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South Dravidian etymology :

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\data\drav\sdret
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambārai
Meaning : a k. of insect
Kannada : ambāre
Kannada meaning : a kind of insect existing in dry wood
Kannada derivates : ambār-uṇṇi a tick infesting cattle; abukāra a kind of troublesome insect in the dust, esp. where people and cattle used to halt
Notes : Kan. ambār-uṇṇi < *ambār[ai]-puṇi (cf. puṇija 'a k. of insect'). The word has an exact parallel in Telugu but is not found anywhere else.
Number in DED : 0176
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambi
Meaning : boat
Tamil : ampi
Tamil meaning : small boat, raft, float, ship, suspended water-shovel
Malayalam : ampa-ppāṭṭu
Malayalam meaning : rower's song
Kannada : ambi
Kannada meaning : boat
Kannada derivates : ambiga, ambaga, ambuga, ambigār_a man who rows a boat, boatman
Tulu : ambigāre
Tulu meaning : boatman
Number in DED : 0177
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambVli (?)
Meaning : moon
Tamil : ampuli
Tamil meaning : moon
Tamil derivates : āmpal moon (lex.)
Malayalam : ampiḷi
Malayalam meaning : moon
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with irregular correspondences. It is tempting to suggest an Austronesian origin for these forms, cf. PAN *bulan 'moon' and esp. Jav. wulan, rĕm-bulan id. [Dempwolff 33]. Cf., perhaps, also Tel. jābil(l)i id.
Number in DED : 0179
Proto-South Dravidian : *amma- ~ *ammi-
Meaning : nipple, breast
Tamil : ammam
Tamil meaning : woman's breast, food of babies
Malayalam : ammiññi
Malayalam meaning : nipple
Kannada : ammi
Kannada meaning : the mother's breast (in the language of small children)
Kannada derivates : ammaṇṇi nipple, teat, breast
Tulu : amaṇi, amani, umani
Tulu meaning : nipple
Notes : Obviously the same as *amm- 'mother'.
Number in DED : 0181
Proto-South Dravidian : *ammanai
Meaning : a k. of ball game
Tamil : amman_ai, ammān_ai
Tamil meaning : girls' game of keeping a number of balls in the air, some rising while others are falling; balls used in the game
Malayalam : ammāna, ammānam
Malayalam meaning : game of throwing and catching handballs
Kannada : ammāle
Kannada meaning : game of throwing handballs or stones in the air and catching them in the hand
Notes : The word is also found in Telugu; etymology is obscure.
Number in DED : 0182
Proto-South Dravidian : *ammā ~ *ammai
Meaning : mother
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ammā, ammāḷ
Tamil meaning : mother, matron, lady
Tamil derivates : (also amma, ammamma) excl. of pity, surprise, joy; ammai mother, name of various goddesses, grandmother; amman_ai mother, lady; amman_ goddess; amman_ē excl. of surprise; ammācci, ammāttāḷ, ammāy maternal grandmother; ammān_ maternal uncle, wife's father, husband of father's sister; ammāmmi maternal uncle's wife, husband's mother; ammanti maternal uncle's wife; ammāñci son of a maternal uncle, fool; ammaŋkār, ammaŋkāḷ daughter of a maternal uncle, wife of a Vaiṣṇava priest; ammaṇi term of respect used in referring to or calling a woman
Malayalam : amma
Malayalam meaning : mother, goddess (esp. Kāḷi)
Malayalam derivates : interj. (also ammē, ammammā); ammamma mother's mother; ammān, ammāvan, ammāman, ammōn, ammōman maternal uncle; ammāyi, ammāvi maternal aunt, uncle's wife, mother-in-law; ammiṇi affectionate appellation esp. of infants, sometimes of mother and wife
Kannada : amma, ama
Kannada meaning : mother, respectable woman, grandmother, village goddess; interj. denoting pain or weariness, grief, surprise (also amama, ammamma)
Kannada derivates : amba, ambe mother
Kodagu : ammë
Kodagu meaning : Amma Coorg (a brahminized subcaste of Coorgs, said to be descended from a Coorg man and a Brahman girl [their amma or mother] whose customs they observe)
Kodagu derivates : fem. ammati
Tulu : amma
Tulu meaning : mother, lady
Tulu derivates : amme father; ammayya interj. of sorrow or pain; tammalè maternal uncle, father-in-law
Proto-Nilgiri : *am-
Irula : amme
Irula meaning : father
Notes : The most common stem is the one ending in *-ā; *ammai is also reconstructible on the basis of Tam. ammai, Mal. amma, Iru. amme. Kannaḍa forms with -mb- seem to have been reborrowed from Indo-Aryan. The meaning 'mother' is common for almost all dialects, but in some of them the derivative form *ammai has assumed the meaning 'father' (cf. Tam. ammān_ 'maternal uncle, wife's father', i. e. 'he-of-mother').
Number in DED : 0183
Proto-South Dravidian : *ammi
Meaning : grinding stone
Tamil : ammi
Tamil meaning : horizontal stone for macerating spices for curry, grinding fine mortar, etc.
Malayalam : ammi
Malayalam meaning : grinding stone
Kannada : ammi
Kannada meaning : a stone to grind or bruise things upon
Notes : Cf., perhaps, *am- ~ *am-ŋ- 'to press, crush'.
Number in DED : 0184
Proto-South Dravidian : *amuŋkirV-
Meaning : a k. of root
Tamil : amukkirā, amukkiri
Tamil meaning : Indian winter cherry, Withania somnifera
Malayalam : amukkiram
Malayalam meaning : a medicinal root, Physalis flexuosa
Kannada : amakī̆re, amaŋgura
Kannada meaning : a medicinal shrub [P. flexuosa Lin. = W. somnifera Dunal.]
Notes : Another case of "botanic irregularity". The word actually looks like a compund (*amuŋ- + *kir-), because otherwise the derivational model is completely unclear. However, the etymology of the two parts is still obscure.
Number in DED : 0168
Proto-South Dravidian : *amuẓ-
Meaning : to sink, be immersed
Tamil : amiẓ (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to be immersed, plunged, sink
Tamil derivates : amiẓttu (amiẓtti-) to cause to sink, immerse, engulf, drown, press down, cover (as eyelids the eyes); amiẓntu (amiẓnti-) to sink
Malayalam : amiẓuka
Malayalam meaning : to sink
Malayalam derivates : amiẓttuka, amuẓttuka to fix, set
Kannada : aguẓ
Kannada meaning : to sink in water, be immersed, dive
Kannada derivates : aguẓcu to cause to sink in water, immerse
Notes : The development *amuẓ- > *aguẓ- in Kannaḍa is regular (cf. PSDR *avuẓ-). The stem is almost certainly related to *am- ~ *am-ŋ- 'to press, sink'.
Number in DED : 0167
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇ-
Meaning : up, above
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇ
Tamil meaning : upper part
Tamil derivates : aṇa (-pp-, -nt-) to lift the head; aṇar (-v-, -nt-) to rise, move upwards; aṇavu (aṇavi-) to go upward, ascend; aṇṇal greatness, exaltation, superiority, great man, king, god; aṇṇam palate, roof of the mouth, uvula; aṇṇā, aṇṇākku uvula (cpd. with 3633 , nākku); aṇṇā (-pp-, -nt-) to look upward, gape, hold the head erect; aṇṇāvi teacher, director of theatrical performances, master, one in authority
Malayalam : aṇṇa
Malayalam meaning : upwards, above
Malayalam derivates : aṇṇal high, God, esp. Arhat; aṇṇā looking upwards; aṇṇāvi teacher, head of a company of actors; aṇṇan royal predecessor, ancestor; aṇṇam, aṇṇākku uvula
Kannada : aṇṇe, aṇṇa, aṇa
Kannada meaning : excellence, purity
Kannada derivates : aṇṇālige uvula
Tulu : aṇāvuni, aṇṇāvuni
Tulu meaning : to look up, lift up the face, gaze
Number in DED : 0110
Proto-South Dravidian : *an-
Meaning : fit, proper; fertile
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : a, aṃ (?)
Tamil meaning : beautiful, pretty
Tamil derivates : ammai beauty, prettiness
Kannada : anu, anuvu, anavu
Kannada meaning : fitness, propriety, nicety, loveliness, that is pleasing, charming or beautiful, worth, merit, readiness, success, proper or correct way, scheme, device, circumstance, opportunity
Tulu : anutana
Tulu meaning : fitness, opportunity
Proto-Nilgiri : *an-ǝv
Number in DED : 0328
Proto-South Dravidian : *aN- (?)
Meaning : to embrace
Kannada : appu, arpu
Kannada meaning : to embrace
Kannada derivates : appu, aḷpu, aḷke, appuge an embrace; appay(i)su to embrace, seize eagerly
Tulu : appiyuni
Tulu meaning : to embrace, clasp
Tulu derivates : appukai, appai folding the arms on the breast
Notes : A Kannaḍa-Tulu isogloss glossed by Burrow & Emeneau as if it contained a root *ap-. This is hardly likely, though, considering the several Kannaḍa variants with resonants - ar-pu and aḷ-pu; we should rather analyse -p- as a transitive suffix. On the other hand, the inlaut consonant is impossible to determine; with several dialectal varieties present, it could be almost anything.
Number in DED : 0158
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai-
Meaning : to be extinguished
Tamil : aṇai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to be extinguished
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to quench, extinguish; aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-) to die, be slain
Malayalam : aṇayuka
Malayalam meaning : to go out (as light)
Malayalam derivates : aṇaykkuka to extinguish, put out
Kannada : aṇe
Kannada meaning : to be extinguished or quenched, go out
Notes : The Tamil form aṇaŋku is met twice in DEDR: in this entry as well as independently in DEDR 112 (see *aṇ-ŋ- ~ *aṇa-ŋ-). It is quite possible that there is no homonymousness involved and that the latter forms are actually historical derivates from P(S)DR *aṇai-.
Number in DED : 0121
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai
Meaning : dam
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇai
Tamil meaning : embankment, dam, ridge for retaining water in a field, bank of river or sea
Tamil derivates : aṇṭai field bund, ridge of a field
Malayalam : aṇa
Malayalam meaning : dam
Malayalam derivates : aṇṭa bund, ridge of field
Kannada : aṇe
Kannada meaning : dam, dike
Kodagu : aṇḍa
Kodagu meaning : bank or edge of river
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṇ
Notes : The two "variants" - *aṇai and *anḍai - in reality cannot be joined together as easily as Burrow & Emeneau propose it in DEDR. In order to trace them back to the same source we would have to suppose that both go back to an early, and presumably, verbal root like *aṇ-, and even then the two lines of derivation would be rather vague. I would deem it more reasonable to reconstruct a PSDR nominal stem *aṇai "embankment". Tamil and Malayalam aṇṭa(i), with an obviously narrower meaning ('field bund', but not 'dam' in general) are a different, more local, formation, maybe contaminated with *anḍ- ' to approach, join' (?). As for Kodagu aṇḍa, in this case the retroflex cluster may actually go back to a simple retroflex nasal, i. e. reflect the earlier *aṇai; cf. a similar case in PSDR *pUṇai 'bamboo'. (It is possible that *-ṇ- > -ṇḍ- is a regular development in Kodagu nominal stems in the position before a strong suffix; unfortunately, the data are very scarce).
Number in DED : 0122
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai
Meaning : interjection
Kannada : aṇe
Kannada meaning : interj. used in calling to women
Tulu : aṇè
Tulu meaning : oh! hey!
Number in DED : 0124
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai ~ *anḍ-
Meaning : to approach; to join
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṇai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to approach, come near, touch, come in contact with, copulate with
Tamil derivates : (-pp-, -tt-) to join, put close (as earth to a tree), embrace, hold, tie, fasten (as animals), tie up in a bunch; n. coition; a yoke of oxen; aṇaippu embracing; area that can be ploughed by two pairs of oxen in one day; aṇmai, aṇumai, aṇimai nearness, proximity; aṇavu (aṇavi-) to go near, approach, come close to, embrace; aṇāvu (aṇāvi-) to approach; aṇa (-pp-, -nt-) to be joined, united; aṇaŋku (aṇaŋki-) id.; aṇi (-v-, -nt-) to join with (tr.); adv. near; aṇiyan_ who is near by; aṇuku (aṇuki-) to approach; aṇukkam, aṇukku nearness, proximity; aṇukkan_ one who is near, intimate; fem. aṇukki; aṇṇu (aṇṇi-) to approach, draw near, join, unite with; aṇṇimai nearness; aṇṇaṇi in close proximity; aṇmu (aṇmi-), aṇpu (aṇpi-) to approach; aṇṭu (aṇṭi-) to approach, take refuge in; aṇṭai nearness, vicinity
Malayalam : aṇayuka
Malayalam meaning : to approach, arrive
Malayalam derivates : aṇavu arrival, closeness, love; aṇekka to bring into contact, embrace, hug; aṇa yoke, pair; aṇukuka to approach; aṇaccal embracing, drawing near; aṇappu embracing, an embrace; aṇayam vicinity, neighbourhood; (Kauṭ.) aṇukkan one who is near; intimate; aṇṭa nearness, proximity; aṇṭuka, aṇṇuka, aṇpuka to approach
Kannada : aṇe, aṇi
Kannada meaning : to come near, come in contact, touch, embrace
Kannada derivates : aṇe approach; aṇi joining, fitness, order; aṇiyara fitness; aṇasu that holds firmly together, a ferrule; a throng; aṇugu nearness; aṇṭu to come or be in contact with, touch (intr., tr.), embrace; n. menses (? < Te.); aṇṭisu to place in contact; aṇḍisu to go near, approach, resort to, come or go to for protection; aṇḍu going near, an approach, a resort; aṇḍe nearness, approach, side of anything
Kodagu : aṇḍa
Kodagu meaning : side
Tulu : aṇepuni
Tulu meaning : to come in contact, press
Tulu derivates : anepini, anepuni to touch, hug, embrace; aṇasụ a handle, hilt
Proto-Nilgiri : *anḍ-
Notes : With a certain effort one could trace back all of these forms to a single monosyllabic protostem *aṇ-; however, there is no guarantee that such is indeed the case. Two forms that continuously crop up all over SDR are the bisyllabic stem *aṇai-, with a simple retroflex nasal, and the monosyllabic stem *anḍ- with a retroflex cluster. Most of the other stems (aṇi-, aṇa-, aṇ-) are only found in the Tamil area and may reflect dialectalisms or latter day contaminations. As to whether *aṇai- and *anḍ- go back to the same source, this is somewhat questionable. They are certainly two different entities on the PSDR level, albeit with similar meanings; on that level, there was no productive model according to which *aṇai- could become *anḍ- or vice versa.
Number in DED : 0120
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇai ~ *anḍai
Meaning : support, prop
Tamil : aṇai
Tamil meaning : support, prop, protection, help
Tamil derivates : aṇṭai support
Malayalam : aṇa
Malayalam meaning : support, pillow
Kannada : aṇḍe
Kannada meaning : support, prop
Proto-Nilgiri : *aṇ-
Notes : The alternation -ṇ-/-nḍ- is unclear, which makes the case similar to the one with *aṇai 'dam'. In this case, however, the semantics of the stem does suggest an old (or not so old) verbal derivative, most likely from *aṇai ~ *anḍ- 'to approach, join'. Since both variants are present in these verbal forms, the two variants of this nominal stem may correlate to them directly. The root is also found in Telugu, but due to the overall weakness of the etymology I do not include it in the common Dravidian database.
Number in DED : 0123
Proto-South Dravidian : *aṇak-
Meaning : mockery, quarreling
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : aṇaka
Kannada meaning : mockery, derision, abuse
Kannada derivates : aṇakisu to mock, deride; aṇakisuvike mocking
Tulu : aṇakasaṇaka
Tulu meaning : quarrelling
Number in DED : 0111
Proto-South Dravidian : *anal-
Meaning : fire, heat
Tamil : an_al
Tamil meaning : fire, heat (as of fever), warmth, glow, thunderbolt
Tamil derivates : (an_alv-, an_an_r_-) to burn, glow, blaze, be hot, cause heat (as the sun, fire, fever); an_ali fire, sun; an_ar_kal flint; an_ar_r_u (an_ar_r_i-) to heat, make hot, burn, affect with colic pains, be angry with; groan with pain
Malayalam : anal, analca, anacca, anappu
Malayalam meaning : fire, heat
Malayalam derivates : analuka to become hot; analkkuka to be hot, be warm; anattuka to make warm or hot
Kannada : analu
Kannada meaning : heat
Number in DED : 0327
Proto-South Dravidian : *anand-
Meaning : sleep
Tamil : an_antar
Tamil meaning : sleep, drowsiness, stupor, loss of consciousness, inebriety, confusion of mind
Tamil derivates : an_antal sleep, drowsiness, stupor
Malayalam : anantal
Malayalam meaning : light sleep
Number in DED : 0326
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