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South Dravidian etymology :

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\data\drav\sdret
Proto-South Dravidian : [FREE]
Proto-Nilgiri : *eS-
Number in DED : 0779
Proto-South Dravidian : *a
Meaning : that
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : a
Tamil meaning : demonstr. base expr. the remoter person or thing; pref. to nouns, expr. remoteness [a before consonant, avv before vowel]
Malayalam : a, ā
Malayalam meaning : that, yonder
Kannada : a-
Kannada meaning : remote demonstrative base
Kodagu : avën, ava, avu/aeŋga, adɨ
Kodagu meaning : that man, that woman, those persons, that thing/those things
Tulu : āye, āḷụ, ārụ/ākulụ, avu (obl. ay-), aykuḷu
Tulu meaning : that man, that woman, those persons, that thing, those things
Proto-Nilgiri : *a
Number in DED : 0001
Proto-South Dravidian : *ac-
Meaning : mould, type
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : accu
Tamil meaning : mould, type
Malayalam : accu
Malayalam meaning : mould, type
Kannada : accu
Kannada meaning : mould, impression, sign, type, stamp
Kodagu : acci
Kodagu meaning : cake of jaggery sugar with hollow in middle (formed in a mould)
Tulu : acci
Tulu meaning : form, model
Proto-Nilgiri : *as (*-c)
Notes : In Kodagu and Tulu the root is augmented by the nominal suffix -i.
Number in DED : 0047
Proto-South Dravidian : *ac-
Meaning : weaver's reed
Tamil : accu
Tamil meaning : weaver's reed instrument for pressing down the threads of the woof; comb-like frame in a loom through which the warp threads are passed and by which they are pressed or battened together
Malayalam : accu
Malayalam meaning : weaver's reed or stay
Kannada : accu
Kannada meaning : weaver's reed
Tulu : acci
Tulu meaning : weaver's reed
Notes : Could this in any way be related to *ac- 'mould, type'?
Number in DED : 0048
Proto-South Dravidian : *ac-
Meaning : ridge in a field
Tamil : accu
Tamil meaning : ridge in a field
Tamil derivates : accu-kkaṭṭu (-kkaṭṭi-) to form a ridge around a field; accukkaṭṭu field with ridges, land divided into beds to admit and retain water for the cultivation of paddy
Notes : The word is also present in Telugu, but nowhere else. Any metaphoric relation to *ac- 'mould, type' or *ac- 'weaver's reed'?
Number in DED : 0049
Proto-South Dravidian : *ac- ~ *asa-
Meaning : a k. of insect
Tamil : acal
Tamil meaning : mosquito
Tamil derivates : acaval gnat; acar_u minute insect that sticks on leaves and injures plants; acukuṇi small insect breeding and feeding on plants; acuvuṇi a destructive insect; añal, añalam sp. of gnat
Malayalam : accu
Malayalam meaning : a little snail
Notes : Possibly several different forms (from non-Dravidian sources?).
Number in DED : 0040
Proto-South Dravidian : *açal-
Meaning : neighbourhood
Tamil : ayal, acal
Tamil meaning : neighbourhood, adjacent place, being foreign or alien
Tamil derivates : acalar neighbours, strangers
Malayalam : ayal
Malayalam meaning : neighbourhood
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss; cf., perhaps, *asai- 'to join with' (in which case *açal- = *asal- < *asai-l-).
Number in DED : 0189
Proto-South Dravidian : *açarai ~ *açalai
Meaning : a k. of fish (loach)
Tamil : ayirai, acarai, acalai
Tamil meaning : loach, sandy colour, Cobitis thermalis
Tamil derivates : ayilai a kind of fish
Malayalam : ayala
Malayalam meaning : a fish, mackerel, scomber
Malayalam derivates : aila, ayila a fish; ayira a kind of small fish, loach
Notes : A Tamil-Malayalam isogloss. Inlaut -i- in Tam. ayirai, etc., is due to the assimilative influence of -y- in this position. The two variants with -r- and -l- appear to be dialectal.
Number in DED : 0191
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍa-
Meaning : to throw, cast out
Tulu : aḍakuni
Tulu meaning : to throw, cast out, discharge (as a gun)
Notes : The only known parallel is Telugu aḍarincu.
Number in DED : 0061
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai
Meaning : betel leaf
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭaku
Tamil meaning : greens, edible leaves
Tamil derivates : aṭai leaf, betel leaf, greens
Malayalam : aṭa
Malayalam meaning : leaf, betel
Number in DED : 0059
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai-
Meaning : to preserve; pickle
Tamil : aṭai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to be preserved (as pickles)
Tamil derivates : aṭai-māŋkāy mango pickles
Kannada : aḍe
Kannada meaning : to preserve, pickle, season fruits with salt
Tulu : aḍaŋ-gāyi
Tulu meaning : a kind of pickle
Notes : A SDR isogloss; perhaps the same root as *aḍḍa- ~ *aḍai- "to shut, close" ("preserve" = "prevent from spoiling").
Number in DED : 0085
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai
Meaning : thin cake (wafer)
Tamil : aṭai
Tamil meaning : thin cake, wafer
Malayalam : aṭa
Malayalam meaning : a cake made of uṛunnu [Phaseolus radiatus]
Kannada : aḍe
Kannada meaning : a kind of thin bread or cake of rice flour
Tulu : aḍḍyè
Tulu meaning : a cake, pudding
Notes : A SDR isogloss.
Number in DED : 0087
Proto-South Dravidian : *adai-
Meaning : to swell
Tamil : atai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to swell, be puffed up, grow arrogant, become proud
Tamil derivates : ataippu swelling
Malayalam : ataykkuka
Malayalam meaning : to swell up, tumefy
Kannada : adaṭu
Kannada meaning : self-will, boldness, pride, heroism
Kannada derivates : adaṭatana state of being heroic; adaṭa a very firm man, a mighty, powerful, or heroic man
Notes : Burrow & Emeneau join these forms in DEDR, which is somewhat questionable. Kan. adaṭu and derivative forms do look like verbal derivates, but from a stem like *adaḷ-t- rather than *adai- (to the best of my knowledge, -ṭ- does not function as an individual suffix in Dravidian), and there is no evidence for *adaḷ- per se. It is not excluded that for both Kan. adaṭu and Tel. adaṭu id. some extra-Dravidian source should be looked up.
Number in DED : 0140
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai- ~ *aḍaŋ-
Meaning : to submit; to hide
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭaŋku (aṭaŋki-)
Tamil meaning : to submit, be subdued, be compressed, cease, disappear, be comprised, settle, subside, sleep
Tamil derivates : aṭakku (aṭakki-) to control, repress, hide, conceal, bury; aṭakkam submission, patience, repose, etc.
Malayalam : aṭaŋŋuka
Malayalam meaning : to be pressed down, enclosed, contained, submit, yield, be allayed, calmed
Malayalam derivates : aṭakkuka to press down, subdue, swallow, allay, quiet; aṭakkam being contained; all, whole; self-control, modesty, secrecy
Kannada : aḍaŋgu, aḍagu
Kannada meaning : to hide, be concealed, disappear, cease, be quenched, be appeased, be humbled, crouch, be contained in
Kannada derivates : aḍaku to press, press into narrower compass, pack, subdue, control; aḍacu to press down, pack, stuff in, be humble, silence, shut as the mouth; aḍaka pressing into narrow compass, contracting, shrinking, hiding oneself, hiding place, being comprehended or contained in, abridgement; akku to subdue, bring under control; tāguḍi an ambush, lurking or hiding place
Kodagu : aḍak- (aḍaki-)
Kodagu meaning : to hold in closed hands
Kodagu derivates : aḍaka act of bringing within a compass, thriftiness, restrictions at festivals
Tulu : aḍēvuni, aḍēyuni
Tulu meaning : to be concealed, hide
Tulu derivates : deŋguni to be hidden, concealed, lie in ambush; (B-K.) aḍeŋgụ, ḍeŋgụ to hide; aḍeka small, narrow
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍǝ-
Notes : The more archaic version of the stem, without the velar nasal suffix, is seen in Tulu aḍē-vuni.
Number in DED : 0063
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai- ~ *aḍi-
Meaning : heap; to collect
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭai (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to collect, gather (as dust), become close, compact, hard (as sand by rain)
Tamil derivates : aṭai-maẓai continuous rain; aṭai-maṇ silt, alluvium; aṭaicu (aṭaici-) to crowd, get close together, shower upon; aṭaical crowded condition, density; aṭar (-v-, -nt-) to be close together, thick, crowded; to press around, hem in; aṭarppam, aṭartti, (PR) aṭarcci closeness, crowdedness; aṭarvu thickness, denseness; aṭi (-pp-, -tt-) to be on the increase, abound; aṭikkaṭi frequently, often; aṭacu (aṭaci-) to be crowded
Malayalam : aṭa-maẓa
Malayalam meaning : incessant rain
Malayalam derivates : aṭal incessant (of rain); aṭikkaṭi repeatedly; aṭṭi keṭṭuka, aṭṭikku iṭuka to pile up, ram, pack close
Kannada : aḍḍa
Kannada meaning : abundance (used of rain)
Kannada derivates : aḍar to appear in numbers, to amass (as clouds); aṭṭu state of being crowded or thronged, pressed or squeezed; aṭṭuḷi a crowd, multitude, state of being squeezed; aḍe a sticky, clotty mass, a lump (as of dates, tamarind, sugar, hair, etc.)
Tulu : aṭṭi
Tulu meaning : a pile, heap of rice
Tulu derivates : aṭāra widespread, as the branches of a tree; aḍarụ copse
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍ-ĭ-
Notes : Kannada aḍḍa, with a voiced geminate, and Tulu aṭṭi deviate from the general mass of forms with strong verbal suffixes. It is possible that all the stems go back to an original monosyllabic *aṭṭ- (*aḍḍ-?), but contaminations and occasional dialectisms are not excluded either.
Number in DED : 0084
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai[j]āḷ-
Meaning : mark, sign, symbol
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭaiyāḷam
Tamil meaning : mark, symbol, emblem, seal
Malayalam : aṭayāḷam
Malayalam meaning : mark, sign
Kannada : aḍayāḷa
Kannada meaning : mark, sign
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍjāḷ-
Notes : A solid SDR root with no outside connections except Telugu. It is tempting to analyse it as a compound (*aḍai- + *[j]āḷ-?], but neither of the two parts makes much sense.
Number in DED : 0089
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai, *aḍai-kal
Meaning : support, prop; anvil
Tamil : aṭai
Tamil meaning : prop. slight support
Tamil derivates : aṭai-kal anvil
Malayalam : aṭa-kkallu
Malayalam meaning : anvil of goldsmiths
Kannada : aḍe, aḍa, aḍi
Kannada meaning : the piece of wood on which the five artisans put the article which they happen to operate upon, a support
Kannada derivates : aḍegal, aḍagallu, aḍigallu anvil
Tulu : aṭṭè
Tulu meaning : a support, stand
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍ-gal
Notes : A common SDR stem (including the compound variant *aḍai-kal "anvil" where *kal = "stone") with a parallel in Telugu. External parallels are problematic; the word may be related to some of the *aḍV-type verbal stems, although semantic connections are unclear.
Number in DED : 0086
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai-kāj
Meaning : areca-nut
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : aṭaikkāy
Tamil meaning : areca-nut (betel-nut)
Malayalam : aṭakka, aṭekka
Malayalam meaning : betel pouch
Kannada : aḍake, aḍa, aḍike
Kannada meaning : areca, areca palm, Areca catechu Lin., and its nut
Kannada derivates : aḍakottu, aḍagatti, aḍagartti scissors for cutting areca-nut
Kodagu : aḍake
Kodagu meaning : areca-nut
Tulu : aḍḍa-katteri, iḍa-katteri
Tulu meaning : betel-nut cracker
Proto-Nilgiri : *aḍä
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) ḍakke areca nut
Notes : A compound: *aḍai "betel; areca" + *kāj "fruit". The second root becomes reduced in most languages due to its post-tonic position. For the other compound (*aḍai-kat- "instrument for cracking betel nuts") cf. *kati "knife".
Number in DED : 0088
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍai-pa-
Meaning : pouch, bag
Tamil : aṭappam, aṭaippam
Tamil meaning : betel pouch, barber's razor case
Malayalam : aṭappam, aṭappan
Malayalam meaning : betel purse, chunam pouch, barber's dressing case
Kannada : aḍapa, haḍapa
Kannada meaning : a small bag, used as a pouch for areca nut and betel leaves, and by barbers as a dressing case
Tulu : aḍapa, haḍapa
Tulu meaning : barber's dressing case
Notes : A derivative from *aḍai "betel leaf".
Number in DED : 0064
Proto-South Dravidian : *aḍakai
Meaning : a k. of plant/herb
Malayalam : aṭakkā-maṇiyan
Malayalam meaning : Sphaeranthus indicus (maṇiyan a kind of paddy)
Kannada : aḍike-kasa
Kannada meaning : a low annual plant growing in ricefields, Sphaeranthus indicus Lin.
Kannada derivates : aḍika-bāẓe-giḍa a climbing herb, Cucumis pubescens Willd.
Tulu : aḍake-bāre
Tulu meaning : Cucumis pubescens
Number in DED : 0062
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