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Dravidian etymology :

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\data\drav\dravet
Proto-Dravidian : *at-
Meaning : to join, attach, wear
Proto-South Dravidian: *at-
Proto-Telugu : *att-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *at-k-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ad-k-
Proto-North Dravidian : *at-
Notes : The root is more often found with the derivative suffix *-k- and an epenthetic vowel: *ad-ú-k-.
Proto-Dravidian : *aṬ-
Meaning : earthen pot
Proto-South Dravidian: *aḍi-gara(i)
Proto-Telugu : *aṭ(ṭ)ika
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aṭka
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aṭka
Proto-North Dravidian : *aṛī
Notes : SDR forms, on one hand, and Telugu, PKG, and PGn forms, on the other, can hardly be traced back to the same stem; the former look like quadrisyllabic compounds (*aḍí-KarV, with the vowel in a weak position) whereas the latter can only go back to *áṭikV, a trisyllabic stem with the vowel in a strong position and a nominal suffix tacked on at the end. Nevertheless, if Burrow & Emeneau are correct about comparing the forms to PDR *áṭ- ~ *aḍú- "to cook", the two variants may indeed share the same archaic root. // Present in 5/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *átai
Meaning : female relative (father's sister; grandmother)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ata-
Proto-Telugu : *atta
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ata
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *at-
Notes : The meaning 'father' (somewhat expectable from a root like ata-) is actually present in Tamil and Malayalam, but nowhere else in Dravidian. The archaicness of this meaning in Tamil cannot be excluded; more probable, however, is the idea that in Tamil the word has developed a parallel masculine stem by analogy with *ápa- q. v. (the latter does have 'masculine' meanings outside of Tamil). // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aṭ- ~ *aḍú-
Meaning : to evaporate, dry up; to cook, boil
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṭ- ~ *aḍu-
Proto-Telugu : *aṭ- ~ *aḍu-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aṭ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aṭ-
Notes : A clear distinction between the two stems can be demonstrated on Kannada evidence: aḍu = "to cook, boil", aṭṭu = "to evaporate, dry up". However, in Central Dravidian languages only the monosyllabic variant has been preserved. It is not excluded that the two variants represent originally different roots; a final decision cannot be reached without external comparison. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áṭa-
Meaning : inner side of roof (loft, attic, supporting bamboo framework etc.)
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṭa-
Proto-Telugu : *aṭa-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aṭa
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aṭ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *aṭ-ā
Notes : While some of the forms adduced by Burrow & Emeneau may look like later reborrowings, the root as a whole is widely represented in Dravidian and is most probably PDR in origin. The corresponding IA root *aṭṭa- "high" (Turner No. 180) has no Indo-European etymology and must have been borrowed from an early Dravidian dialect. // Present in 5/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áṭai
Meaning : sole of shoe; leather, cardboard
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṭai
Proto-Telugu : *aṭṭa
Notes : Cf. also Gadba aṭṭa "cardboard" (< Telugu?). // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áṭai
Meaning : leech
Proto-South Dravidian: *aṭai
Notes : The root is found only in SDR, but descent from PDR is well possible. // Present in 1/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ávai
Meaning : elder female relation (grandmother; elder brother's wife)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *avai
Proto-Telugu : *avva
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ave
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ave
Notes : The stem is occasionally used with pronominal prefixes (Tamil, Gondi), but their usage is too localised to suggest that the situation was the same in PDR. The original meaning of the root is hard to establish; it could hardly have been simply 'mother' (as there already are two basic terms for 'mother' in PDR - the honorific *áma- and the neutral *aj-). More often than not, the semantics of the stem is closely linked to the idea of old age or being elder (cf. 'old woman'; 'grandmother'; 'matron'; 'elder brother's wife'). The relations of this root with PDR *átai are also unclear. I would venture to guess that the original differentiation is seen in Kolami-Gadba, where *átai = 'father's sister', whereas *ávai = 'father's mother', but this is very flimsy evidence. // Present in 4/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aval-
Meaning : trouble; confusion
Proto-South Dravidian: *aval-[i]
Proto-Telugu : *āvali
Brahui : aval-ēnging
Notes : The Brahui form clearly shows that the stem has to be reconstructed as a [C]VCVR-type stem for PDR. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *ávarai
Meaning : field bean
Proto-South Dravidian: *avarai
Notes : A solid trisyllabic SDR stem, quite possibly of PDR origin. // Present in 1/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aví-
Meaning : to destroy; to extinguish; to be tired
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *avi-
Proto-Telugu : *avi-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *avi-
Notes : The variation in close, but different meanings suggests that the root may have been open to semantic contamination with several others (cf. in particular Tamil forms with initial n- which are contaminated phonetically as well). Konḍa namb- 'to cool down (fire)' is given by Burrow & Emeneau as a questionable cognate, but is certainly a different root (there is no way whatsoever that it could correspond to Gondi aviyānā 'to be tired'!). // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aví-
Meaning : to heat
Proto-South Dravidian: *avi-
Proto-North Dravidian : *a[b]-q-
Notes : The connection of the SDR and NDR roots (separated in DEDR) is possible if Malto -w- is primary and goes back to *-b- < *-v-. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *áviri
Meaning : indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria)
Proto-South Dravidian: *aviri
Proto-Telugu : *aviri
Notes : Essentially a Tamil-Telugu isogloss, but no other comparisons exist to denote this plant species in PDR. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *avúẓ-
Meaning : to become loose, unfastened
Proto-South Dravidian: *avuẓ-
Proto-Telugu : *avul-
Notes : Inlaut *-v- is primary in this root despite DED (Tamil aviṛ hardly < *agiṛ, whereas in Kannada and Telugu such developments are common). Etymology unclear; maybe a connection can be seen with *aví- "to press, subdue, diminish'? // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓ- (?)
Meaning : to pervade (as taste)
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aṛǯ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aẓd- (?)
Proto-North Dravidian : *anḍ-
Notes : A highly irregular (and therefore) dubious Central Dravidian-NDR isogloss. The only way to make all these forms fit together is to assume their descent from an old complex stem like *aẓ[V]-d- with non-trivial cluster development in daughter languages. However, if that is really so, the forms also beg comparison with PDR *aẓ[ú]nd- 'to press down; to dip, immerse' ('immerse' > 'pervade'). // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓál-
Meaning : to burn; (> to grieve)
Proto-South Dravidian: *aẓal-
Proto-Telugu : *aḍal-
Notes : Cf., perhaps, PGn *eṛi- 'to burn'. Burrow & Emeneau unhesitatingly join the Gondwan forms with the SDR-Telugu item in one entry, but if the root vowel in PGn has indeed to be reconstructed as *e (based primarily on Gondi reflexation, since all the other forms are syncopated), the etymology becomes somewhat problematic. The Gondwan forms themselves are questionable inasmuch as every subgroup has its own derivational suffix. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓí-
Meaning : to perish, be destroyed
Proto-South Dravidian: *aẓi-
Proto-Telugu : *aṛi- / *ṛa-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *aṛ-
Notes : Parji anḍkip- "to destroy, kill", etc., do not belong here (despite DEDR), but rather to PDR *aṇá-ŋ- q.v. // Present in 3/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓí-
Meaning : love, desire
Proto-South Dravidian: *aẓi-, *aẓi-kar_ai
Proto-Telugu : *akkar_a
Notes : Telugu akkar_a may actually have been borrowed from Kannaḍa. Nevertheless, this is at least a solid SDR item. // Present in 2/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓ[ú]-
Meaning : to rot, spoil
Proto-South Dravidian: *aẓ[u]-ŋ-
Notes : Reconstructed for the SDR level only. // Present in 1/6 branches.
Proto-Dravidian : *aẓ[ú]nd- (caus. *aẓ[ú]t-)
Meaning : to press down; to dip, immerse
Proto-South Dravidian: *aẓut-
Proto-Telugu : *add-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ad-p- (?)
Notes : Gadba addap- is quite probably a borrowing from Telugu, which makes the stem reconstructible on the SDR-Telugu level. See also notes on PDR *aẓ- 'to pervade (as taste)'. // Present in 3/6 branches.
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