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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *aparanǯi
Meaning : refined gold
Tamil : aparañci
Tamil meaning : refined gold
Kannada : aparañji
Kannada meaning : refined gold
Notes : Also met in Telugu, but the etymology certainly remains obscure.
Number in DED : 0152
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar-
Meaning : rare
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aru (arum, ār)
Tamil meaning : rare, difficult, etc.
Tamil derivates : aritu that which is difficult, rare, precious; ariya difficult; arumai rareness, smallness; difficulty; arumanta rare, precious; aruku (aruki-) to become scarce, diminished, be reduced, happen rarely, disappear; arukku (arukki-) to make scarce, reduce, put a stop to, destroy; regard as precious; n. scarceness; arukkam smallness, brevity; arukkāṇi rareness, preciousness; aruŋku, aruntal, aruvam rareness; aruppam difficulty, fort; (PPTI) aruppu the natural protection of a forest; arakku (arakki-) to cause to diminish; āri difficulty; āriya little, delicate
Malayalam : aru
Malayalam meaning : rare, unusual, impossible
Malayalam derivates : ariya rare, uncommon; aruma, arima superiority, importance; difficulty; arippam difficulty; arutu what ought not to be, impossibility; arukuka to diminish
Kannada : aradu, aridu, arudu
Kannada meaning : that is impossible, wonderful, great or important
Tulu : arkuni
Tulu meaning : to become less, be humbled, depressed
Proto-Nilgiri : *arǝ-
Notes : Tamil forms with the long vowel (āri, āriya) are not backed up by any other evidence and have to be considered secondary.
Number in DED : 0221
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar-
Meaning : to pursue
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar-ǝt-
Number in DED : 2362
Proto-South Dravidian : *ara-
Meaning : a plough
Tamil : araka
Tamil meaning : a plough with bullocks, etc. complete
Notes : An isolated Tamil form, compared in DEDR with Malto are 'plough'. Proto-Dravidian status is hardly likely. The obvious comparison is with PIE *ar(ǝ)- 'to plough', although it is unclear how the actual forms could have reached the Dravidian area, since the root is not found in Indo-Iranian.
Number in DED : 0198
Proto-South Dravidian : *ara-
Meaning : file (n.)
Tamil : aram
Tamil meaning : file, rasp
Tamil derivates : arāvu (arāvi-), irāvu (irāvi-) to file, polish, rub, grate
Malayalam : aram
Malayalam meaning : file
Malayalam derivates : irāvuka, rākuka to file
Kannada : ara, arna
Kannada meaning : file
Tulu : ara
Tulu meaning : file
Proto-Nilgiri : *arǝ-m
Notes : Probably an old (PSDR or older) nominal derivative of *arai- 'to rub, grind'. Tamil and Malayalam forms in i- are, however, quite mysterious, because even in reduced position Tam. a- is never known to be neutralised with i-.
Number in DED : 0228
Proto-South Dravidian : *araça-
Meaning : king
Tamil : aracan_, araican_, araiyan_
Tamil meaning : king, sovereign, prince
Tamil derivates : araci queen; aracu, araicu kingliness, king, kingdom, government; arai politics; ara-man_ai king's palace (also araṇman_ai royal place, mansion, with araṇ defence, fortress, castle < Skt. śaraṇa-)
Malayalam : aracan, araśan, arayan
Malayalam meaning : king
Malayalam derivates : aracam, aracu royalty, constitution; ara-mana king's house, palace, court
Kannada : arasa (in cpds. ara-), arasu
Kannada meaning : king, lord
Kannada derivates : arasi, arasati queen; ara-mane royal dwelling, palace, court, government
Kodagu : aramane
Kodagu meaning : palace
Tulu : arasu, arase
Tulu meaning : king, monarch
Tulu derivates : aramane, arantaḍè palace, royal residence
Proto-Nilgiri : *arǝs
Notes : Since it is hard to suppose that Tam. araci < Skt. rājñī-, one has to assume a back-formation in South Dravidian itself (where the formant -i was indeed used to produce female gender), for *araçi- as well as the abstract noun *araç[u]. The compound *ara-manai, in the light of the archaic Tamil form, should be traced back to *araṇ-manai and then to Skt. śaraṇa-. Cf. also Tel. arusu (the borrowing may date back to the period of SDR-Telugu unity).
Number in DED : 0201
Proto-South Dravidian : *araçai
Meaning : Ficus religiosa
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aracu, araca-maram
Tamil meaning : pipal, Ficus religiosa
Tamil derivates : arai a tree, prob. pipal (Tolk.)
Malayalam : arayāl, aracu, araśāl, araśu
Malayalam meaning : Ficus religiosa
Kannada : arase, arise, araḷi, araḷe, aḷali, aḷḷe
Kannada meaning : Ficus religiosa
Kannada derivates : rāvi id. (< Te.)
Kodagu : araḷi-mara
Kodagu meaning : Ficus religiosa
Notes : A complicated case. Tam. aracu should point to *araç- as the PDR stem, which would not be very compatible with Kan. arase, arise < *araçai, not to mention the rest of the forms. However, I suspect that already on the PSDR level this root must have contaminated with *araça- 'king' (Ficus religiosa being seen as a 'kingly' tree), and this explains such forms as Tam. and Mal. aracu, reinterpreted as simply 'king', and Mal. arayāl, araśāl, from *araça- 'king' + *āl- 'banyan = Ficus bengalensis'. That there actually was an original *araçai 'Ficus religiosa' is confirmed by external data, which is hard to trace back to *araça- 'king'.
Number in DED : 0202
Proto-South Dravidian : *arai
Meaning : trunk of tree
Tamil : arai
Tamil meaning : trunk of tree
Kannada : araḷe
Kannada meaning : post, pillar, statue
Notes : A rather poorly distributed root, and the derivational model in Kannaḍa is unclear. The Kannaḍa word does seem, however, to be related to Tel. rāḍu 'post, pillar'.
Number in DED : 0211
Proto-South Dravidian : *arai-
Meaning : to rub, grind
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : arai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to become macerated, worn out
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to grind, pulverize, destroy by rubbing, mash, destroy, clear of seeds, gin; araippu grinding, pulverizing; aravu (aravi-) to torment (cf. Tu.); arakku (arakki-) to rub with the palm of hand or the sole of foot, ruin, cause trouble to; araŋku (araŋki-) to suffer, be destroyed; arantai affliction, trouble; aruvu (aruvi-) to wear away (as a flood erodes a river's banks), afflict
Malayalam : arayuka
Malayalam meaning : to be bruised
Malayalam derivates : aravu grinding; arekka to grind to powder; arappu powdering; araŋŋuka, arakkuka bruising gently to remove the husk by rubbing
Kannada : are (arad-)
Kannada meaning : to grind, pulverize, crush; n. state of being ground, etc.
Kannada derivates : arayisu, arisu to cause to grind, etc.; arata act of grinding; ari to grind on a slab, rub cotton with the feet in cleaning it; (Hav.) araccu to crush; (Hav.) arappu coconut paste
Kodagu : ara- (arap-, arat-)
Kodagu meaning : to grind with roller stone, mix up in a paste in preparing curry spices
Tulu : arepuni, arepini, areyuni, arevuni
Tulu meaning : to pulverize by pounding or grinding, oppress
Tulu derivates : arepāvuni to cause to grind; arepu, arepelụ act of grinding, that which is ground for condiment; areñcuni to rub off, peel, skin; araḍuni to rub
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar[ä]-
Miscellaneous : IRU re- (ret-) to grind
Notes : Most of the derivative stems can be traced back to *arai- with consonantal extensions. Tamil aruvu 'to wear away' may have appeared under the influence of aruvu 'to flow down (of spring)'.
Number in DED : 0228
Proto-South Dravidian : *arai
Meaning : half
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : arai
Tamil meaning : half
Malayalam : ara
Malayalam meaning : half
Kannada : ara
Kannada meaning : half
Kannada derivates : are half, a little; arake state of being half, incomplete or too little; arame state of being a moiety or a little; arebar a few
Tulu : are
Tulu meaning : half
Tulu derivates : arakè, areke half-filled; arāḷụ a person doing half a day's work
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar[ä]
Number in DED : 0229
Proto-South Dravidian : *arai
Meaning : waist, loins
Tamil : arai
Tamil meaning : waist, loins, stomach
Malayalam : ara
Malayalam meaning : middle of the body, loins, waist
Kodagu : are
Kodagu meaning : waist
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar-
Notes : Most probably the same root as *arai 'half' = 'middle of the body'.
Number in DED : 0230
Proto-South Dravidian : *arak-
Meaning : lac, wax
Tamil : arakku
Tamil meaning : lac, sealing-wax, shellac, or resin melted with turpentine
Tamil derivates : arakkam shellac
Malayalam : arakku
Malayalam meaning : gumlac, sealing-wax
Kannada : aragu
Kannada meaning : gumlac, sealing-wax
Tulu : arakụ, aragụ
Tulu meaning : gumlac, sealing-wax
Notes : The word is obviously connected with Old Indian alakta- 'red substance, prob. lac or lac dye' (Turner 695); lākṣā́-, rākṣā́- 'lac, red dye' (Turner 11002). The direction of the borrowing seems to be from Indo-Aryan into Dravidian, given several potential IE etymologies for the Old Indian word and no Dravidian parallels outside SDR. The prothetic a- in Dravidian is quite regular in such cases (see *arac- 'king').
Number in DED : 0199
Proto-South Dravidian : *araḷ-
Meaning : to fear
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : araḷ (araḷv-, araṇṭ-), aruḷ (aruḷv-, aruṇṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to be terrified
Tamil derivates : araṭṭu (araṭṭi-), aruṭṭu (aruṭṭi-) to terrify, frighten; n. fear; araṭṭi fear; aruṭṭi quaking, trembling, agitation; araṭci, aruṭci confusion of mind, bewilderment; aruku (aruki-), arukku (arukki-) to be afraid
Malayalam : araḷuka
Malayalam meaning : to shrink
Malayalam derivates : araṭṭuka to frighten, alarm
Kannada : araḷ, araḷa, aruḷu, arulu, arlu, aralu
Kannada meaning : bewilderment, terror, fear
Kannada derivates : are, aremare, aremarike hesitation, doubt
Tulu : (?) naraŋguni
Tulu meaning : to waver, hesitate, be reluctant
Tulu derivates : naraguri a sheepish man, coward; nareŋguni to hesitate; nareŋgele a dull, tardy, slow, hesitating man
Proto-Nilgiri : *ar-
Notes : The forms in Tulu hardly belong here; the correspondence "most SDR languages 0- / Tulu n-" is unparalleled, and even the semantics of the Tulu root are different.
Number in DED : 3605
Proto-South Dravidian : *araḷi
Meaning : oleander
Tamil : araḷi, alari, (PPTI) aralai
Tamil meaning : oleander, Nerium odorum
Tamil derivates : araḷi fetid tree, Sterculia foetida
Malayalam : araḷi, alari
Malayalam meaning : Nerium odorum; Plumeria acuminata
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0210
Proto-South Dravidian : *araṇa-
Meaning : nuptial present
Kannada : araṇa
Kannada meaning : a nuptial present
Notes : Also found in Telugu; etymology unclear.
Number in DED : 0203
Proto-South Dravidian : *araṇai
Meaning : lizard species (Lacerta interpunctula)
Tamil : araṇai
Tamil meaning : typical lizard, Lacertidae; smooth streaked lizard, Lacerta interpunctula
Malayalam : araṇa
Malayalam meaning : green house lizard, L. interpunctula
Kannada : araṇe, rāṇe, rāṇi
Kannada meaning : greenish kind of lizard which is said to poison by licking, L. interpunctula
Tulu : araṇe
Tulu meaning : Lacerta interpunctula
Notes : Forms with syncopation in Kannaḍa formally look like they could have been borrowed from Telugu, but the root is not actually attested in Telugu.
Number in DED : 0204
Proto-South Dravidian : *aratai
Meaning : galangal
Tamil : arattai
Tamil meaning : galangal, Alpinia
Malayalam : aratta
Malayalam meaning : Alpinia galanga
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0206
Proto-South Dravidian : *arau-
Meaning : to spring out (water)
Tamil : aruvu (aruvi-)
Tamil meaning : to spring out and gently flow down
Tamil derivates : aruvi waterfall, spring at the foot of a hill
Malayalam : aruvuka
Malayalam meaning : to spring out and flow down gently
Malayalam derivates : aruvi, arivi waterfall, cascade
Kannada : arbi
Kannada meaning : a torrent that has ceased from flowing or is checked in its course
Kannada derivates : (PBh.) arvi constant descent of water, waterfall; (Hav.) abbi a tiny waterfall
Tulu : arbi
Tulu meaning : water collected in an elevated place
Tulu derivates : arbi kītuni water to fall in broken streams over a small height; (B-K.) arabi, arbi waterfall
Miscellaneous : KUR (LSB) ebbi waterfall; KOR (O) arbili water particles drifting in when it rains
Notes : The nominal derivative *arav-i < *arau-i 'waterfall' is well reconstructible for PSDR. Auslaut -au- is proposed on the basis of the verbal stem in -(u)v- in Tamil.
Number in DED : 0226
Proto-South Dravidian : *ar-[av]-
Meaning : snake
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aravu, aravam, ara, arā
Tamil meaning : snake
Malayalam : aravu, aravam
Malayalam meaning : serpent
Number in DED : 2359
Proto-South Dravidian : *ari-
Meaning : to cut off small pieces; to nip, chip
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ari (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to cut off, nip off
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to gnaw as white ants; n. cutting; ari vāḷ billhook, sickle, garden knife; arivi reaped corn, handful of reaped grain; aruvi stubble of Indian millet; arakku (arakki-) to clip off, prune, cut, sever
Malayalam : ariyuka
Malayalam meaning : to reap corn, cut grass, cut very small, hack to pieces
Malayalam derivates : ari vāḷ sickle, reaping hook; arikka to gnaw as vermin; arakkuka to cut, chop off, sever; araŋŋuka to cut or chop off (the branches of trees or plants)
Kannada : ari (arid-)
Kannada meaning : to cut or lop off; n. cutting off, gnawing as vermin, a handful or more of corn cut at one stroke
Kannada derivates : arisu to cause to cut off; arivāḷ, aruvāḷ sickle
Proto-Nilgiri : *arǐ, *ar-ǝk-
Number in DED : 0212
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