ar_ipu, ar_upu, ar_isu to make known, communicate, reveal; ar_ime, ar_iha knowledge; (K2) ar_iyamike ignorance; ar_ake searching, inquiring; ar_asu to inquire after, seek, search; n. research, inquiry
Kodagu : ari- (ariv-, ariñj-)
Kodagu meaning : to find out
Kodagu derivates : arɨp- (arɨpi-) to inform, tell; arivɨ knowledge
Tulu : arupu, aruhu
Tulu meaning : knowledge, understanding, perception
Tulu derivates : arike consent, confession, request; arike maḷpuni to reveal, confess, inform, represent, request
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar_ĭ-
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) ade to search
Number in DED : 0314
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_ir-
Meaning : iron
Tamil : ayil
Tamil meaning : iron
Malayalam : ayir, ayiram
Malayalam meaning : any ore
Kannada : aduru
Kannada meaning : native metal
Tulu : ajirda karba
Tulu meaning : very hard iron
Notes : If the forms compared in DEDR are all related, only a form like *ar_ir- can explain all the phonetic diversity. In Tulu the development *-r_i- > -ji- is regular. In the other languages the change of *r_ to y or d is triggered by dissimilation with the following -r-; dissimilation may also underlie the dialectal -l in Tamil. This is, however, not the main root for 'iron' in SDR and has no parallels outside that subgroup; an external source should probably be looked for.
Number in DED : 0192
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar_Vv-
Meaning : cloth
Tamil : ar_uvai
Tamil meaning : cloth, garment
Tamil derivates : ar_ai curtain
Kannada : ar_a, ar_ave, ar_ive, ar_uve
Kannada meaning : cloth
Tulu : arve
Tulu meaning : a cloth, old rag
Number in DED : 0318
Proto-South Dravidian : *as- ~ *asar_-
Meaning : mud, mire
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : acar_u
Tamil meaning : mud, mire
Tamil derivates : acumpu soft mud, miry place; ayam mud, mire
Malayalam : ayam
Malayalam meaning : mud, mire
Malayalam derivates : ayar_u manure
Notes : Tamil, Mal. ayam 'mud, mire' may actually be connected with a different root, cf. PSDR *aja-; if so, semantic contamination between the two must be supposed.
Number in DED : 0041
Proto-South Dravidian : *asa-
Meaning : to wash
Malayalam : ayavu
Malayalam meaning : washing
Malayalam derivates : ayavukāran, ayakan washerman
Kannada : asaga, agasa, agasiga
Kannada meaning : washerman
Proto-Nilgiri : *as-ǝg
Notes : A very local root; possibly same as *asa- "stir, move, shake"?
Number in DED : 0036
Proto-South Dravidian : *asaḍ-
Meaning : stupid
Tamil : acaṭu
Tamil meaning : stupidity, fool
Tamil derivates : acaṭan_ foolish man, low person; acaṭi silly woman
Malayalam : aśaṭu
Malayalam meaning : meanness
Kannada : asaḍu
Kannada meaning : stupidity, stubbornness
Kannada derivates : asaḍa stupid man; fem. asaḍi
Number in DED : 0038
Proto-South Dravidian : *asai-
Meaning : to join with
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : acai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to join with (tr.), tie, bind
Kannada : asa
Kannada meaning : fitness, propriety
Number in DED : 0043
Proto-South Dravidian : *asai- ~ *aja-
Meaning : to stir, move; to drive, send
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : acaŋku (acaŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to stir, move, shake
Tamil derivates : acakku (acakki-), ayakku (ayakki-) to shake (tr.); acai (-v-, -nt-) to move, stir, go away; (-pp-, -tt-) to shake (tr.), move, agitate; n. cud, sling for carrying or preserving ōla books; acaivu shaking, moving about, swinging; ayar (-v-, -nt-) to drive, as a chariot
Malayalam : ayakka, ayekka
Malayalam meaning : to send, let go, leave, slacken, loosen
Malayalam derivates : ayaccal being loose, untied; ayappu sending, slackening; ayappikka to make to send, get oneself dismissed, take leave; ayayuka to slacken; aya, ayavu rumination; ayavu elasticity; ayar_uka to chew the cud
Kannada : asi
Kannada meaning : to move, shake, tremble, dangle, pendulate; to throw away, scatter, disperse
Kannada derivates : asavasa haste, speed; asimisi without deliberation; asu quickness, haste; asumbu to cause to move about, shake, agitate
Kodagu : ay- (ayp-, ayc-)
Kodagu meaning : to send
Notes : It is well possible there are actually two roots contaminated in this entry, one represented by Tam. acai, acaŋku, etc., the other represented by Tam. ayar, Mal. ayakka, Kod. ay-, etc. Dialectal alternations of -s-/-j- in the auslaut position are rather common, of course, but in Kod. we should expect -s-, not -j-, and the difference between Tam. acakku/ayakku and ayar is rather striking. However, internal derivation is still not excluded, so for the moment we prefer to keep both variants in the same entry.
Number in DED : 0037
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