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Dravidian etymology :

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\data\drav\dravet
Proto-Dravidian : *ándug-
Meaning : clearing nut plant
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *andug-
Proto-Telugu : *andug-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ā̆ndug
Notes : A rather local root. The Kolami word could be thought of as a borrowing from Telugu, but that does not explain the irregular vowel length in M. B. Emeneau's recordings (although the entry does bear the tag of 'recording uncertain'). The second syllable (*-ug-) is detachable as a 'weak' suffix, but no individual *and- 'sāl tree' is attested. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aṇí-
Meaning : to wear (ornaments); beauty
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṇi-
Notes : A solid SDR root. // Present in 1/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *an-p-
Meaning : 1 to load 2 to send away
Proto-South Dravidian: *an-up-, *amp-
Proto-Telugu : *an-/*amp-
Proto-North Dravidian : *amb-
Brahui : hamp-ing
Notes : The NDR forms suggest that the base *an-p- is archaic enough to have been represented in PDR.
Proto-Dravidian : *anṭ-
Meaning : to stick
Proto-South Dravidian: *anṭ-
Proto-Telugu : *anṭ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *anṭ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *a[n]ṭ-
Notes : See also *anḍ- 'to join'. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aṇV́-
Meaning : to mock
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṇak-
Proto-Telugu : *aṇak-
Proto-North Dravidian : *an-aṛ-
Notes : A local root, participating in expressive reduplications (cf. Tulu aṇakasaṇaka) and not at all reliable; the potential Malto match (without the suffix *-k-), however, is too interesting to be left unnoticed. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *anǯ-
Meaning : to fear
Proto-South Dravidian: *anǯ-
Proto-Telugu : *anǯ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aǯ-
Notes : PGn (PKK) *aǯ- lacks an -n-, probably for back-formation reasons (PKK *aǯ- < caus. stem *as-). The relation to Brahui hīj-ing 'to be scared, startled' is unclear. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aŋ-
Meaning : a k. of relative (brother/sister)
Proto-South Dravidian: *t-aŋ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *taŋ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aŋi, *taŋi
Proto-North Dravidian : *taŋ-
Notes : Used extensively with pronominal prefixes.
Proto-Dravidian : *áŋal-
Meaning : to weep, to grieve
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *aŋal-
Proto-Telugu : *aŋal-
Proto-North Dravidian : *aŋl-
Notes : A formerly nominal root, as is seen from the strong position of the inlaut consonant (*áŋal- > aŋ(g)al- in modern languages instead of *aŋál- > *agál-). // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aŋā́ḍi
Meaning : market
Proto-South Dravidian: *aŋāḍi
Proto-Telugu : *aŋaḍi
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aŋāḍ-i
Notes : A dubious cultural term (acc. to Burrow & Emeneau, possibly related to Old Indian aŋgaṇa- "court"). Similarly, Kolami-Gadba forms may actually represent later reborrowings from Telugu. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áŋāl-
Meaning : to yawn, gape
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *aŋā-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aŋ[l]-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aŋl-
Proto-North Dravidian : *aŋ(a)l-
Notes : A bisyllabic root with the inlaut nasal cluster (*-ŋ- = *-ŋg-) in a strong position. Auslaut *-l- is most probably lost in SDR where bisyllabic roots of this kind (with a second long vowel) never end in liquid resonants. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áŋka-
Meaning : fight, quarrel
Proto-South Dravidian: *aŋka-
Proto-Telugu : *aŋka-
Notes : // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áŋkaṇa-
Meaning : space between two pillars
Proto-South Dravidian: *aŋkaṇa-
Proto-Telugu : *aŋkaṇa-
Notes : A cultural term only found in SDR-Telugu; Burrow & Emeneau suggest the possibility of borrowing from Old Indian but offer no etymology. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ápa-
Meaning : father (hon.)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *apa-
Proto-Telugu : *appa
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *apa
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ā̆p-
Notes : Irregular (expressive?) vowel lengthening is observed in some Gondwan languages. This is one of the two main PDR roots for 'father', the other being *t-and_-; judging by the difference in meaning, the latter was the more 'formal' appellation (which is why it is more frequently met with archaic pronominal prefixes than *ápa-), whereas the latter is clearly a "children's" word. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ápa-
Meaning : cake (of rice flour; of special interest to children)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ā̆pa-
Proto-Telugu : *appa-
Brahui : appā
Notes : Certain problems are caused by the Tamil-Malayalam forms which feature initial ā-; also unclear is the fact that Old Indian has the word as apūpá-, pūpa- (Turner 491). This does not include the possibility of Proto-Dravidian origin (cf. the Brahui parallel), but if the vowel length in Tamil and the trisyllabic structure of the OI form are related (e. g. āppa- < *apūpa-), this may hint at an obscure borrowing source for both subgroups. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ap-, *áp-aḷi-
Meaning : to stick (with hand), plaster
Proto-South Dravidian: *ap-
Proto-Telugu : *appaḷi-
Notes : The Telugu forms are somewhat dubious (only the derivative in -aḷi- is found, which could be a borrowing from Kannaḍa). Nevertheless, this is at least a fairly sutrdy SDR root, and it certainly has nothing to do with PDR *čap- 'clap hands' despite Burrow & Emeneau's comparison (the latter always preserves the affricate). // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ar-
Meaning : rare
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ar-
Proto-Telugu : *arV-d-
Notes : The original root was probably monosyllabic, due to the lack of stems like *aruvu in SDR. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *arái-
Meaning : to rub two things against each other (> to grind; to launder)
Proto-South Dravidian: *arai-
Proto-Telugu : *rā-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *rā-k-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *rā- ~ *rē-
Notes : The entry in DEDR is a perfect example of the frequently witnessed confusion of data: it gives Konḍa rēs- 'to stir and mix, to plate (metals)' as a potential cognate, but later on the same form (rēs-) resurfaces in DEDR 3949 as 'to make plating (of metals)' and still later on in DEDR 4610 as 'to stir, mix' (!!!). This is, of course, due to the fact that proper reflexation of PDR auslaut vocalism in syncopated roots in Gondwan is rather hard to establish. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *arai
Meaning : half
Proto-South Dravidian: *arai
Proto-Telugu : *ara
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ar
Notes : Safely reconstructed for the PSDR-Telugu level; the Naiki form is dubious (possibly a Telugu borrowing), which makes the PDR status of the word somewhat less probable. On the other hand, a credible internal etymology or borrowing source for the word is unavailable. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *arajái
Meaning : Ficus religiosa
Proto-South Dravidian: *araçai
Proto-Telugu : *rāvi
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *rāvi
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *rāji
Notes : In Telugu (and Kolami, if rāvi is not a re-borrowing from Telugu) there has probably occurred an early dissimilation *arajai > *aragai, from whence the dialectal variation between -g- and -v-. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *argil-
Meaning : chest (of body)
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *argil-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *arɣil-
Notes : A Central Dravidian isogloss. The element *-gil- may be an old suffix (cf. the derivative form *kavŋ-gil- from *kavŋ- 'armpit'); however, the root *ar- still has no reliable parallels outside Central Dravidian. // Present in 2/6 branches.
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