Notes :In Kodagu and Tulu the root is augmented by the nominal suffix -i.
Number in DED :0047
Proto-South Dravidian :*ac-
Meaning :weaver's reed
Tamil meaning :weaver's reed instrument for pressing down the threads of the woof; comb-like frame in a loom through which the warp threads are passed and by which they are pressed or battened together
Malayalam meaning :weaver's reed or stay
Kannada meaning :weaver's reed
Tulu meaning :weaver's reed
Notes :Could this in any way be related to *ac- 'mould, type'?
Number in DED :0048
Proto-South Dravidian :*ac-
Meaning :ridge in a field
Tamil meaning :ridge in a field
Tamil derivates :accu-kkaṭṭu (-kkaṭṭi-) to form a ridge around a field; accukkaṭṭu field with ridges, land divided into beds to admit and retain water for the cultivation of paddy
Notes :The word is also present in Telugu, but nowhere else. Any metaphoric relation to *ac- 'mould, type' or *ac- 'weaver's reed'?
Number in DED :0049
Proto-South Dravidian :*ac- ~ *asa-
Meaning :a k. of insect
Tamil meaning :mosquito
Tamil derivates :acaval gnat; acar_u minute insect that sticks on leaves and injures plants; acukuṇi small insect breeding and feeding on plants; acuvuṇi a destructive insect; añal, añalam sp. of gnat
Malayalam meaning :a little snail
Notes :Possibly several different forms (from non-Dravidian sources?).
Number in DED :0040
Proto-South Dravidian :*açal-
Tamil :ayal, acal
Tamil meaning :neighbourhood, adjacent place, being foreign or alien
Tamil derivates :acalar neighbours, strangers
Malayalam meaning :neighbourhood
Notes :A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss; cf., perhaps, *asai- 'to join with' (in which case *açal- = *asal- < *asai-l-).
Number in DED :0189
Proto-South Dravidian :*açarai ~ *açalai
Meaning :a k. of fish (loach)
Tamil :ayirai, acarai, acalai
Tamil meaning :loach, sandy colour, Cobitis thermalis
Tamil derivates :ayilai a kind of fish
Malayalam meaning :a fish, mackerel, scomber
Malayalam derivates :aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind of small fish, loach
Notes :A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss. Inlaut -i- in Tam. ayirai, etc., is due to the assimilative influence of -y- in this position. The two variants with -r- and -l- appear to be dialectal.
Number in DED :0191
Proto-South Dravidian :*aḍa-
Meaning :to throw, cast out
Tulu meaning :to throw, cast out, discharge (as a gun)
Notes :The only known parallel is Telugu aḍarincu.
Kannada meaning :to preserve, pickle, season fruits with salt
Tulu meaning :a kind of pickle
Notes :A SDR isogloss; perhaps the same root as *aḍḍa- ~ *aḍai- "to shut, close" ("preserve" = "prevent from spoiling").
Number in DED :0085
Proto-South Dravidian :*aḍai
Meaning :thin cake (wafer)
Tamil meaning :thin cake, wafer
Malayalam meaning :a cake made of uṛunnu [Phaseolus radiatus]
Kannada meaning :a kind of thin bread or cake of rice flour
Tulu meaning :a cake, pudding
Notes :A SDR isogloss.
Number in DED :0087
Proto-South Dravidian :*adai-
Meaning :to swell
Tamil :atai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning :to swell, be puffed up, grow arrogant, become proud
Tamil derivates :ataippu swelling
Malayalam meaning :to swell up, tumefy
Kannada meaning :self-will, boldness, pride, heroism
Kannada derivates :adaṭatana state of being heroic; adaṭa a very firm man, a mighty, powerful, or heroic man
Notes :Burrow & Emeneau join these forms in DEDR, which is somewhat questionable. Kan. adaṭu and derivative forms do look like verbal derivates, but from a stem like *adaḷ-t- rather than *adai- (to the best of my knowledge, -ṭ- does not function as an individual suffix in Dravidian), and there is no evidence for *adaḷ- per se. It is not excluded that for both Kan. adaṭu and Tel. adaṭu id. some extra-Dravidian source should be looked up.
Tamil meaning :to submit, be subdued, be compressed, cease, disappear, be comprised, settle, subside, sleep
Tamil derivates :aṭakku (aṭakki-) to control, repress, hide, conceal, bury; aṭakkam submission, patience, repose, etc.
Malayalam meaning :to be pressed down, enclosed, contained, submit, yield, be allayed, calmed
Malayalam derivates :aṭakkuka to press down, subdue, swallow, allay, quiet; aṭakkam being contained; all, whole; self-control, modesty, secrecy
Kannada :aḍaŋgu, aḍagu
Kannada meaning :to hide, be concealed, disappear, cease, be quenched, be appeased, be humbled, crouch, be contained in
Kannada derivates :aḍaku to press, press into narrower compass, pack, subdue, control; aḍacu to press down, pack, stuff in, be humble, silence, shut as the mouth; aḍaka pressing into narrow compass, contracting, shrinking, hiding oneself, hiding place, being comprehended or contained in, abridgement; akku to subdue, bring under control; tāguḍi an ambush, lurking or hiding place
Kodagu :aḍak- (aḍaki-)
Kodagu meaning :to hold in closed hands
Kodagu derivates :aḍaka act of bringing within a compass, thriftiness, restrictions at festivals
Tulu :aḍēvuni, aḍēyuni
Tulu meaning :to be concealed, hide
Tulu derivates :deŋguni to be hidden, concealed, lie in ambush; (B-K.) aḍeŋgụ, ḍeŋgụ to hide; aḍeka small, narrow
Tamil meaning :to collect, gather (as dust), become close, compact, hard (as sand by rain)
Tamil derivates :aṭai-maẓai continuous rain; aṭai-maṇ silt, alluvium; aṭaicu (aṭaici-) to crowd, get close together, shower upon; aṭaical crowded condition, density; aṭar (-v-, -nt-) to be close together, thick, crowded; to press around, hem in; aṭarppam, aṭartti, (PR) aṭarcci closeness, crowdedness; aṭarvu thickness, denseness; aṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to be on the increase, abound; aṭikkaṭi frequently, often; aṭacu (aṭaci-) to be crowded
Malayalam meaning :incessant rain
Malayalam derivates :aṭal incessant (of rain); aṭikkaṭi repeatedly; aṭṭi keṭṭuka, aṭṭikkuiṭuka to pile up, ram, pack close
Kannada meaning :abundance (used of rain)
Kannada derivates :aḍar to appear in numbers, to amass (as clouds); aṭṭu state of being crowded or thronged, pressed or squeezed; aṭṭuḷi a crowd, multitude, state of being squeezed; aḍe a sticky, clotty mass, a lump (as of dates, tamarind, sugar, hair, etc.)
Tulu meaning :a pile, heap of rice
Tulu derivates :aṭāra widespread, as the branches of a tree; aḍarụ copse
Notes :Kannada aḍḍa, with a voiced geminate, and Tulu aṭṭi deviate from the general mass of forms with strong verbal suffixes. It is possible that all the stems go back to an original monosyllabic *aṭṭ- (*aḍḍ-?), but contaminations and occasional dialectisms are not excluded either.
Notes :A common SDR stem (including the compound variant *aḍai-kal "anvil" where *kal = "stone") with a parallel in Telugu. External parallels are problematic; the word may be related to some of the *aḍV-type verbal stems, although semantic connections are unclear.
Notes :A compound: *aḍai "betel; areca" + *kāj "fruit". The second root becomes reduced in most languages due to its post-tonic position. For the other compound (*aḍai-kat- "instrument for cracking betel nuts") cf. *kati "knife".
Number in DED :0088
Proto-South Dravidian :*aḍai-pa-
Meaning :pouch, bag
Tamil :aṭappam, aṭaippam
Tamil meaning :betel pouch, barber's razor case
Malayalam :aṭappam, aṭappan
Malayalam meaning :betel purse, chunam pouch, barber's dressing case
Kannada :aḍapa, haḍapa
Kannada meaning :a small bag, used as a pouch for areca nut and betel leaves, and by barbers as a dressing case