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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *nīḷ-
Meaning : long
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīḷ (nīḷv-, nīṇṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to be long, be great; n. length, extension, elongation, long time, duration, height, tallness, loftiness, depth, order, series, row
Tamil derivates : nīḷa to a great length or distance, all along, at a great distance; nīḷam extension, length, distance, remoteness, delay, procrastination; nīḷi (-pp-, -tt-) to be lengthened, extended, be long as time or life, last long, endure, be protracted, delayed; n. that which is long, lofty, tall person; nīḷippu prolongation; nīḷiyatu that which is long, that which is omnipresent; nīṇu (nīṇi-) to go a long distance; nīṭu (nīṭi-) to grow long, be lengthened, be extended through space or time, spread, extend, abound, be copious, thrive, grow well, rise high, last long, endure, be permanent, delay; n. long time, permanence; nīṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to lengthen (time, distance, etc.), endure, last, be permanent; nīṭṭu (nīṭṭi-) to lengthen, extend, stretch out, straighten, offer as oblations, give, insert, drive into, speak at length or too much, prolong as a note, delay, procrastinate, retard, defer; nīṭṭu length as of time or space, distance; nīṭṭam length, elongation of sound, strengthening, lengthening, procrastination; nīṭṭal lengthening, extending, stretching; nīṭṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to lengthen, delay; be prolonged, endure long; nikaḷam length
Malayalam : nīḷuka
Malayalam meaning : to extend oneself, grow long, be delayed, protracted
Malayalam derivates : nīḷa, nīḷē, nīḷavē far; nīḷam length, distance; nīḷal growing longer; nīḷ, nīẓ length (in cpds.); nīṭu length, long; nīṭuka to be long; nīṭṭuka to lengthen, stretch out, allow to grow, delay, hold out, give; nīṭṭam length, stretching out, delay; nīṭṭal lengthening; nīṭṭu a royal handwriting, stroke, a grant of the Travancore raja, a ladder; nīṭṭikka to get lengthened, stretched
Kannada : nīḷ
Kannada meaning : to grow long or high, extend, extend oneself, be stretched out, spread
Kannada derivates : nīḷa extension, length, height, tallness; nīḷitu that is long; nīḷpu length; nīḍu to extend, stretch out (as the fingers, arms, tongue, etc.), hold out, offer, present, give, serve out; n. extension, length, delay; further, abundantly, much, presenting; nīṭa length
Kodagu : nɨ̄ḷa
Kodagu meaning : length
Kodagu derivates : nɨ̄ḍ- (nɨ̄ṇḍ-) to stretch out straight (intr.); nɨ̄ṭ- (nɨ̄ṭi-) id. (tr.), offer; (Shanmugam) nīṭa length
Tulu : nīṭuni, nīḍuni
Tulu meaning : to stretch out or forth, hold out, lengthen
Tulu derivates : nīṭāvuni to cause to stretch, lengthen; nīṭa, nīṭu long, extended, high; nīṭānīṭi lengthwise; nīcuni to extend; nēlya great, large, extensive
Proto-Nilgiri : *nīḷ-/*nīḍ-
Notes : Derivatives *nīḍ- and *nīṭ- have to be reconstructed for PSDR as well.
Number in DED : 3692
Proto-South Dravidian : *ńīnc- (?)
Meaning : to swim
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīntu (nīnti-)
Tamil meaning : to swim in water, overflow, swim across, cross over, escape from, get over, overcome; n. ocean
Tamil derivates : nīttam flood, depth, sea, abundance; nīttu swimming, water of swimming depth, flood; nīccu swimming, flood, swimming depth as of water; nīccan_, nīccāḷ swimmer; nīñcu = nīntu vb.; to be actively engaged as in a stupendous work, drink to excess, esp. toddy
Malayalam : nīntuka
Malayalam meaning : to swim, sprawl on the ground or in the water
Malayalam derivates : nīntam, nīntal swimming; nīntikka to make to swim
Kannada : īsu, īju, hīju
Kannada meaning : to swim; n. (also īsa) swimming
Kannada derivates : ījisu to make swim (as a horse)
Kodagu : mīnd- (mīndi-)
Kodagu meaning : to swim
Tulu : īcuni, ījuni
Tulu meaning : to swim
Tulu derivates : nīnduni to swim, float; nīndāvuni to set afloat, cause to swim; nīndāṭa swimming, floating
Proto-Nilgiri : *nīnʒ-
Miscellaneous : KOR (O) mīndɨ to swim
Notes : A unique cluster in this root, reflected as -nd-, -nc- and -s-.
Number in DED : 3687
Proto-South Dravidian : *nīr
Meaning : water
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīr
Tamil meaning : water, sea, juice, liquor, urine, dampness, moisture; nature, disposition, state, condition
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to become thin or watery (as liquid food in cooking), be wet, moist; nīrmai property of water, as coolness; nīr nāy otter
Malayalam : nīr
Malayalam meaning : water, juice, moisture
Malayalam derivates : nīr nāy otter
Kannada : nīr, nīru
Kannada meaning : water
Kannada derivates : (Gul.) nīrki thirst; nīru nāyi otter
Kodagu : nīrɨ
Kodagu meaning : water
Tulu : nīrụ
Tulu meaning : water
Tulu derivates : nīrụ nāyi otter
Proto-Nilgiri : *nīr
Number in DED : 3690
Proto-South Dravidian : *nīr_-
Meaning : ashes
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīr_u (nīr_i-)
Tamil meaning : to become slaked (as lime), be turned to ashes or calcined (as metals or stones); perish, be ruined; n. ashes, dross of any substance after it has been burned, sacred ashes, dust, slaked lime
Tamil derivates : nīr_r_u (nīr_r_i-) to slake (as lime), reduce to ashes or powder, calcine (as metals), calcinate; (?) nivar_u (nivar_i-) to be powdered
Malayalam : nīr_uka
Malayalam meaning : to be slaked and powdered as lime, burn to ashes
Malayalam derivates : nīr_al burning grief; nīr_r_uka to burn to ashes, slake shells for lime; nīr_u ashes
Kannada : nīr_u
Kannada meaning : powder, ashes
Number in DED : 3693
Proto-South Dravidian : *nīv-
Meaning : to stroke
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīvu (nīvi-)
Tamil meaning : to stroke, rub gently, handle softly, smooth by passing the fingers over, wipe off, daub, smear
Tamil derivates : nīvi wiping
Kannada : nīvu
Kannada meaning : to rub softly, use gentle friction, stroke down any member of the body, make straight or smooth by stroking, as the hair, beard, cloth, etc.
Kannada derivates : nīvisu to cause to use gentle friction; nivaru to pass the hand gently over, stroke or rub gently; caus. nivarisu; nēvarisu to make straight, smooth, or proper by gently rubbing with the hand or fingering, rub gently with the hand or stroke
Tulu : nēvaripuni
Tulu meaning : to fondle, caress
Proto-Nilgiri : *nīv-
Notes : Irregular vocalism in Kannada and Telugu.
Number in DED : 3691
Proto-South Dravidian : *[ńj]aŋaḷ
Meaning : palate
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : aŋgaḷa, aŋgaḷu, aŋguḷa, aŋguḷi, aŋguḷe
Kannada meaning : palate
Kannada derivates : (UNR) aŋgilu, naŋgilu uvula
Notes : The dialectal Kannada form with n- may be just an occasional irregularity; cf., however, external correspondences.
Number in DED : 0033
Proto-South Dravidian : *njām (obl. *em-)
Meaning : we (excl.)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yām (obl. em-), nāŋkaḷ (obl. eŋkaḷ-)
Tamil meaning : we (excl.)
Malayalam : ñā̆ŋŋaḷ (obl. ñaŋŋaḷ-, eŋŋaḷ-)
Malayalam meaning : we (excl.)
Kannada : ām (obl. em-)
Kannada meaning : we (excl.)
Kodagu : eŋga (obl. eŋga-), naŋga (obl. naŋga-)
Kodagu meaning : we
Tulu : eŋkuḷụ (obl. eŋkuḷe-)
Tulu meaning : we (excl.)
Proto-Nilgiri : *ām
Notes : In Kodagu and Kota/Toda the paradigm has been rendered uniform through analogy.
Number in DED : 5154
Proto-South Dravidian : *njān (obl. *en-)
Meaning : I
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yān_, nān_ (obl. en_-)
Tamil meaning : I
Tamil derivates : yān_mai egoism; en_avan_ one who is mine; en_ava mine (neut. pl.)
Malayalam : ñān (obl. en-)
Malayalam meaning : I
Kannada : ān (obl. en-), nān (obl. nan-)
Kannada meaning : I
Kodagu : nānɨ, nā (obl. en-, nan-, nā-)
Kodagu meaning : I
Tulu : yānu, yēnu (obl. ena-, en-)
Tulu meaning : (L. V. R. Aiyar, p. 403; Bright and Ramanujan) yānụ (non-brahmin), ēnụ (brahmin) id.
Proto-Nilgiri : *ān
Number in DED : 5160
Proto-South Dravidian : *njīm (*njīvir)
Meaning : you (pl.)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nīm, nīr, nīyir, nīvir, nīŋkaḷ (obl. Old Ta. num-, mod. Ta. um-, uŋkaḷ-)
Tamil meaning : you (pl.)
Tamil derivates : nīr you (sg. hon.); numan_ your relation, party or associate
Malayalam : niŋŋaḷ (obl. niŋŋaḷ-)
Malayalam meaning : you (pl.)
Kannada : nīm, nīvu, nīngaḷ (obl. nim(m)-)
Kannada meaning : you (pl.)
Kodagu : niŋga (obl. niŋga-)
Kodagu meaning : you (pl.)
Tulu : īrụ, nikuḷu
Tulu meaning : you (pl.) (also obl.)
Proto-Nilgiri : *nīm
Number in DED : 3688
Proto-South Dravidian : *njī[n] (obl. *nin-)
Meaning : thou
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nī (obl. Old Ta. nin_(n)-, mod. Ta. un_(n_)-)
Tamil meaning : thou, you (2 sg.)
Tamil derivates : hon. nīr; nin_ava yours (nt. pl.)
Malayalam : nī (obl. nin(n)-)
Malayalam meaning : you (sg.)
Kannada : nīṃ, nīn(u) (obl. nin(n)-)
Kannada meaning : you (sg.)
Kodagu : nīnɨ/nī (obl. nin-/nī-)
Kodagu meaning : you (sg.)
Tulu : ī (obl. nin-)
Tulu meaning : you (sg.)
Proto-Nilgiri : *nī (obl. *nin-)
Number in DED : 3684
Proto-South Dravidian : *noC-i
Meaning : cooked rice
Tulu : nocci
Tulu meaning : rice cooked with ghee, coconut, etc.
Miscellaneous : KURU (LSB) niccɨ cooked rice
Number in DED : 3782
Proto-South Dravidian : *noḍ-
Meaning : to wash
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nuṭakku (nuṭakki-)
Tamil meaning : to wash, wipe off moisture, destroy, dissolve
Tulu : (?) niḍiyuni, niḍipini, (B-K) neḍi
Tulu meaning : to wash
Miscellaneous : BEL (LSB) noḍi to wash
Notes : Absolutely irregular vocalism in Tulu.
Number in DED : 3783
Proto-South Dravidian : *noḍ-i-
Meaning : to say
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : noṭi (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to say, tell, speak, declare
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) id., insinuate so as to stir up ill-will, make unfavourable allusions, use sarcasm; n. word, phrase, language, speech, wise saying, riddle, enigma, stanza, noise
Malayalam : noṭikka
Malayalam meaning : to speak hastily or superciliously
Malayalam derivates : noṭiyuka to murmur, lisp as fools
Kannada : nuḍi
Kannada meaning : to sound, utter, speak, say; n. sounding, speaking, uttering a voice, sppech, word, term, promise, language
Kannada derivates : nuḍisu, nuḍiyisu to cause or induce to utter, speak, etc.; perform music upon, play; nuḍiha uttering, telling; nuḍisuha making speak, addressing
Tulu : nuḍi
Tulu meaning : word, speech, saying
Tulu derivates : nuḍiyuni to pronounce, utter; nuḍipuni to speak, talk; nuḍipāvuni to cause to speak, speak through another, play on a musical instrument
Number in DED : 3784
Proto-South Dravidian : *nok-i (?)
Meaning : five-leaved chaste tree
Tamil : nocci
Tamil meaning : five-leaved chaste tree, Vitex negundo (veṇ-ṇocci); three-leaved chaste tree, V. trifolia (karu-nocci)
Malayalam : nocci
Malayalam meaning : Vitex trifolia or negundo
Kannada : nekki, lakki, lakkili, lekki, lokki
Kannada meaning : Vitex trifolia or negundo
Tulu : nekki
Tulu meaning : Vitex trifolia
Notes : Highly irregular reflexes in Kannada (usual with plant names).
Number in DED : 3781
Proto-South Dravidian : *noḷ-
Meaning : to bale out
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : noḷ (noḷv-, noṇṭ-), noḷku (noḷki-)
Tamil meaning : to bale out as water, measure out as grain
Tamil derivates : nōṇṭu (nōṇṭi-) to bale, scoop out; nuḷai a caste of fishermen; nuḷaiyan_ fisherman, inhabitant of the maritime tract; fem. nuḷaicci
Number in DED : 3790
Proto-South Dravidian : *noḷ-
Meaning : to swallow
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : noḷ (noḷv-, noṇṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to swallow, devour
Malayalam : nuṇa
Malayalam meaning : smack, slaver, greediness
Malayalam derivates : nuṇayuka to eat greedily; nuṇaccal smacking the lips, greediness; nuṇayan voracious; fem. nuṇacci; nuṇekka to smack the lips, have a ravenous appetite
Kannada : noṇe
Kannada meaning : to swallow
Number in DED : 3791
Proto-South Dravidian : *nonḍ-
Meaning : to limp; lame
Tamil : noṇṭu (noṇṭi-)
Tamil meaning : to walk lamely, limp, hobble from lameness or weariness
Tamil derivates : noṇṭal limping; noṇṭi lame person or creature; crippled condition as of leg or arm; persons who dance on stilts; neṇṭu (neṇṭi-) to limp
Malayalam : noṇṭuka
Malayalam meaning : to limp, halt
Malayalam derivates : noṇṭi cripple; noṇṭikka to maim
Proto-Nilgiri : *noṇḍ-
Number in DED : 3786
Proto-South Dravidian : *nond_- (?)
Meaning : disease
Proto-Nilgiri : *nod_-ĭ
Notes : A strange pair-word in PN, with irregular reflexation in Koda. Dubious.
Number in DED : 3792
Proto-South Dravidian : *ńoṭ-
Meaning : cracking of fingers
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : noṭi
Tamil meaning : crack or snap as of the thumb and middle finger, instant as the time measure of the snap of the finger
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to snap with the thumb and middle finger; noṭippu instant, moment; noṭṭai smack as a sign of keen relish or anticipation; neṭṭi, neṭṭai cracking of the finger joints; neṭa-neṭ-en_al onom. expr. signifying a crashing noise, as of a falling tree
Malayalam : ñoṭi
Malayalam meaning : snap of fingers
Malayalam derivates : ñoṭṭa cracking the joints of the fingers; noṭi a snap with the thumb and middle finger, a moment; noṭikka to fillip, snap with the fingers; noṭippu fillipping; noṭṭa the cracking noise of the finger joints, smacking the lips, pressing a vesicle; ñeṭa sound of falling, crashing trees; ñeṭṭuka to crash, burst
Kannada : naṭike, naṭaku, naṭige, naṭuku, naṭṭu, neṭike, neṭṭu
Kannada meaning : the cracking noise of the finger and other joints
Kannada derivates : naṭakkane onom. of cracking or breaking; naṭ, naṭa sound of cracking the finger joints, that of a falling branch; loṭṭe a smack or cluck with the tongue; (Hav.) neṭṭi sound produced by pulling knuckles
Tulu : naṭanaṭa
Tulu meaning : with a crackling noise
Tulu derivates : naṭuku cracking the fingers; netti, luṭuka cracking the fingers; (B-K) neṭṭi making a cracking noise by pulling the knuckles
Proto-Nilgiri : *noṭ
Number in DED : 2936
Proto-South Dravidian : *nō-
Meaning : to ache
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : nō (-v-, nont-)
Tamil meaning : to feel pain, ache, suffer, be grieved, distressed in mind, be injured, spoiled; n. pain, illness, weakness, infirmity
Tamil derivates : nōy (-pp-, -tt-; -v-, -nt-) to be ill, diseased, be debilitated, wither (as crops); n. malady, disease, grief, affliction, pain; nōvu pain, disease, grief; novvu (novvi-) to ache, pain; n. pain, illness; novval mental anguish, pain; noci (-v-, -nt-) to be in pain, suffer; nocivu pain, suffering; nompalam distress; no to suffer; n. pain, suffering; noyvu distress of mind; nōcal sickness, pain; nōñcal emaciation; nōñcān_, nōñci feeble, invalid person; (??) uyaŋku (uyaŋki-) to suffer, be in distress, pain (of body or mind), grow thin, become emaciated, be flexible, slender; uyakkam suffering, distress; uyavu (uyavi-) to suffer; n. distress, suffering; uyaval pain, suffering; uyā distress, suffering
Malayalam : nōka
Malayalam meaning : to pain, smart, be in labour
Malayalam derivates : noyi, nōyi weakness, pain; nōvu pain, ache, grief, sorrow; nōvuka to suffer pain, ache; nōvikka to pain, torment, afflict, offend; nomparam, nompalam pain, sickness
Kannada : nō (nond-), noyyu, nōyu, noy
Kannada meaning : to suffer, pain, ache, (pain) is felt, grieve
Kannada derivates : nō̆yisu to cause to suffer pain; nōta ache, pain; nōvu id., affliction
Kodagu : no- (novv-, nond-)
Kodagu meaning : to pain (intr.)
Kodagu derivates : nombala pain
Tulu : nōpuni, nōpini, nōyipini
Tulu meaning : to ache, pain
Tulu derivates : nōvu pain, ache, distress
Proto-Nilgiri : *nōv
Number in DED : 3793
Total of 4692 records 235 pages

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