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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇṇ-
Meaning : woman
Kannada : aṇṇu
Kannada meaning : a woman
Notes : A Kannaḍa-Telugu isogloss of unclear nature and origin.
Number in DED : 0132
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇṇa-
Meaning : elder brother
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇṇan_, aṇṇācci
Tamil meaning : elder brother
Tamil derivates : aṇṇār id. (hon. pl.); aṇṇā elder brother, father; aṇṇāttai elder brother (sometimes in contempt); aṇṇāẓvi elder brother or cousin; aṇṇi elder brother's wife
Malayalam : aṇṇan, aṇṇācci
Malayalam meaning : elder brother
Kannada : aṇṇa, aṇa
Kannada meaning : elder brother; respectful address to an older male, affectionate mode of addressing boys
Kannada derivates : aṇṇi affectionate mode of addressing females
Kodagu : aṇṇë
Kodagu meaning : elder brother or male parallel cousin
Kodagu derivates : tammaṇë younger brother
Tulu : aṇṇe
Tulu meaning : elder brother, maternal uncle, an elderly man
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṇ
Notes : Reconstructed as *aṇṇa- because forms like aṇṇi are quite local and may represent later morphological formations.
Number in DED : 0131
Proto-South Dravidian : *annai
Meaning : mother
Tamil : aññai
Tamil meaning : mother
Tamil derivates : an_n_ai, tan_n_ai mother, elder sister; emm-an_ai our mother; tamm-an_ai mother
Malayalam : anna
Malayalam meaning : mother
Notes : The palatal nasal in Tamil is possibly due to expressive character of the word; anyway, given the extremely scarce representation of the form and the abundance of other terms for (fe)male relatives, it is dubious that we are dealing with a specific PDR or even PSDR root here.
Number in DED : 0058
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇ-ŋ- ~ *aṇa-ŋ-
Meaning : to suffer
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to suffer, be distressed, be slain; to afflict; n. pain, affliction, killing
Tamil derivates : an_uŋku (an_uŋki-) to suffer pain, be in distress, fade, droop; an_ukku (an_ukki-) to distress, cause to suffer, ruin; an_ukkam suffering, distress, pain, weakness
Kannada : aṇaku
Kannada meaning : to press into a narrower compass, subdue, control
Kannada derivates : aṇacu to depress, humble; aṇaka closeness, compactness, firmness, state of being in good repair; aṇakuve humbleness, modesty; aṇagu to hide, disappear, be humbled, crouch; aṇuŋku to depress, humble, abate, ruin, destroy; aṇuŋgu to be depressed, etc.
Tulu : aṇaka
Tulu meaning : narrowness, closeness; narrow, small
Notes : The root is met in monosyllabic form as well as with *-a- in the second syllable; both variants are always accompanied with a derivative nasal velar suffix. The alternation between -ṇa- and -n_u- in Tamil is strange, since Kannada clearly points to PSDR *-ṇ-, yet no regular development *-ṇu- > -n_u- in Tamil is known. A possible explanation is that the original form *aṇ-ŋ- underwent partial assimilation (*an-ŋ-) only after which the epenthetic vowel -u- was added. On the other hand, this explanation is completely invalid if all of these forms are historically derived from *aṇai- 'to be extinguished, die' q.v..
Number in DED : 0112
Proto-South Dravidian : *an-p-
Meaning : love, affection
Tamil : an_pu
Tamil meaning : love, attachment, friendship, benevolence, devotion, piety
Tamil derivates : an_pan_ friend, husband, lover, devotee; ? aṇi love; āṇam love, friendship, affection; āṇu attachment, affection
Malayalam : anpu, ampu
Malayalam meaning : love, affection, trust, devotion
Malayalam derivates : anpan lover, friend, husband; anpuka to be fond of, connected with
Kannada : aṇpu, aṇpita
Kannada meaning : relationship, friendship
Kannada derivates : ammu to be willing, wish, desire; n. desire
Number in DED : 0330
Proto-South Dravidian : *anr_Vl-
Meaning : a k. of bird
Tamil : an_r_il
Tamil meaning : a bird (= Skt. cakravāka)
Malayalam : annal
Malayalam meaning : a bird of stately walk
Number in DED : 0331
Proto-South Dravidian : *anṭ-
Meaning : to join, stick to
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭṭu (aṭṭi-)
Tamil meaning : to join, stick, paste (tr.)
Tamil derivates : aṇṭai thing attached, annexed as a plug to stop a hole, patch
Malayalam : aṭṭuka
Malayalam meaning : to join, stick, adhere
Kannada : aṇṭu
Kannada meaning : to stick, adhere to; n. adhesion, that adheres, an impurity, that is sticky, gum, paste, that is viscous
Kannada derivates : aṇṭaru to stick to; aṇke, aṇpu act of smearing or anointing; aṭṭu state of being joined
Tulu : aṇṭuni
Tulu meaning : to adhere, stick; to paste (tr.), attract
Tulu derivates : aṇṭụ gum, paste, adhesion; aṇṭụpattu adhesive, attractive; aṇṭāvuni to paste; aṇarụ moss, lichen, mould, green stuff on stagnant water
Notes : The Tamil-Malayalam forms with -ṭṭ- are due to the weak cluster *-nṭ- (expected dialectal variations with -ṇṭ- are also seen in Tam. aṇṭai).
Number in DED : 0096
Proto-South Dravidian : *an-up-, *amp-
Meaning : to send
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : an_uppu (an_uppi-)
Tamil meaning : to send, accompany one a little way out of respect
Tamil derivates : ampakam leave, permission (< Te.)
Malayalam : anuppuka
Malayalam meaning : to send
Kannada : ampaka
Kannada meaning : sending, dispatching, entertainment given to friends at their departure
Notes : Quite possibly two roots.
Number in DED : 0329
Proto-South Dravidian : *anǯ-
Meaning : to fear
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : añcu (añci-)
Tamil meaning : to fear, dread; n. fear, terror
Tamil derivates : añcikkai (coll.) fear; āñci fear; accu id.; accam id., dread, terror
Malayalam : añcuka
Malayalam meaning : to fear, despair
Malayalam derivates : añcal, accam awe, fear
Kannada : añju
Kannada meaning : to fear, be afraid
Kannada derivates : añjike fear; añjisu to frighten
Tulu : añjuni, añjiyuni
Tulu meaning : to fear
Tulu derivates : añjikè, añjigè fear, alarm, fright
Proto-Nilgiri : *anʒ-
Number in DED : 0055
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋa
Meaning : manner, way
Kannada : aŋga
Kannada meaning : way, manner, mode
Notes : Cf. Tam. aŋkam "symmetry, beauty"?
Number in DED : 0027
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋal-
Meaning : to grieve, lament
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aŋkalāy (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to lament, grieve, sorrow, be envious, covet
Tamil derivates : aŋkalāyppu disquiet, mental worry
Malayalam : aŋkalāykka
Malayalam meaning : to lament, grieve
Malayalam derivates : aŋkalāppu anxiety, worry, disquiet
Kannada : aŋgal
Kannada meaning : to grieve, be afflicted
Kannada derivates : aŋgalārcu, aŋgalācu to cry from grief, grieve, sorrow; aŋgalāpu lamentation, grief
Tulu : aŋgalappu, aŋgalāpa
Tulu meaning : covetousness
Tulu derivates : aŋgụ greed; aŋgiḍpini to be greedy, covetous; aŋgipuni to wish, be greedy of; aŋgele a greedy person, glutton; aŋŋaṇyuni to be greedy of, covet
Proto-Nilgiri : *aŋǝl-
Notes : Some of the Tulu forms may look as if they are preserving a monosyllabic form of the root. However, external parallels (Telugu, Kurukh) also show a bisyllabic form, which means that in Tulu some of the forms without -l- may have dropped it secondarily (aŋgipuni < *aŋal-puni) while others, like aŋgụ, represent back formations from aŋgipuni, etc.
Number in DED : 0031
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋā-
Meaning : to gape, yawn
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aŋkā (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to open the mouth; n. opening the mouth
Tamil derivates : aŋkāppu opening the mouth, thirsting
Kannada : angāta
Kannada meaning : (Bark.) having the face turned upwards
Tulu : aŋgāvuni
Tulu meaning : to yawn, gape, open the mouth
Tulu derivates : aŋguni to open the mouth, be seized with a fit of yawning
Proto-Nilgiri : *aŋā-
Number in DED : 0034
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋāḍi
Meaning : shop, bazaar
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aŋkāṭi
Tamil meaning : bazaar, bazaar street
Malayalam : aŋŋāṭi
Malayalam meaning : shop, bazaar
Kannada : aŋgaḍi
Kannada meaning : shop, stall
Kodagu : aŋgaḍi
Kodagu meaning : shop, stall
Tulu : aŋgaḍi
Tulu meaning : shop, stall
Proto-Nilgiri : *aŋāḍĭ
Number in DED : 0035
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋ(k)-
Meaning : beauty
Tamil : aŋkam
Tamil meaning : symmetry, beauty
Notes : Cf. Kan. aŋga "way, manner, mode"?
Number in DED : 0030
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋka-
Meaning : battle, fight
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aŋkam
Tamil meaning : battle, fight
Malayalam : aŋkam
Malayalam meaning : fight, battle, duel, challenge
Kannada : aŋka
Kannada meaning : fight, war
Tulu : aŋka
Tulu meaning : fight, war, cock-fight
Number in DED : 0029
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋka-
Meaning : stirrup
Tamil : aŋkavaṭi, aŋkapaṭi
Tamil meaning : stirrup
Malayalam : aŋkavaṭi, aŋkapaṭi
Malayalam meaning : stirrup
Kannada : aŋgavaḍi, aŋkōṇi, (PBh.) aŋkavaṇi
Kannada meaning : stirrup
Tulu : aŋkōle
Tulu meaning : stirrup
Notes : The stem is almost always of a compound nature; the second component is often (but not always) PSDR *paḍi "step". The first component is unclear; maybe it should be compared with IA aŋká- "hook"? (PSDR *-ŋk- is reconstructed despite Kan. -ŋg-; the voiced cluster in Kan. is unique and possibly due to assimilation with the following -v-).
Number in DED : 0032
Proto-South Dravidian : *aŋkaṇa-
Meaning : space between pillars
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aŋkaṇam
Tamil meaning : space between two pillars
Kannada : aŋkaṇa
Kannada meaning : space either between any two posts or pillars in a wall that supports the roof, or between any two beams
Tulu : aŋkaṇa
Tulu meaning : space between two crossbeams or pillars supporting a roof
Number in DED : 0028
Proto-South Dravidian : *ap-
Meaning : to stick with the hand, apply (as paste or plaster)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : appu (appi-)
Tamil meaning : to stick with the hand (as sandal paste), plaster with a trowel (as mortar), apply repeatedly (as a fomentation), press against (as in wrestling), thrust in the mouth
Tamil derivates : appaḷi (-pp-, -tt-) to remove unevenness in the wall by placing pieces of brick or tile with chunam when plastering
Malayalam : appi, appu
Malayalam meaning : plaster
Malayalam derivates : appuka to stick to, attach to, press against (as plaster), press in
Kannada : appige, apige, appaḍe, appuge
Kannada meaning : act of joining, cementing, soldering, etc.; a patch
Kannada derivates : appaḷisu to strike against, stroke, flap, slap; apparisu to stroke
Tulu : appaḷipuni
Tulu meaning : to strike anything with the open hand, squash
Proto-Nilgiri : *ap-
Notes : The derivative stem *apaḷi- is also reconstructible for PSDR.
Number in DED : 0157
Proto-South Dravidian : *apa
Meaning : a common weed
Tamil : appa-kkoṭi
Tamil meaning : a common weed, Ageratum conyzoides (koṭi creeper)
Malayalam : appa
Malayalam meaning : a common weed, Ageratum; Ceanothus caerulea
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0154
Proto-South Dravidian : *apa-
Meaning : father
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : appan_, appu
Tamil meaning : father; term of endearment used to little children or inferiors
Tamil derivates : appacci father; appāttai elder sister; appi mistress of house; elder sister; appappa, appappā excl. of pity or surprise; appā excl. of surprise, grief, or pain; appāṭā excl. of surprise or relief
Malayalam : appan
Malayalam meaning : father
Malayalam derivates : appu affectionate appellation of boys; appā̆, appappā, appaṭā interj. of pain or surprise
Kannada : appa
Kannada meaning : father; frequently added to the proper names of men as a term of common respect; used endearingly to children by their elders
Kannada derivates : apa father; appu affectionate appellation of boys; apa, appā̆, appappā̆ interj. denoting surprise, pain, or grief; appāḍa interj. of pain or surprise
Kodagu : appë
Kodagu meaning : father
Tulu : appa, appè
Tulu meaning : affix of respect added to proper names of men
Tulu derivates : appè mother; appa a mode of calling a mother; appa interj. of surprise; appappā interj. of surprise or sorrow
Notes : The stem *apa-n is obviously of PSDR origin; everything else (Tulu appè, Tam. appi, etc.) is isolated, has little or no external parallels and probably represents later independent formations.
Number in DED : 0156
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