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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *allija-
Meaning : stray elephant
Tamil : alliyan_
Tamil meaning : stray elephant separated from the fold
Tamil derivates : alliyam Kẓṣṇa's dance when he broke the tusk of the elephant that was set upon him by Kaṃsa
Malayalam : alliyan
Malayalam meaning : female elephant
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss.
Number in DED : 0258
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-ur-
Meaning : to enclose, cover
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : aḷur
Kannada meaning : to enclose, cover, overspread, prevail, fall upon
Kannada derivates : vb. n. aḷurke
Number in DED : 0307
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḷ-Vk-
Meaning : to prick, throb
Kannada : aḷaku, aḷuku
Kannada meaning : to prick, throb (as a thorn in the flesh); n. the pricking of a thorn, state of being pricked as with a thorn, state of being distressed or annoyed
Number in DED : 0304
Proto-South Dravidian : *am-
Meaning : to dissemble
Tamil : ammu (ammi-)
Tamil meaning : to dissemble, act with reserve and duplicity
Tamil derivates : ammu-kkaḷḷan_ thievish person, dissembling rogue; amukkan_, amukkuṇi dissembler
Malayalam : amma-kkaḷḷam
Malayalam meaning : sagacity and roguery
Malayalam derivates : amma-kkaḷḷan deep fellow; amukkan a deep rogue
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss with no reliable parallels.
Number in DED : 0185
Proto-South Dravidian : *am- ~ *am-ŋ-
Meaning : to press, sink
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : amuŋku (amuŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to sink, be pressed down, crushed (as by a weight), mashed (as ripe fruit)
Tamil derivates : amukku (amukki-) to crush, press, squeeze (as a fruit, a boil), press down, press in or under (as a vessel into water), overcome, repress; n. pressure (as in a nightmare), thing that compresses, incumbent weight; amukkan_, amukki nightmare
Malayalam : amuŋŋuka
Malayalam meaning : to sink, settle, be squeezed (as hand in hand)
Malayalam derivates : amukkuka, amakkuka to press down, squeeze, knead, turn food in mouth; amaŋŋuka to be pressed down; amukkam, amukkal, amukku, amakku the act of pressing down, squeezing, compressing; ampikkuka to press down; ammuka to be pressed, subside
Kannada : amugu, avugu
Kannada meaning : to yield to pressure (as the surface of a ripe fruit or tumour)
Kannada derivates : amuku, amiku, avuku, avuŋku to press or hold firmly, squeeze, trouble; avuŋku pressing or holding firmly; amucu, avacu, avucu to press, hold firmly, confine, embrace
Tulu : avuŋkuni, auŋkuni
Tulu meaning : to press down
Tulu derivates : amepuni, amaṭupattuni to press, hold in the arms, hug; avumpuni to press
Proto-Nilgiri : *amǝ-g-
Notes : In DEDR 169 this stem is frequently confused with *amai- ~ *amar- 'to be united, join, crowd together', right down to several forms included in both entries at the same time. Nevertheless, although some semantic contamination is possible, and both stems may be related on some higher level, they are clearly distinguished in SDR at least, and I prefer to only include forms with final -ŋ- (-k- in the corresponding transitive stem) here, as well as the possibly archaic monosyllabic suffixless variant (as seen in Mal. ammuka).
Number in DED : 0169
Proto-South Dravidian : *amai
Meaning : purification; impurity
Kannada : amE
Kannada meaning : purification after childbirth (Gowda)
Tulu : amè
Tulu meaning : ceremonial impurity or defilement in case of birth
Notes : In DED compared with PNDR (Kurukh) emsnā 'to allow (oneself) to be defiled by someone of a different taste'. According to Grignard, however, the actual meaning is rather just 'to let touch' (cf. emsrnā 'to touch'); considering the highly irregular vocalic correspondence, I would reject the etymology. In SDR, if, however, the meaning 'purification' is primary, cf. perhaps Tamil am 'water'?
Number in DED : 0171
Proto-South Dravidian : *amai- ~ *amar-
Meaning : to be calm, settled
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : amar (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to abide, remain, become tranquil, rest, be deposited (as a sediment), become close and hard (as sand by rain), be engaged (as a house), become established (as in a work)
Tamil derivates : amarttu (amartti-) to make quiet, restrain, engage (as a house, servant), establish (as one in life); amarvu abode; amarikkai quietness, tranquillity; amai (-v-, -nt-) become still, quiet, subside, be satisfied, acquiesce, be settled, fixed up, abide, remain; (-pp-, -tt-) cause to be still, patient, control; amaiti calmness, humility; amaivan_ a sage; amaivu rest
Malayalam : amaruka
Malayalam meaning : to subside, settle, be seated, rest on, be allayed, calmed, quiet
Malayalam derivates : amaral abating of wind or fire, peace; amarcca calmness, self-government; ameyuka to be subject, agree; amekka to subject, join, rule
Tulu : amaruni
Tulu meaning : to become quiet, calm; settle
Tulu derivates : amapuni to quiet; to press down
Number in DED : 0161
Proto-South Dravidian : *amai- ~ *amar-
Meaning : to get close; to join
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : amar (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to get close to, resemble, be suitable, wish, desire, do, perform
Tamil derivates : amai (-v-, -nt-) to crowd together, be close, be attached, connected, joined, suffice, prepare (oneself), be suitable, appropriate, be complete, prepare; (-pp-, -tt-) to effect, accomplish, create, appoint, institute, bring together, prepare, get ready; n. fitness, beauty; amaiti being attached, joined, nature of a thing, abundance, occasion, opportunity, deed, action; amaippu structure, constitution, destiny, fate; amaivu being acceptable, suitable, fitting
Malayalam : amarkka
Malayalam meaning : to press down, subdue
Malayalam derivates : amarttu piṭikka to grasp tightly; amarcca subjection, severity
Kannada : amar (amard-)
Kannada meaning : to be closely united, gather in a mass, be connected with, be produced, arise, appear, be fit or agreeable, be nice or becoming, be known or famous, fit, agree with, seize firmly, embrace
Kannada derivates : amarike, amarke fitness, agreeing with (as a ring with the size of the finger), state of being closely joined; amarisu, amarcu to cause (a person) to join or stick by, prepare, do fitly, make ready
Tulu : amarige
Tulu meaning : heap
Tulu derivates : amariyuni, amaryuni to cleave to; amaruni to seize, touch, hold; amāruni to suit, fit, embrace, hold, a plant to twine; amarāvuni to hold fast
Proto-Nilgiri : *amä-p-
Notes : Some of the forms (notably all the Malayalam entries) have been entered a second time or relocated to PSDR *amu- by Burrow & Emeneau.
Number in DED : 0162
Proto-South Dravidian : *amaḷ-
Meaning : to bully, repress
Tamil : amaṭṭu (amaṭṭi-)
Tamil meaning : to hector, bully, intimidate; n. threat, menace
Malayalam : amaṭṭuka
Malayalam meaning : to repress, threaten
Malayalam derivates : amaṭṭu a threat
Kannada : amarisu
Kannada meaning : to reprove
Notes : The Tamil-Malayalam stem is causative (*amaḷ-t-). Kan. amarisu can belong here if it is a dialectal variant of *amaḷisu (cf. appaḷisu vs. apparisu "to stroke").
Number in DED : 0160
Proto-South Dravidian : *amal-
Meaning : close; full
Tamil : amal (amalv-, aman_r_-)
Tamil meaning : to be close, thickly grown; n. fulness
Tamil derivates : amalai abundance, denseness
Malayalam : amal
Malayalam meaning : fullness
Malayalam derivates : amali Lakṣmī, abundance; amalikka to abound, remain in store
Notes : Possibly a dialectal variant of *amai- ~ *amar-.
Number in DED : 0164
Proto-South Dravidian : *amaḷ-
Meaning : tumult
Tamil : amaḷi
Tamil meaning : tumult, uproar, bustle, press of business
Tamil derivates : amalai noise, din
Malayalam : amaḷi
Malayalam meaning : tumult, affray, cry, wail
Malayalam derivates : amaḷikka to be troubled; aviḷi tumult
Kannada : amakkaḷa
Kannada meaning : tumult
Notes : An expressive form. Dialectal development *-m- > -v- in Malayalam. Kan. amakkaḷa < *amaḷi-kaḷa?
Number in DED : 0166
Proto-South Dravidian : *amaḷi
Meaning : bed
Tamil : amaḷi
Tamil meaning : bed, mattress
Malayalam : amaḷi
Malayalam meaning : bed
Number in DED : 0165
Proto-South Dravidian : *amanǯi
Meaning : forced labour
Tamil : amañci, amiñci
Tamil meaning : forced labour, unpaid labour
Notes : Cf. also Telugu amanji id.; otherwise isolated.
Number in DED : 0159
Proto-South Dravidian : *amara-
Meaning : stern (of vessel)
Tamil : amaram
Tamil meaning : stern of a vessel, oar used to steer a boat
Malayalam : amaram
Malayalam meaning : stern of a vessel, elephant's hind part, abaft
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss, also found in Telugu. Burrow & Emeneau tentatively suggest borrowing from Skt. apara-. This is only possible if the actual source (a) contained a fricative instead of stop, e. g. Prakrit avara (with further dialectal 'lenition' in Dravidian), (b) actually meant 'stern', since most Indian dialects have it as simply 'other, another' < Skt. 'posterior'. Nevertheless, there is no proper Dravidian etymology for the root.
Number in DED : 0163
Proto-South Dravidian : *amb-
Meaning : arrow
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ampu
Tamil meaning : arrow
Tamil derivates : appu-kkaṭṭu a sheaf of arrows
Malayalam : ampu
Malayalam meaning : arrow, porcupine quill
Kannada : ambu
Kannada meaning : arrow
Kodagu : ambɨ
Kodagu meaning : arrow
Tulu : ambu
Tulu meaning : arrow
Tulu derivates : ambige hunter
Proto-Nilgiri : *amb
Number in DED : 0178
Proto-South Dravidian : *amb[a]-
Meaning : to bellow
Malayalam : amar_uka (?)
Malayalam meaning : to low
Kannada : ambā, ambē, ambyā, aṃhā
Kannada meaning : the cry of cow or calf
Tulu : amba, ambā, ambē, ambo
Tulu meaning : bellowing, lowing, a cry, noise
Notes : Mal. amar_uka < *ambá-r_-? An expressive root with parallels in Telugu (ambē).
Number in DED : 0175
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambai-kāl-
Meaning : crawling
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : ambegālu, ambagālu, ambugālu
Kannada meaning : the hands and knees placed on the ground for crawling
Kannada derivates : (Coorg) ambāḷu to crawl
Tulu : ambekārụ
Tulu meaning : crawling on hands and feet
Notes : The second part of the compound is *kāl 'foot'; the first one, however, does not have a secure inner etymology.
Number in DED : 0180
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambala-
Meaning : open space
Tamil : ampalam
Tamil meaning : open space for the use of the public, village assembly for transacting village affairs
Malayalam : ampalam
Malayalam meaning : place devoted for public use, assemblies, etc., a temple
Kannada : ambala
Kannada meaning : an open shed or hall where public affairs are discussed
Kodagu : ambɨla
Kodagu meaning : house on village green for meetings
Tulu : ambila, ambela
Tulu meaning : the place around or in front of a temple
Notes : A SDR cultural term. Cf. Old Indian ámbara- 'circumference' (RV) > Prakrit aṁbara- 'sky', Sinhalese am̆bura 'open space, open air, sky' (Turner 573). The word has no Indo-European etymology and may represent an old borrowing from Dravidian (reflecting PSDR *-l- > RV -r-). The problem is that it has no Dravidian etymology outside SDR either.
Number in DED : 0173
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambali
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : amalai
Tamil meaning : boiled rice
Tamil derivates : ampali porridge, esp. of rāgi (< Te.)
Kannada : ambali, ambakaḷa, ambila, ambuli, amli
Kannada meaning : pap or porridge made of jōḷa, rice, or rāgi, with buttermilk (also tamarind) generally added
Tulu : ambuli
Tulu meaning : pap or gruel of rāgi or rice
Proto-Nilgiri : *a[m]bel-
Notes : In DEDR Tam. ampali is marked as a borrowing from Telugu ambali. Regardless of whether this is correct, the alternate Tam. form amalai cannot be a regular correspondence, because -ai <> Tel. -i and -m- <> Tel. -mb-; we can only consider it a dialectal irregular variant. Kan. ambakaḷa < *ambal-kaḷa; for the second part of the compound cf., perhaps, Tel. kali (< *kaḷi) 'water in which rice has been washed'. The alternate explanation from *amba-kaḷa, without the final resonant, is much more dubious in the light of external data.
Number in DED : 0174
Proto-South Dravidian : *ambarai-
Meaning : to hurry, be confounded
Malayalam : amparakka
Malayalam meaning : to be confounded, perplexed
Malayalam derivates : amparappu perplexity
Kannada : amberpu
Kannada meaning : (Hav.) hurry
Tulu : ambarappu
Tulu meaning : hurry, confusion, perplexity
Notes : Expressive.
Number in DED : 0172
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