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Dravidian etymology :

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\data\drav\dravet
Proto-Dravidian : *a-/*ā
Meaning : that (over there)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *a
Proto-Telugu :
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *a-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *a-
Proto-North Dravidian :
Brahui : d-ā
Notes : In the North Dravidian database cf. also *ā-r, *ā-s, *ā-d, etc. (Additional derivative entries are also available in Telugu and other databases). For Brahui see DEDR 1. // Present in 6/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *al-
Meaning : to weave, plait
Proto-South Dravidian: *all-
Proto-Telugu : *all-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *al-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *al-
Brahui : all-ī
Notes : A good common PDR monosyllabic root. // Present in 5/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *al-
Meaning : negative morpheme
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *al-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *al-
Proto-North Dravidian : *-l-
Brahui : all-
Notes : A rather common negation morpheme with well-known Nostratic parallels. Its main competition is PDR *śil- with more or less the same meaning (sometimes the two forms are in complementary distribution between branches - e. g. only *śil- is found in Telugu, only all- in Brahui). // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : to sprinkle, bail out
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Telugu : *al-uk-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aḷ-k-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aḷ-nǯ-
Proto-Dravidian : *àḷ-
Meaning : fat; strength
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ăḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *alav-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *lāv
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *alāv-
Notes : It is not excluded that most of the Central Dravidian forms are re-borrowed from Telugu.
Proto-Dravidian : *àḷ-
Meaning : cave, hole
Proto-South Dravidian: *ăḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *lā-ŋ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *al-p
Proto-Dravidian : *aḷ-
Meaning : to fear, be afraid
Proto-South Dravidian: *aḷ-
Proto-Telugu : *al-uk-
Proto-Dravidian : *al-
Meaning : to spread, cover
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *aḷ-ur-
Proto-Telugu : *alam-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *almi-
Proto-Dravidian : *al- (?)
Meaning : dog
Proto-North Dravidian : *al-ā
Notes : Isolated NDR forms. Tamil ñāḷ cannot belong here.
Proto-Dravidian : *alá-
Meaning : to suffer (= to be weary)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ala- ~ *alai-
Proto-Telugu : *ala-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ala-
Proto-North Dravidian : *al-g-
Brahui : all-a
Notes : Cf. also Kui alāṛi 'fatigue, distress from fatigue, exhaustion'. See the South Dravidian entry for the possibility of separating SDR *ala- 'suffer' from SDR *alai- 'wander, shake; caus. harass, annoy'. In this respect it is interesting to consider some of the syncopated/non-syncopated doublets given by Burrow & Emeneau in the same entry: cf. Kui alāṛi vs. laha 'languor, laziness'; Kur. algā vs. layākoyā, etc. Of course, a final judgement is different to give based on lack of definitive knowledge on the rules of vowel reduction in Gondwan (not to mention North Dravidian, where initial l- is exceedingly rare in the first place). // Present in 5/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aḷ-a-
Meaning : to measure
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *aḷ-a-
Proto-Telugu : *alV-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aLa-c-
Proto-Dravidian : *aḷ-a-
Meaning : to mix; to join, approach
Proto-South Dravidian: *aḷ-a-
Proto-Telugu : *lā-/*al-a-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *lab- (?)
Brahui : hall-ing
Notes : The PGn form is dubious.
Proto-Dravidian : *alá-
Meaning : to make verbal noise
Proto-South Dravidian: *alamb- ~ *alar_-
Proto-Telugu : *alV-
Proto-North Dravidian : *al-G-
Notes : In Telugu the root has only been preserved as part of obscure or expressive compounds, but in SDR it is highly productive. PNDR *al-G- 'to laugh' is, for obvious reasons, set apart in DEDR, but there are actually no insurmountable obstacles to merging the two entries neither from the phonetic nor the semantic side. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alág-
Meaning : blade; splint
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *alag-
Proto-Telugu : *alVg-
Notes : Tamil distinguishes between alaku 'blade' and alakku 'splint'; however, given the general lack of stability among 2nd syllable stops, this differentiation should probably be considered secondary. The word formally resembles a verbal derivative, but no verbal stem like *alV- 'cut' or 'be sharp' is found in Dravidian. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alág-
Meaning : parched rice
Proto-South Dravidian: *alag-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *alg-
Proto-North Dravidian : *alq-ṛā
Notes : A Tamil-Kui-Kurukh isogloss, probably referring to a special procedure of obtaining rice from paddy. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alái-
Meaning : to wave, move from side to side, wander
Proto-South Dravidian: *alai- ~ *alaŋ-
Proto-Telugu : *ala-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *[V]l[V]-mb- (?)
Proto-North Dravidian : *al-
Notes : A good PDR root with many suffixal derivatives (*ala-ŋ-, *ala-mb-) and rather wide-reaching semantics. Occasional contaminations with *alá- 'to suffer, be confused' are noted. Not all the forms in DEDR 240 can actually belong here without violating correspondences: e. g. Kui lānga 'to be fickle, changeable' should be discarded because Kui l- < PGn (PDR) *ḷ-, whereas alveolar l usually yields ḍ- or ṛ- when found in initial position. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alái-
Meaning : to rinse
Proto-South Dravidian: *alai-
Proto-Telugu : *ala-
Notes : Burrow & Emeneau also include Kui akali 'rinsing' in the comparison, but the relation between these forms would have to be quite mysterious (metathesis from *ala-ki?). Auslaut -ai- is well reconstructible on the basis of SDR, which makes it possible to distinguish between this PDR root and, say, PDR *alá- 'to make verbal noise'. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alár-
Meaning : to blossom
Proto-South Dravidian: *alar-
Proto-Telugu : *alar-
Notes : The stem is never met without the final resonant, although it certainly cannot be guaranteed that *-r- was not detachable as a suffix in PDR. It is interesting to note the similarity between *alár- and PDR *mala[r]- with pretty much the same meaning. However, to treat this case as an irregular development *m- > 0- (see, e. g., [Андронов 1994: 86] ) is hardly admissible. Much more probable is semantic confusion between two originally different roots; in fact, SDR malar 'to blossom' may eventually be nothing but the result of contamination between *alár- and *mal- 'fertile, to abound'. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *alé
Meaning : vocative interjection
Proto-South Dravidian: *ale
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ale
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ale
Proto-North Dravidian : *ale
Notes : A surprisingly well-represented common PDR interjection. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áli
Meaning : iron-wood tree
Proto-South Dravidian: *alli ~ *allai
Proto-Telugu : *alli
Notes : Reconstructed for the PDR-Telugu level. The stem often behaves in an irregular way, which is common for plant names in Dravidian. // Present in 2/6 branches.
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