Notes :The auslaut vocalic correspondence is irregular: in Kuwi the plural ending -i was transferred here to the singular forms by analogy. Although there are no traces of inlaut -w- here, judging by both system considerations and external data, it should be present (cf. *īwanyi, *ūwanyi, etc.) However, if in Kui we may suggest a quasi-regular loss of -w-, say, after -a- or something like that, in Kuwi in a similar context the labial remains intact (this is PK *awa > awa), so an analogical development of some kind is not excluded.
Kui :adangi "surprise, astonishment, wonder, fear; adj. surprising, wonderful"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) :addajakka aiyali "to be surprised"
Additional forms :Also Kui adlangi bewildered
Notes :The form adlangi suggests a possible reconstruction like *adl- (?); however, lack of good external data makes it impossible to verify this suggestion. A very weak and morphologically unclear root.
Additional forms :Also Kui aṭka (aṭki-) pl. action; aṭpa (aṭt-) to join (tr.), unite, associate; aṭse, aṛse together, jointly; aṭu near, at a short distance; aḍi miḍi unity, association; aṛpa (aṛt-) to mix, put together, unite
Kui :aḍa "a screen, an intervening or intercepting object (said to be < Oraon)"
Kuwi (Schulze) :aḍḍe ānai "to resist"
Sunkarametta Kuwi :addu ānai "to obviate"
Additional forms :Also Kui ḍākoli a hide shield; Kuwi_S addunga across (in measuring); aḍḍeānai to resist
Notes :Kui ḍākoli is very hard to compare with Kuwi forms, for in this case we should suppose a separate Kui reduction. Much more probable is that it is derived from Kui ḍāki shell (of tortoise, etc.), cf. DED 2989. The root itself displays an extremely rare case of PK (and probably PDR, cf. the dictionary) voiced geminate; in fact, it is so rare it is not excluded that the root itself was borrowed from Telugu.
Kui :aia, aiali, aja, ia, ija, ijali "mother, woman"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) :īya "mother"
Kuwi (Schulze) :īya "mother, woman"
Sunkarametta Kuwi :aya (pl. -ska) "woman"
Parja Kuwi :aya (pl. -ska) "woman"
Kuwi (Israel) :āya (pl. -ska/-sika) "woman, wife"
Additional forms :Also Kuwi_F māiya my mother, māya your mother; aiya woman; Kuwi_S māyia my, our mother, mīya your mother; Kuwi_Su iya (pl. -ska) mother; mīya your mother
Notes :The forms *aya and *yaya actually had different meanings in PK (as well as in PDR) - 'woman' and 'mother' respectively. However, in modern dialects they have been often contaminated, as in Kui. Moreover, some Kuwi dialects have inherited PDR possessive forms, or, rather, the tendency of their "possessivisation": the form māiya goes back to *mā-yaya 'us + mother', while Kuwi_F māya and Kuwi_S mīya go back to *mī-yaya 'you + mother'. The initial *y- in the form for 'mother' has to be postulated principally because of different vocalism in these two forms (cf. PK *yamb- > Kuwi_F amb-, Kuwi_S imb-). In Kuwi_F *yaya > *īya (and not *āya, which would have been regular) because of the influence of the following -y- (like *yambi > imbi because of the following -i-). In Kui the variants -i- and -j- seem to be free; the variant -j- should be the regular one, but we may suggest that the variant with -i- has been preserved for expressive reasons. As for other Kui dialects, it is hard to say whether some of them have lost one of the two forms (*aya and *yaya), having generalized the other one for both meanings, or whether they have merged phonetically, since reflexes of PK *ya- are unknown. Thus, Kuwi_Isr āya may reflect aya, having lost the form *yaya, or may represent both of them, if we suggest a development *ya- > ā- (indeed, the second explanation is preferable, since otherwise it is impossible to explain the vowel length).
Notes :There are four main deictic stems in PK: *a-, *i-, *e-, *u-. Of these, *i- is the simplest of all: it is preserved in all the main sources of data (that is, Kui, Kuwi_F and Kuwi_S) and always means 'this'. As for the other ones, all three were preserved in Kui where they seem to retain their original functions: e- as 'that nearer', a- as 'that further' and o- (from *u-) as 'that at the greatest distance'. In Kuwi_F *e- was lost, and the other two shifted meanings: u- 'that intermediate', a- 'that farthest'. In Kuwi_S, instead, *a- was lost, but the other two forms were left intact.
Notes :At least three Kui lexemes with initial PK short *a- before consonant clusters got an irregular vowel lengthening: *amba there, *ambu arrow, *arg- to digest (as well as at least one lexeme before a simple consonant: āpo son < *ap-). The first two of them, however, have variants beginning with a regular short vowel. The reason of such a lengthening is somewhat unclear, but it can hardly be explained as a misspelling. This phenomenon is undoubtedly closely related to the development *aCC- (where CC is a geminated consonant) > *āC-; this development, of course, can be active only in expressive lexics or borrowings, since there are no original geminates in Kui (nor in PK). Cf. Kui āgal 'many, much', borrowed from Telugu aggal- (note that Khuttia has aggeli), where loss of gemination is compensated by vowel lengthening, or, more probable, Telugu gemination is interpreted as vowel length. Expressive ā- can be present in āmba 'there' and āpo 'son'.