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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *jan-
Meaning : to say
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : en_ (en_p-, en_r_-)
Tamil meaning : to say, utter, express
Tamil derivates : en_kai saying; en_pi (-pp-, -tt-) to make one establish or prove (as a statement)
Malayalam : ennuka
Malayalam meaning : to sound, say, think (defective); to sound thus, appear thus, be such (aux. vb.)
Kannada : en (end-), ennu, an (and-), annu
Kannada meaning : to say, speak, call, name
Kannada derivates : enisu, ennisu, enasu, anasu, anisu, annisu to cause to say, cause oneself to say, cause to be called, cause oneself to be called, be called, be spoken of; enuha, ennike, ennuvike, annuvike saying, calling, naming; embu, imbu a saying, a word
Kodagu : *enn- (emb-, end-)
Kodagu meaning : to say (so-and-so)
Tulu : anpini, inpini
Tulu meaning : to say, speak
Tulu derivates : endruni to say fully
Proto-Nilgiri : *in-
Number in DED : 0868
Proto-South Dravidian : *jā-
Meaning : to bind, tie
Tamil : yā (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to bind, tie, dam up, confine, compose (as a poem), tell, utter; be inseparable from
Tamil derivates : yākkai tie, bond, body; yāppu binding, bond, metre, prosody, affection; yāttu stitch; yāttār close friends; ā (-pp-, -tt-) to bind; āppu bandage, tie, body; āttan_ friend; āttam friendship, intimacy; ākkai body, strips of fibre used in thatching
Malayalam : ākka
Malayalam meaning : a strip of fibre used in thatching
Proto-Nilgiri : *ē- (?)
Notes : Unclear whether Kota really belongs here, as ē- is not a regular reflexation.
Number in DED : 5149
Proto-South Dravidian : *jā- (?)
Meaning : a k. of tree
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil :
Tamil meaning : a tree, Hardwickia binata
Number in DED : 5150
Proto-South Dravidian : *jā-/*e-
Meaning : [interrogative base]
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yā, yāvai
Tamil meaning : what or which things
Tamil derivates : yāvum, yāvaiyum all, whole; yāvatu, yātu what; how; yāvatum even a little; yāvan_ which man; yāvaḷ, yāraḷ which woman; yār, yāvar, ār, āvar what persons; yārum any or everybody; yāvarum each and every person; yāvaṇ, yāŋkaṇ, yāṇṭai where; yāŋku id., how; yāṇṭu where; when; ētu which, what; why; whence; how; ētum even a little; anything, everything; ēvan_ who (masc. sg.); ēvatum everything; ēn_ why, what, how; e- interrogative base; pref. before a noun, meaning 'what, which' [e before consonant, evv before vowel]; evan_, evaḷ, evarkaḷ, etu, ev/evai which man, which woman, which persons, which thing, which things; adj. enta; evarum, evvarum everyone; evvelām whatever; evv-evar whatsoever persons; evv-evai whatsoever things; eŋkaṇ, eŋkittai, eŋku, eŋkē, etōḷ, etōḷi where; eŋkaṇum, eŋkum everywhere; eŋŋan_, eŋŋan_am, eŋŋan_ē, evaṇ, en_n_aṇam how; where; eññān_r_um always; ettan_ai how many, how much; ettuṇai, evvaḷavu how much; ettum by all means; entu how; what; eppaṭi, evvatu, evvār_u how; e-ppoẓutu, e-ppōẓtu, e-ppōtu when; e-ppoẓutum, e-ppōtum always; emparum everywhere; emmai which birth, what worlds; evan_, en_r_iya how, why; er_r_ai when; en_ why; en_r_u, en_r_aikku when, what day; en_r_um, en_r_aikkum, er_r_aikkum forever; en_n_a, en_n_atu, en_n_ai what; en_n_atum, en_um even a little; en_n_um id., all; en_n_en_n_a whatever; en_n_ar who (pl.); en_n_avan_, en_n_an_ what (kind of) man; en_n_ukku why; en_ai what, why; all; en_n_ōrum persons of whatever kind, all persons; en_aittum all, the whole; en_aivar whatever persons; en_aivan what person
Malayalam : yāvan/ēvan, yāvaḷ/ēvaḷ, yāvar/ēvar/yār/ār
Malayalam meaning : who (masc. sg., fem. sg., pl.)
Malayalam derivates : yā/yātu/ētu/ēn, ēva what (sg., pl.); e, ē what; eŋŋu where; eŋŋum, eŋŋānum anywhere; eŋŋanē how; ettira, etra how much, how many; entu what; why; ennu what day, when; ennum, ennekkum always; e-ppur_am what side; e-ppōḷ when; eppērum everyone
Kannada : yā-, ā-, ē-, e-
Kannada meaning : interrogative base
Kannada derivates : , yāva, ā, āva, dāva, ē, e what, which; yār, ār, dāru who (pl.); yāvanu, āvaṃ, āve which man; yāvaḷu, āvaḷ which woman; āvudu what, which; pl. āvuvu; yāke, yātake, yātakke, ētake, ēke why; ēn what; pl. ēvu; etta which or what place or direction, to or in which etc., where; ettam wheresoever; enitu, enittu, enisu, entuṭu, eṣṭu, ēṭu, ēsu how much, how many; enta, entā, entha, enthā, entaha, enna what kind or sort; entu how; entum by all or any means; endu when; endum always; enne what time; elli what place, where, whither; ehage, ehaŋge, eheŋge, eŋge, heŋge, hēge, hēŋge, hyāge, hyāŋge in what manner; how
Kodagu : ārɨ (dat. ākɨ, gen. āḍa), dārɨ
Kodagu meaning : who (sg., pl.)
Kodagu derivates : ennɨ what; ēvëN, ēva, ēvu, ēdɨ which man, which woman, which persons, which thing or things; adj. ē; elli where; elliñji whence; ettɨ, ettaṭṭi, eppara to which side; ettiñji from which direction; ēle by which way; ekka when; ekkatiñji since when; ekkākaṇe until when; ekkalē just when; ekkalū, ekkōlū always; endɨ which day; endū always; eccë, eccakɨ how many; ennatë, entë of what kind; ennane, ētaratɨ in what manner; ennatāŋgɨ for what purpose; ēnaŋguṇḍɨ on account of what; ennaŋgɨ why
Tulu : ērụ, ēraṇe
Tulu meaning : who
Tulu derivates : , dānè, jānè, dāva, dādavu, , ovu what, which; dāye why; ēni, ēpa, ēpo when; ētụ how much, how many; ētoḷu how often; eñca how; eñci what sort of; eñcitti such as what; ōḷu, oḷpa where; oḍe whither; oñci whence; (B-K) ōpe which side; ōpetāyé which man
Proto-Nilgiri : *e-, *ej-
Miscellaneous : IRU dāru who
Number in DED : 5151
Proto-South Dravidian : *jāḷ-
Meaning : to rule
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : āḷ (āḷv-, āṇṭ-)
Tamil meaning : to rule, reign over, control or manage (as a household), cherish, maintain, keep or maintain in use
Tamil derivates : (inscr., Velu Pillai, pp. 158, 392) yāḷ to rule; āḷan_, āḷi one who rules; āḷukai rule, dominion, control; āḷvār the Deity, as supreme ruler; āṭci lordship, ownership, government, rule, reign, use, possession; āṭcai weekday; āṭal ruling, reigning; āṇṭār owner, master, lord; gods; āṇṭavan_, āṇṭai master, lord; āṇmai controlling power, possession
Malayalam : āḷuka
Malayalam meaning : to rule, possess, have
Malayalam derivates : āẓca day of the week, week
Kannada : āḷ (āḷd-)
Kannada meaning : to get, have, possess, govern, rule, manage
Kannada derivates : āḷike, āḷke obtaining, ruling, reign, government; āḷisu to cause to obtain or get, cause to rule; āḷutana, āḷtana ruling, rule, sovereignty; āḷma, āṇma, āṇba ruler, lord, master; āṇḍāri rulers, masters
Kodagu : āḷ- (āḷi-)
Kodagu meaning : to rule
Kodagu derivates : āce week, day of the week
Tulu : āḷuni
Tulu meaning : to rule, govern, reign
Tulu derivates : āḷikè, āḷuvike, āḷvike reign; āḍaḷite, āḍaḷte administration, management, government
Proto-Nilgiri : *āḷ-
Number in DED : 5157
Proto-South Dravidian : *jāḷ-i
Meaning : lion
Tamil : yāḷi, āḷi
Tamil meaning : a lion; a mythological lion-faced animal with elephantine proboscis and tusks
Malayalam : yāẓi
Malayalam meaning : lion; panther
Malayalam derivates : āḷi a fabulous animal
Notes : Mal. yāṛi is strange, both because of the initial y- and the inlaut retroflex vibrant. The correct form should be āḷi.
Number in DED : 5158
Proto-South Dravidian : *jān-ai
Meaning : elephant
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yān_ai, ān_ai
Tamil meaning : elephant
Malayalam : āna
Malayalam meaning : elephant
Kannada : āne, (K2 also) yāne
Kannada meaning : elephant
Kodagu : āne
Kodagu meaning : elephant
Tulu : ānè
Tulu meaning : elephant
Proto-Nilgiri : *ānä
Number in DED : 5161
Proto-South Dravidian : *jār_-
Meaning : river
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yār_u, ār_u (obl. yār_r_u-, ār_r_u-)
Tamil meaning : river, brook
Malayalam : ār_u
Malayalam meaning : river
Tulu : ārụ, tārụ, sārụ, hārụ
Tulu meaning : (B-K) river, stream
Proto-Nilgiri : *ēr_
Number in DED : 5159
Proto-South Dravidian : *jāẓ-/*eẓ-u-
Meaning : a k. of musical instrument; to sound
Tamil : yāẓ, ñāẓ
Tamil meaning : stringed musical instrument
Tamil derivates : eẓu (-v-, -nt-) to emit sound; eẓāl musical notes of the yāẓ, the yāẓ, human voice; eẓuppu (eẓuppi-) to call forth (as melody from an instrument), raise (as the voice in speaking or singing); eẓuvu (eẓuvi-) to produce or call forth sound; eṭu (-pp-, -tt-) to utter or sing in a loud voice; eṭuppu (eṭuppi-) to produce (as harmonious sounds from an instrument)
Malayalam : ēẓil
Malayalam meaning : music
Proto-Nilgiri : *et- (*-t_-)
Notes : Contrary to the usual suggestion that Tamil ñāṛ < *jāṛ- (reasons obscure), initial ñ- is probably due to contamination with ñaral 'to sound', etc. Malayalam ēṛil is a very suspicious form as well, as this is the only initial ē- reflex of PDR *jV̄-.
Number in DED : 5156
Proto-South Dravidian : *jōḍ-
Meaning : goat
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yāṭu, āṭu
Tamil meaning : goat, sheep
Tamil derivates : āṭṭ-āḷ shepherd
Malayalam : āṭu
Malayalam meaning : goat, sheep
Malayalam derivates : āṭṭukāran shepherd
Kannada : āḍu
Kannada meaning : goat
Kodagu : āḍɨ
Kodagu meaning : goat
Tulu : ēḍụ
Tulu meaning : goat
Proto-Nilgiri : *āḍ
Number in DED : 5152
Proto-South Dravidian : *jōnḍ-
Meaning : year
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : yāṇṭu, āṇṭu
Tamil meaning : year, age
Tamil derivates : adj. āṭṭai; āṭṭāṇṭu every year; kīẓ-āṇṭai-ccikai arrears of former years
Malayalam : āṇṭu (obl. āṭṭ-)
Malayalam meaning : year
Malayalam derivates : kīẓ-āṇṭai last year
Kannada : ēḍu
Kannada meaning : year
Kodagu : āṇḍɨ
Kodagu meaning : year
Tulu : iyyoḍu
Tulu meaning : this year
Tulu derivates : mūvoḍu last year
Proto-Nilgiri : *āḍ
Number in DED : 5153
Proto-South Dravidian : *kabar-/*kavar-
Meaning : chowrie, braid
Tamil : kavari
Tamil meaning : chowrie
Malayalam : kavaram
Malayalam meaning : hair-plait
Malayalam derivates : kavari hair-plait; woman with fine hair; yak; yak's tail, chowrie
Kannada : kabari, kavari
Kannada meaning : braid of hair, knot of braided hair
Tulu : kabari
Tulu meaning : tufted hair of females
Number in DED : 1327
Proto-South Dravidian : *kabb-
Meaning : to gorge
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kappu (kappi-)
Tamil meaning : to gorge, cram into mouth
Tamil derivates : kavvu (kavvi-), kauvu (kauvi-) to seize with the mouth, grasp with eagerness; n. bite, seizing by the mouth (as dog), eating
Malayalam : kappuka, kammuka
Malayalam meaning : to snap at, eat as a dog or madman
Malayalam derivates : (Kauṭ.) kauvuka to seize with mouth, bite
Kannada : kapa, kaba, gapa, gappa, gaba
Kannada meaning : imit. of the sound emitted in eager gulping (mostly also reduplicated)
Kannada derivates : kabakkane, kappane, kavakkane, gabakkane in a snatching manner, with the sound produced in snatching, with the sound of gulping quickly
Kodagu : kabb- (kabbi-)
Kodagu meaning : to seize with wide-open mouth (of dogs, tigers, etc.)
Tulu : kappuni
Tulu meaning : to eat greedily
Tulu derivates : gabagaba gulping, swallowing; kapparaṇṭu a glutton
Number in DED : 1222
Proto-South Dravidian : *kac-
Meaning : uncleanness; dirt
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kacaṭu
Tamil meaning : uncleanness, dirtiness, dregs, blemish, fault, imperfection
Tamil derivates : kacaṇṭu dregs; kañcal sweepings, rubbish heap, refuse
Malayalam : kacci
Malayalam meaning : straw, stubble, rubbish
Malayalam derivates : kañcal sweepings, refuse, dirt
Kannada : kasa, kasavu
Kannada meaning : rubbish, sweepings, weed, useless plant, afterbirth, placenta
Kannada derivates : kasaru dust and other impurities; kasakilu a broom; kasabaralu a kind of broom; kasabarige, kasaparige, kasaborige, kasaporige, kasabōrige, kasapōrige id. (for parige see DEDR 4415); kasamara, kasavarige broom
Tulu : kajavu, kajāvu
Tulu meaning : rubbish, sweepings, afterbirth
Tulu derivates : kajilụ, kajelụ afterbirth; (B-K.) kajane rubbish floating on stagnant water; kajè an acid substance accumulated on the teeth by chewing betel leaves; kasa sweepings, rubbish; kasaṇṭụ sediment; kasarụ sediment, dross of smelted iron
Proto-Nilgiri : *kas-
Number in DED : 1088
Proto-South Dravidian : *kac-
Meaning : impure (?)
Proto-Nilgiri : *kas-ǝmb-
Number in DED : 1088
Proto-South Dravidian : *kac-
Meaning : to quarrel; angry
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kasaru
Tamil meaning : (Tinn.) to bargain bitterly
Malayalam : kayakka
Malayalam meaning : to quarrel, abuse
Malayalam derivates : kayaccal, kayampam contention; kayarkka to start up in anger, quarrel, reprove, punish; kayarppu reviling, quarrelling, wrath
Kannada : kasaru
Kannada meaning : ill-humour
Kannada derivates : (??) kēṇa, kīṇa envy, grudge; anger, passion; gajar_(u) to produce a loud sound, scold; n. a loud, angry sound or speech
Tulu : kaccāḍuni
Tulu meaning : to quarrel
Tulu derivates : kaccāṭa quarrelling
Proto-Nilgiri : *kaj1 (*-s)
Number in DED : 1089
Proto-South Dravidian : *Kac-
Meaning : west wind
Tamil : kaccān_
Tamil meaning : west wind, west
Malayalam : kaccān
Malayalam meaning : the longshore wind blowing in January and February from NNW
Number in DED : 1094
Proto-South Dravidian : *kac-
Meaning : to bite
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kaccu (kacci-)
Tamil meaning : to bite, gnaw, nibble (nursery)
Kannada : kaccu, karcu
Kannada meaning : to bite, sting, smart, ache (as the stomach), bite (as pepper); n. biting, a bite, incision
Kannada derivates : kaccike biting
Tulu : kaccuni
Tulu meaning : to bite
Proto-Nilgiri : *kac-
Number in DED : 1097
Proto-South Dravidian : *Kac-
Meaning : a k. of corset, bodice
Tamil : kaccu
Tamil meaning : a kind of corset worn by Indian women in acient times
Malayalam : kaccu
Malayalam meaning : bodice to confine the breast
Notes : ? < Skt. kañcuka-.
Number in DED : 1098
Proto-South Dravidian : *kac-
Meaning : to join
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : kaccu
Kannada meaning : to join
Tulu : kaccuni
Tulu meaning : to be joined fast
Tulu derivates : kaccāvuni to join fast; gajipuni to fasten, strengthen; kaipuni, (B-K.) kāypu to fasten, bind tight
Miscellaneous : KOR (O) kāypu to tighten
Number in DED : 1099
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,
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